Mark 14, Passover, The Feast of Unleavened Bread, alabaster, muron, nard, guest room, kataluma, The Shepherd, Gethsemane, cohort speira, High Priest

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Mark 14, Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany, Jesus Betrayed By Judas, Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper, Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus, Jesus In …

Mark 14, Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany, Jesus Betrayed By Judas, Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper, Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus, Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane, Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest, Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin, Jesus Is Denied By Peter, Passover, The Feast of Unleavened Bread, alabaster, muron, Nard, guest room, kataluma, The Shepherd, Gethsemane, cohort speira, High Priest

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  • 1. Mark 14 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Jesus Betrayed By Judas Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Jesus Is Denied By Peter A field turns from orange to green as harvesters pick marigold flowers in Los Mochis, Mexico, 1967. PHOTOGRAPH BY W.E. GARRETT, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
  • 2. Mark 14 The Biggest Chapter In Mark Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 3. Mark 14:1, What Is Passover? • Mark 14:1 Now the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were only two days away… • Mark 14:12 …the Feast of Unleavened Bread, when it was customary to sacrifice the Passover lamb… • Passover is the name given to the chief of the three great celebrations, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of Tabernacles. Passover is often called the "feast of unleavened bread." • Luke 22:1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover… • Matt 26:17 …Where do you want us to make preparations for you to eat the Passover?"
  • 4. Mark 14:1, What Is Passover? • God commanded it to be kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites when the Jews were saved, but all the first born of Egypt died. • Lev 23:5-14 The Lord's Passover begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month. On the fifteenth day of that month the Lord's Feast of Unleavened Bread begins…This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.
  • 5. Why Keep The Passover? • Mark 14:1-16 …The disciples went out and came to the city, and found it just as He had told them; and they prepared the Passover. • The NAS uses “Passover” 79 X’s, and 28 of those X’s are in the NT. • 1 Corinthians 5:7 Clean out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. 8 Let us therefore celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. • Exodus 12:14 …you shall celebrate it as a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations you are to celebrate it as a permanent ordinance. • Moses, in, Hebrews 11:28 By faith he kept the Passover…. • Matthew 26: 2-19, Luke 2:41, 22:1-15, John 2:13, 6:4, 19:14
  • 6. Mark 14:2, Not During The Festival? • Mark 14:2 for they were saying, "Not during the festival, otherwise there might be a riot of the people.“ • When did they do it? • Who’s in charge here? • John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He would depart out of this world to the Father… • John 16:4…I have spoken to you, so that when their hour comes, you may remember that I told you… • John 17:1 Jesus …said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son may glorify You,
  • 7. Mark 14:3, Simon the Leper • Mark 14:3 While He was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper, and reclining at the table, there came a woman with an alabaster vial of very costly perfume of pure nard; and she broke the vial and poured it over His head. • They were “at the home of Simon the leper,” it must have been miracle healing!
  • 8. Mark 14:3, alabaster, muron, Nard • NET Notes (Mar 14:3) …8 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used. • 9 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205). The adjective πιστικῆς (pistikeÒs) is difficult with regard to its exact meaning; some have taken it to derive from πίστις (pistis) and relate to the purity of the oil of nard. More probably it is something like a brand name, "pistic nard," the exact significance of which has not been discovered. • sn Nard or spikenard is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India. This aromatic oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year's pay for an average laborer.
  • 9. Mark 14:3, Simon the Leper • Mark 14:3 While He was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper…
  • 10. Mark 14:7, You Always Have The Poor • Mark 14:7 "For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you wish you can do good to them; but you do not always have Me. • Man’s attempts to end poverty in the world are doomed, until the Prince of Peace comes!
  • 11. Mark 14:1-9, Her Heart Was Right • Psalms uses “heart” 117 X’s in the NASU out of 726 uses, 2X’s more than any other book, 1/6th. of all the uses. Psalms is a “heart” book! • Mark 14:1-9 • Luke 10:38-42, Mary’s Heart Was Right • Mary’s heart was good, Luke 10:38-42, …42 but only one thing is necessary, for Mary has chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her.“ • Her motive, intention, and act were right • John 11:5 • Acts 8:21 "You have no part or portion in this matter, for your heart is not right before God.
