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Genesis ch. 4, Brought, ginosko, Ezek 9;3, 9 23-2012
 

Genesis ch. 4, Brought, ginosko, Ezek 9;3, 9 23-2012

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  • (from The Pulpit Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
  • —Jennifer Scott, Carol Stream, IllinoisVisit PreachingToday.com for more illustrations and preaching resources., This Week's Funny
  • 4:1-7
  • (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament, Copyright © 2000 by John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)4:1-7
  • NaamaBaumgarten,The Biblical Hebrew Online Team
  • NaamaBaumgarten,The Biblical Hebrew Online Team
  • (from The Biblical Illustrator Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 Ages Software, Inc. and Biblesoft, Inc.)
  • (from Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries; Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries. All rights reserved.)
  • (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament, Copyright © 2000 by John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)
  • (from Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries; Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries. All rights reserved.)
  • (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament, Copyright © 2000 by John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)
  • (from Calvin's Commentaries, PC Study Bible formatted electronic database Copyright © 2005-2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
  • (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament, Copyright © 2000 by John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)
  • (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament, Copyright © 2000 by John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)
  • (from The Teacher's Commentary. Copyright © 1987 by Chariot Victor Publishing. All rights reserved.)
  • CreationMoments.comNotes: L. Smart. 1986. "Scientists find ancient concrete." The Herald (New Britain, CT), January 25, p. 11. Photo: Boston City Hall, completed in 1968, was constructed largely of concrete.View/Print/Share This on CreationMoments.comPage 1, edited by DLKGenesis 4, Stone Age concrete floor discovered in China
  • CreationMoments.comNotes: L. Smart. 1986. "Scientists find ancient concrete." The Herald (New Britain, CT), January 25, p. 11. Photo: Boston City Hall, completed in 1968, was constructed largely of concrete.View/Print/Share This on CreationMoments.comPage 1, edited by DLKGenesis 4, Stone Age concrete floor discovered in China
  • Notes: Michael Connelly. 1986. "Raiders of the Black Hole." Sunshine (Fort Lauderdale, FL), Dec. 21, pp. 7-11. Photo: Titusville was a popular spot to watch space shuttle launches. Photographer: Yeti Hunter and licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. For more information about the Windover Archaeological Site, seehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windover_Archaeological_Site.CreationMoments.com
  • Issue #44 February 2010, Classical Hebrew Teacher Newsletter
  • CreationMoments.comNotes: L. Smart. 1986. "Scientists find ancient concrete." The Herald (New Britain, CT), January 25, p. 11. Photo: Boston City Hall, completed in 1968, was constructed largely of concrete.View/Print/Share This on CreationMoments.comPage 1, edited by DLKGenesis 4, Stone Age concrete floor discovered in China

Genesis ch. 4, Brought, ginosko, Ezek 9;3, 9 23-2012 Genesis ch. 4, Brought, ginosko, Ezek 9;3, 9 23-2012 Presentation Transcript

  • GenesisThe Book of Beginning
  •  Day 1 = ―Light & Darkness‖ Day 2 = "Sky‖ Day 3 = ―Dry Ground and Vegetation‖ Day 4 = ―Sun, Moon, and Stars‖ Day 5 = ―Birds and Sea Creatures‖ Day 6 = ―Land Animals and Humans‖Creation Days
  •  Bereshith (beginning), Bara (created), Elohim (God, plural suffix) Yom (day) Echad (one, allowing a plurality in one)Hebrew vocabulary
  •  Gen 4:1 Now the man had relations with his wife Eve NASB Gen 4:1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, NIV Gen 4:1 Now Adam knew Eve his wife, NKJV ginosko,Adam Knew Eve
  •  Egnw [UBS] ginw,skw ginosko, …) know, have knowledge of (of sexual relations Mt 1.25; Lk 1.34); find out, learn, understand; perceive, discern; to have knowledge; acknowledge, recognize…Adam Knew Eve, 1st. Mention of sex in Bible
  •  Matt 1:24-25….took Mary home as his wife. 25 But he had no union [same word,”know”] with her until… Luke 1:34 "How will this be," Mary asked the angel, "since I am a virgin [same word,”know”]?"Adam Knew Eve