  • 12. Mark 14:9, What She Has Done • Mark 14:9 And truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will be told in memory of her.“ • We are fulfilling this prophecy, again, right now. • Only 2 NAS uses of “memory” • “Although my memory's fading, I remember two things very clearly: I am a great sinner and Christ is a great Savior.” • --John Newton (former slaver, pastor, composer of Amazing Grace)
  • 13. Mark 14:9, Whole World TODAY'S CREATION MOMENT, ANOTHER EVOLUTIONARY MYTH ABOUT MAN • …Scientists have sometimes eagerly reported the discovery of primitive tribes that they think are not advanced enough to farm or keep their own animals. When they were first discovered in 1962, the Agta people of Luzon were introduced to the world as “living fossils.” Later, one researcher who lived with the Agta for some time so that he could study them, heard someone singing in English outside his tent one night. One of the Agta women was singing her baby to sleep with a religious song in English. So much for the innocent, primitive, “living fossil” theory! Similar long-term studies of other hunter- gatherer groups around the world have shown that the whole idea of “living fossil” hunter-gatherers is a myth. A 1989 issue of Science News carried an article on the subject with the interesting title, “A World that Never Existed.”… • Notes: Bruce Bower. “A World that Never Existed.” Science News, vol. 135, p. 264. Photo: Agtas performing on stage at a shopping center. Courtesy of FoxLad. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
  • 14. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 15. Mark 14:10, His Heart Was Not Right • Mark 14:11 They were glad when they heard this, and promised to give him money. And he began seeking how to betray Him at an opportune time. • Why did Judas go to hell? His motive was money, it was premeditated, he was not born again. • Charles F. Banning comments that, “Too many of us have a Christian vocabulary rather than a Christian experience.” • Acts 8:21 "You have no part or portion in this matter, for your heart is not right before God. • Luke 22:4 John 6:64
  • 16. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 17. Mark 14:14 My Guest Room • Mark 14:14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is My guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"' [GING] κατάλυμα κατάλυμα, ατος, τό guest room, dining room Mk 14:14; Lk 22:11. Since Lk 10:34 uses the more specific term for inn, πανδοχεῖον, the term κ. in 2:7 is best understood as guest room.* [pg 103]
  • 18. Mark 14:14 My Guest Room
  • 19. Mark 14:14, My Guest Room • J. Vernon McGee and others don’t see Mark 14:13-16 as a providential miracle, but as something the LORD pre-arranged.
  • 20. Mark 14:18, Reclining At The Table • Luke 22:14 And when the hour had come He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. • Guests would lie around the outside edges, leaning on cushions, on their left elbow while eating with their right hand. • This means the woman who washed Jesus' feet at dinner in Luke 7, wasn't crawling around under the table, but most likely kneeling between the guests. • Luke 11:37, Matthew 9:10, Mark 14:18, John 12:2
  • 21. Mark 14:21, Not Your Sunday School Jesus • Matthew 26:24 "The Son of Man is to go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.“ • Better if he had not been born. To choose to reject God’s love, His plan, sovereignty, His own Son is folly of the highest order. • Jesus pulls no punches, He tells it like it is. • Andrew Greeley has said, “Much of the history of Christianity has been devoted to domesticating Jesus- to reducing that elusive, enigmatic, paradoxical person to dimensions we can comprehend, understand, and convert to our own purposes. So far it hasn't worked.”
  • 22. Mark 14:24, The Blood Of The Covenant • Mark 14:24 And He said to them, "This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. • Exodus 24:8 So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.“ • Zechariah 9:11 As for you also, because of the blood of My covenant with you, I have set your prisoners free from the waterless pit. • Matthew 26:28 for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. • 1 Corinthians 11:25 In the same way He took the cup also after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.“ • Hebrews 10:29, 12:24, Hebrews 13:20, 9:20 saying, "THIS IS THE BLOOD OF THE COVENANT WHICH GOD COMMANDED YOU.“ • Jeremiah 31:31 "Behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,
  • 23. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 24. Mark 14:27, Who Is This Shepherd? • Mark 14:27 And Jesus said to them, "You will all fall away, because it is written, 'I WILL STRIKE DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP SHALL BE SCATTERED.' • Genesis 49:24 …From the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), (KJV 1 Corinthians 10:4…that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.) • King David’s Lord is YHWH, Ps 23:1, 110 • Zechariah 13:7 "Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate," Declares the LORD of hosts. "Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; And I will turn My hand against the little ones.