  •  A popular modern vulgar acrostic is ―For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge.‖Adam Knew Eve
  •  Gen 4:1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "With the help of the Lord I have brought forth a man." Gen 4:1 Adam [NIV Notes, “Or The man‖] lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain [NIV Notes, “Cain sounds like the Hebrew for brought forth or acquired”] . She said, "With the help of the Lord I have brought forth a [no article in LXX or Heb.] man."Gen 4:1
  •  The Pulpit Commentary says, ―while it might not be difficult to account for the mistake of a joyful mother in supposing that the fruit of her womb was the promised seed, though, "if she did believe so, it is a caution to interpreters of prophecy" (Inglis), it is not so easy to explain her belief that the promised seed was to be Jehovah, since no such announcement was made in the Prot-evangel. But whichever view be adopted of the construction of the language, it is obvious that Eves utterance was the dictate of faith. In Cains birth she recognized the earnest and guarantee of the promised seed, and in token of her faith gave her child a name (cf. Gen 3:20), which may also explain her use of the Divine name Jehovah instead of Elohim…‖Gen 4:1
  •  Gen 4:2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. Some think they were twins, or at least genetically closer to each other than we are. But the “Later” doesn’t look like “then, next, or a few minutes later.” Dr. Ryrie says ―Abel means ―breath‖ or ―vanity,‖ reflecting perhaps Eve‘s understanding of the import of the curse (Rom. 8:20).‖Gen 4:2
  •  On one late night talk show, a panel of three university students were asked questions to test their intelligence. The questions ranged from naming famous politicians to pieces of art. Then the question was raised, "What were the names of Adam and Eves children?" All of the students were silent. One girl finally responded, "Um, well, I didnt even know they had children."Did Adam and Eve Have Children?
  •  Gen 4:3 In the course of time Cain brought some of the fruits of the soil as an offering to the Lord. Gen 4:3 In the course [or “process” of time] of time ... J. Vernon McGee says this is a reference to the 7th. Day.In The Course Of Time
  •  Gen 4:3 In the course of time Cain... 7093 Hebrew, qe qets {kates} Meaning: 1) end 1a) end, at the end of (of time) 1b) end (of space)In The Course Of Time
  •  ―Brought‖ alludes to a place and time. The; ―at the end of (of time)‖ probably is the 7th. Day (Sabbath).Gen 4:3..Cain Brought Some Fruits
  •  The sacrifices of Cain and Abel were probably not sin offerings.
  •  IVP says, ―The sacrifices of Cain and Abel are not depicted as addressing sin or seeking atonement. The word used designates them very generally as ―gifts‖—a word that is most closely associated with the grain offering later in Lev 2. They appear to be intended to express gratitude to God for his bounty. Therefore it is appropriate that Cain should bring an offering from the produce that he grew, for blood would not be mandatory in such an offering. It should be noted that Genesis does not preserve any record of God requesting such offerings, though he approved of it as a means of expressing thanks. Gratitude is not expressed, however, when the gift is grudgingly given, as is likely the case with Cain.‖ IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old TestamentGen 4:3..Cain Brought Some Fruits
  •  Gen 4:4-5 And Abel, on his part also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and for his offering; 5 but for Cain and for his offering He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his countenance fell. NASBGen 4:4-5
  •  ―And the Lord had regard for Abel and for his offering‖ How did they know? Have you ever become very angry because your offering was not accepted? Maybe we need a little ―poof‖ of fire and smoke every time a check goes in the offering box.The Lord Had Regard For Abel
  •  Gen 4:5…Cain became very angry and his countenance fell. NASB And Cain Pouted
  •  Gen 4:6-8 Then the Lord said to Cain, "Why are you angry? And why has your countenance fallen? 7 "If you do well, will not your countenance be lifted up? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door; and its desire is for you, but you must master it." 8 And Cain told Abel his brother. And it came about when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him. NASBGen 4:6-8