  • 25. Mark 14:27, you will be made to • NKJ Mark 14:27 Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made [passive, skandalizo] to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written: `I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep will be scattered.‘ • NKJ (alone?) got this verse right. It is a passive in the Greek. The fulfillment of the prophecy was never dependant upon human whims or circumstances, God said it, God did it.
  • 26. Mark 14:31, Peter’s Burial and Tomb • I received an mail from Maurice T. about a book about Saint Peter's Tomb. • “It is called, "Gli Scavi del Dominus Flevit", printed in 1958 at the Tipografia del PP. Francescani, in Jerusalem. It was written by P. B. Bagatti and J. T. Milik, both Roman Catholic priests.” • I have not read it, verified this, or investigated it. But it presents the case by Roman Catholic priests from new discoveries “that Peter was buried in Jerusalem and not in Rome.” • The email is after the “THE END” slide.
  • 27. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 28. Mark 14:32, A Place Called Gethsemane • Mark 14:32 They came to a place named Gethsemane; and He said to His disciples, "Sit here until I have prayed.“ • Matthew 26:36 • Only these 2 NAS uses
  • 29. Gethsemane, 2014 By Nathan Jones
  • 30. Mark 14:32, Gethsemane, Olive Press Dr. James Fleming at his Explorations in Antiquity Center • …Dr. Fleming: We are now where we press olives. Understand that you would have baskets or sometimes sacks held up by stones in the back. A large stone is made ready so you can really have a flat surface….What is interesting is that this oil press is called, believe it or not, a gethsemane. Geth means press and semane means oil, so "pressed oil." Therefore, Jesus liked to pray at a garden called The Garden of the Oil Press…
  • 31. Mark 14:35, If It Were Possible • Mark 14:35 And He went a little beyond them, and fell to the ground and began to pray that if it were possible, the hour might pass Him by. • Some try to say Jesus is not saying “if there is another, let Me bypass the cross,” but that the time would hurry by. Yet… • Matthew 26:39 And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will."
  • 32. Mark 14:35, If It Were Possible • Mark 14:35…if it were possible… • If it were possible and the Father let His Son, the only innocent human that has ever live, be tortured to death without reason, we have a huge problem. • If any false religion, cult, ism, good works or deeds were possible to save us, then we have an unjust Judge. • John 14:6 Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me. • Acts 4:12 "And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.“ • John 8:24…unless you believe that I am He, you will die in your sins."
  • 33. Mark 14:37 And He came and found them sleeping… [Snoring?]
  • 34. Mark 14:37
  • 35. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 36. Mark 14:43, Accompanied By A Crowd • Mark 14:43 Immediately while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came up accompanied by a crowd with swords and clubs, who were from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. • John 18:3 Judas then, having received the Roman cohort and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns and torches and weapons. • <4686> σπεῖρα speira • Meaning: anything wound up or coiled, by ext. a body (of soldiers), i.e. a cohort … Usage: cohort (7). • Notes: 1 Normally 600 men; a battalion
  • 37. Mark 14:47, High Priest • Mark 14:47 But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. • If Mark was written 1st., then this is the 1st NT mention of the “high priest” of NT times • Mark 14 has the 2nd most uses of “high priest” of any chapter in the NAS (only Heb 13 has more). Mark 14 is a “high priest” chapter, because we have this sinning “high priest” judging the Ultimate High Priest, who created him and will judge him.
  • 38. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 39. Mark 14:53, Jesus’ Trial • Jesus went through an unfair trial in our place so that we would not have to face a fair trial and receive the well-deserved punishment for our sins. • Life Application Study Bible
  • 40. Mark 14:51 A Certain Young • NAU Mark 14:51 A young man was following Him, wearing nothing but a linen sheet over his naked body; and they seized him. • NAS Mark 14:51 And a certain young man was following Him… • NIV NET ESV NAU A young man • CSB YLT NKJ KJV NAS a certain young man • There is a “τις” in the Greek, but it can be specific or general. • Most scholars see this as referring to Mark
  • 41. Mark 14:60, Jesus Did Not Answer • Mark 14:60 The high priest stood up and came forward and questioned Jesus, saying, "Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?“ • He could not, He carried my sin debt, so… • Isaiah 53:7 He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth.
  • 42. Mark 14:61-62, Jesus Did Answer • Mark 14:61 But He kept silent and did not answer. Again the high priest was questioning Him [a legal interragation] , and saying to Him, "Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?" • Matthew 26:63 But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, "I adjure You by the living God [a legal interragation] , that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God."
  • 43. Mark 14:61, No Gloomy Faces • Mark 14:61 But He kept silent and did not answer. Again the high priest was questioning Him, and saying to Him, "Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?" • Matthew 6:16 . . . do not put on a gloomy face . . . • We just finished Good Friday, and the horror of the Crucifixion and as we shudder over what our Lord suffered we can take on a look of defeat and no hope. But there’s victory in Jesus! Of course, we're not defeated and we have great hope for the future. So, we should rejoice in His victory and move forward like He did. Putting the past behind us and resting in the fact that God has allowed everything in Christ’s life and our lives for His purpose: • . . . forgetting what lies behind and reaching forward to what lies ahead. — Philippians 3:13 • . . . God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. —Romans 8:28 • As we daily represent the God of the universe, knowing what He has done for us, and in our lives, we should wear the opposite of a gloomy face! • If you're going to heaven, act like it!
  • 44. Mark 14 Mar 14:1 Jesus Anointed For Burial At Bethany Mar 14:10 Jesus Betrayed By Judas Mar 14:12 Jesus’ And The Disciples Passover Meal Or Last Supper Mar 14:27 Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial And Disciples Leaving Jesus Mar 14:32 Jesus In Prayer In Gethsemane Mar 14:43 Jesus’ Betrayal And Arrest Mar 14:51 A Young Man (Mark?) Flees Naked Mar 14:53 Jesus' Hearing Before The Council/Sanhedrin Mar 14:66 Jesus Is Denied By Peter
  • 45. Mark 14:66, Everyone Fails • Everyone fails. Even though Peter spent 3 years walking the Holy Land with Jesus. Yet Peter was a sinner, just like you and me. We all fail, some openly and defiantly, some from cowardice, lust, greed, gossip, covetousness, or pride. • Romans 3:10 as it is written, "THERE IS NONE RIGHTEOUS, NOT EVEN ONE; • Romans 3:23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, • Peter’s many failures recorded in God’s Word, is yet more proof that the Bible is the Word of God, written down by human authors. If this was of human origin, they never would have included all these failings (scattered sheep, denials, impulsively cutting off an ear, etc.)
  • 46. THE END So, we’re leaving Jesus in a very bad situation
  • 47. Mark 14:1, The Last Supper • By Dr. David R. Reagan • Can we know what the table was shaped like at the Last Supper? • This question was posed to Dr. James Fleming, one of the most knowledgeable teachers of Biblical Archaeology, on our show Christ in Prophecy. Dr. Fleming lived and taught in Israel for 37 years at Jerusalem University College and at the Hebrew University. His first claim to fame is that he discovered the ancient Eastern Gate buried beneath the current one. Dr. Fleming has walked or motorcycled about every square mile of Israel, and is so familiar with Israel past and present that Israeli tour guides come to him for training. • He now operates the Explorations in Antiquity Center in LaGrange, Georgia, an interactive museum where people here in the U.S. can experience the life and times of Jesus Christ in the First Century. It's a fascinating place, and so in this series we're going to tour the facility to glean new insights into the Bible by understanding the manners, customs and times of the Bible. • • Problems with Da Vinci's "The Last Supper" • Dr. Reagan: Jim, I want to talk with you about the Last Supper. As you well know, whenever Americans think of the Last Supper they always think of one thing — the magnificent painting by Leonardo Da Vinci. But, there's some problems with that painting, right? • Dr. Fleming: There certainly are. As you know, Da Vinci's "The Last Supper" is unique from his perspective and for the facial expressions, the hand movements, and so on. For example, it's too bad that he painted daylight coming in, for the Passover is held in the evening. It occurs in the eve after sun goes down. • It's also too bad Da Vinci painted table and chairs. The Last Supper was a reclining meal. Sure, that Jesus and the Apostles are all painted as being on one side of the table makes it easy to observe their facial expressions, but that wouldn't be how you would have been seated at the time of Jesus. • At the Antiquity Center, one of the things we've tried to do here without demeaning that iconic picture is to help people better understand what the real setting may have been like. • Clues as to What Type of Table • There are four words we look to in Luke 22:11-12 for understanding the room where the Last Supper was held. Do you remember that Jesus told Peter and John to make the preparations? Well, they were to follow a man with a water pot. When they got to the doorman they were supposed to inquire of him. Jesus said that he would show them a — large, upstairs, furnished, guest — chamber. How would First Century people understand those four descriptive words? That is what we have tried to do at the Antiquity Center. • The first word is "large." Think mega. Now, if it was a small room, you'd have a one-sided reclining table. Archaeologists have discovered such like that where food gets put on a little bench along one wall with a mat in front of it. I have a replica in our little village in the museum. • If it was a medium sized room, it would be an "L" shaped reclining table where you recline on two sides. • If the room was mega-sized, then the table was a large, three-sided, reclining table. They would have use the word "triclinium" even though it is based on a Latin word. Today in modern Israel, a couch in the living room is also called a triclinium. And so, we can deduce that the Last Supper was held at a three-sided reclining table. • The second word is "upstairs." The reclining table for the Last Supper is in a large room particularly located upstairs. Most downstairs rooms have to have supports to support a heavy upstairs and a roof, so larger rooms tend to be located upstairs. Jerusalem is a hill and valley city, so the upstairs often had a balcony that looked out over a lower roof. Just lovely! • The third word is "furnished." The upstairs room is furnished actually with a table with mattresses. This can be translated as "furnished" or a "table with cushions." In all the Gospels the Apostles are said to be reclining at the table. Modern translations might say "sat at the table" to make it modern, but the word is actually "reclined," and so we know it was at a table with adjoining mattresses. • The fourth word is "guest." The guest chamber is called a "kataluma." The guest chamber is a room where a guest both eats and sleeps, meaning there is a table that also happens to be with one step down from the mattresses. If they hadn't gone to the Garden of Gethsemane they would have slept in the room of the Last Supper. In your house you have some rooms where you eat and other rooms where you sleep, but every house that is able to afford a guest chamber or guest room in Jesus' time had a place where your guests both eat and sleep. The Last Supper was clearly in a guest room where guests could both eat and sleep. • Because the room was a guest chamber, I have a hunch that Judas first brought the guards back to the room of the Last Supper. Remember that he left during the meal? He did probably because he thought they were going to be sleeping there. When they weren't there, Judas must have known Jesus enough as a person of habit that there was a favorite garden where He liked to pray. Judas then may have said to the Temple guards something like, "Don't worry. I can take you to another place where you probably can get Jesus when He's away from the crowds." • So, in Jesus' day you were supposed to both eat and sleep in the guest room. Archaeologists have actually found over a thousand First Century reclining tables in the triclinium form. • In the eleventh part of this series with archaeologist Dr. James Fleming at his Explorations in Antiquity Center, we'll glean some biblical insights by learning where at the Last Supper Jesus, John and Judas Iscariot would have sat.
  • 48. Mark 14:31, Peter’s Death and Burial • Email from Maurice Turner • Saint Peter's Tomb • While visiting a friend in Switzerland, I heard of what seemed to me, one of the greatest discoveries since the time of Christ—that Peter was buried in Jerusalem and not in Rome. The source of this rumor, written in Italian, was not clear; it left considerable room for doubt or rather wonder. Rome was the place where I could investigate the matter, and if such proved encouraging, a trip to Jerusalem might be necessary in order to gather valuable first hand information on the subject. I therefore went to Rome. After talking to many priests and investigating various sources of information, I finally was greatly rewarded by learning where I could buy the only known book on the subject, which was also written in Italian. It is called, "Gli Scavi del Dominus Flevit", printed in 1958 at the Tipografia del PP. Francescani, in Jerusalem. It was written by P. B. Bagatti and J. T. Milik, both Roman Catholic priests. The story of the discovery was there, but it seemed to be purposely hidden for much was lacking. I consequently determined to go to Jerusalem to see for myself, if possible, that which appeared to be almost unbelievable, especially since it came from priests, who naturally because of the existing tradition that Peter was buried in Rome, would be the last ones to welcome such a discovery or to bring it to the attention of the world. In Jerusalem I spoke to many Franciscan priests who all read, finally, though reluctantly, that the bones of Simon Bar Jona (St. Peter) were found in Jerusalem, on the Franciscan monastery site called, "Dominus Flevit" (where Jesus was supposed to have wept over [pg. 4] Jerusalem), on the Mount of Olives. The pictures show the story. The first show an excavation where the names of Christian Biblical characters were found on the ossuaries (bone boxes). The names of Mary and Martha were found on one box and right next to it was one with the name of Lazarus, their brother. Other names of early Christians were found on other boxes. Of greatest interest, however, was that which was found within twelve feet from the place where the remains of Mary, Martha and Lazarus were found—the remains of St. Peter. They were found in an ossuary, on the outside of which was clearly and beautifully written in Aramaic, "Simon Bar Jona". • Saint Peter never in Rome.??? • This man, the Apostle Peter, was a man that the Bible speaks of as being married. He had a mother-in-law [MAT 8:14]. Then in 1 Corinthians 9:5, which Paul wrote around 58 AD, we see that Peter was traveling with his wife. He was an itinerant missionary travelling from place to place. Much of the time, apparently he took his wife along with him. • Then we see in Galatians 2:7-9: But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel to the uncircumcision [Gentiles] was committed unto me [Paul], as the gospel of the circumcision [Jews] was unto Peter; (For He Who worked effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:) And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me [Paul], they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen [Gentiles], and they unto the circumcision. • There is no place in the New Testament where there is any hint or any record of any kind that Peter was in Rome. In 1 Peter 5:13, it tells us very plainly that he wrote that epistle from the city of Babylon [In Peters day Babylon was still a city and a territory—See Josephus, Antiquities, Book xv, Ch 2, 2. "The ancient city of Mesopotamia, an area which was then a center of pure and uncompromising Judiasim" p. 65, 1 Peter by A. M. Stibbs. ACT 2:9 tells us they were in the Pentecost crowd. "After the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70 Babylonia became, and for centuries remained, a seat of Jewish Schools devoted to the study and interpretation of the law" Dictionary of the Bible, p. 72, by J. J. Davis]. This is far to the east of the Roman Empire and not in Rome which is in the western part of the Empire. •
  • 49. Mark 14:32, Gethsemane, Olive Press • KJV Hosea 14:6 His …as the olive tree… • Olive Press • Dr. Fleming: We are now where we press olives. Understand that you would have baskets or sometimes sacks held up by stones in the back. • A large stone is made ready so you can really have a flat surface. • Dr. Reagan: The olives are put under the stone on top and then you'd hang weights on the beam that holds the stone down? • Dr. Fleming: Notice there are places to put more than one weight. We just have a second weight on right now. Usually a weight is as big as two people can lift up. Imagine as you put the weight on seeing the olive juice running down the sides and then into a collection vat for the olive oil. • What is interesting is that this oil press is called, believe it or not, a gethsemane. Geth means press and semane means oil, so "pressed oil." Therefore, Jesus liked to pray at a garden called The Garden of the Oil Press. If you ask anyone what do you picture when you picture an oil press, they'll say liquid running down the sides and something getting
  • 50. Mark 14:47, High Priest • Numbers 35:25 =1st. Mention of High Priest • Today is March 18, 2013 • Verse of the Day -- Hebrews 3:1 . . . Jesus . . . the High Priest THOUGHT FOR THE DAY, Jesus is our High Priest. • MINI BIBLE STUDY FOR THE DAY • The necessity of Jesus being our High Priest stems from an Old Testament prophecy: • . . . thou art a priest forever." —Psalm 110:4 But His high-priestly work is different from the Old Testament in three ways: • His is sinless. For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin. —Hebrews 4:15 • His sacrifice was Himself. Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of
  • 51. Mark 14:68, Was Peter the Only Disciple That Denied Christ? • Was Peter the Only Disciple That Denied Christ? • Hunt & McMahon [1] • The Berean Call [2] • Featured Date: • Sat, 12/15/2012 • Link: • Understanding the Scriptures: #1404d [3] • Body: • Search the Scriptures Daily Program #1404d Transcript follows: • • UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES • Gary: Please stay tuned, and at the end of the program, we’ll let you know where to send your questions for Dave and Tom to address in a future Contending for the Faith. You are listening toSearch the Scriptures Daily , a radio ministry of The Berean Call.