  •  ―And Cain told Abel his brother.‖  I‘ve got 3 brothers, I wonder what was said.I have run for mylife from my olderbrother.Matthew 5:22…whoever says, Youfool, shall be guiltyenough to go intothe fiery hell." Gen 4:6-8
  •  Gen 4:8 And Cain told Abel his brother. And it came about when they were in the field…NASB CSB Genesis 4:8 Cain said to his brother Abel, "Lets go out to the field." And while they were in the field…‖ YLT Genesis 4:8 And Cain saith unto Abel his brother, Let us go into the field; and it cometh to pass in their being in the field…‖ Based on the LXX, (premeditation?)Gen 4:8
  •  eTeacher Biblical says, ―…Philo of Alexandria. Philo was a Hellenistic Jew of Alexandria, who lived in the first century BCE. He composed many writings in Greek, not all of which survived. He suggests allegorical and philosophical interpretations of the Bible, and is much concerned with apologetics – justifying the Jewish faith to the gentiles and giving it Greek philosophical meanings….Gen 4:8
  •  Philo‘s…interpretation ―That the Worse is Wont to Attack the Better‖… …He then explains, allegorically, that Cain represents the love of self while Abel represents the love of God, and the dispute between them represents the struggle between these two approaches…‖ Be wary of ―allegorical and philosophical interpretations.‖ It‘s historical narrative, it may remind you of the NT, or an application to your life, but it does not ―represent‖ it.Gen 4:8, Allegorical AndPhilosophical Interpretations
  •  Heb 12:23-24….You have come...24 to Jesus the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel. Even though Abel was ―righteous‖ and the first martyr, Jesus‘ blood ―speaks a better word.‖The First Martyr
  •  "Hebrews 10:4 For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins." Abel was slain because he was righteous and was acting on his faith (a reminder of Christ). So, those who read about Abel understand his faith, but those who offered sacrifices did so because of their own faith.A Better Word Than The Blood OfAbel
  •  Heb 11:4 By faith Abel offered God a better sacrifice than Cain did. By faith he was commended as a righteous man, when God spoke well of his offerings. And by faith he still speaks, even though he is dead. Matt 23:35 …from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.Why Was Abel’s Sacrifice Better
  •  By faith? Couldn‘t this indicate that God had given instructions about how or where the sacrifices were to be ―brought‖?Why Was Abel’s Sacrifice Better
  •  D. Rhys Jenkins says, ―The quality of Abels piety, its depth and spirituality, cost him his life, and made him at the same time the first martyr for true religion.‖ The Biblical IllustratorThe FirstMartyr
  • Jealous Brother Kills SiblingStay Tuned Film At 11PM
  •  "Genesis 4:8…Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him."
  •  1 John 3:12-15 Do not be like Cain, who belonged to the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his own actions were evil and his brothers were righteous. 13 Do not be surprised, my brothers, if the world hates you. 14 We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love our brothers. Anyone who does not love remains in death. 15 Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life in him.Do Not Be Like Cain
  •  Jude 11 Woe to them! They have taken the way of Cain; they have rushed for profit into Balaams error; they have been destroyed in Korahs rebellion. ―the way of Cain‖ This may mean either that they, like Cain, (a) disobediently devised their own ways of worship, (b) were envious of others, or (c) hated others with a murderous spirit…. Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old TestamentJude 11, Bible KnowledgeCommentary
  •  Gen 4:9-15 Then the Lord said to Cain, "Where is Abel your brother?" And he said, "I do not know. Am I my brothers keeper?" 10 And He said, "What have you done? The voice of your brothers blood is crying to Me from the ground. 11 And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brothers blood from your hand. 12 When you cultivate the ground, it shall no longer yield its strength to you; you shall be a vagrant and a wanderer on the earth."Gen 4:9-15
  •  13 And Cain said to the Lord, "My punishment is too great to bear! 14 "Behold, Thou hast driven me this day from the face of the ground; and from Thy face I shall be hidden, and I shall be a vagrant and a wanderer on the earth, and it will come about that whoever finds me will kill me." 15 So the Lord said to him, "Therefore whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain, lest anyone finding him should slay him. NASBGen 4:9-15
  •  ―Your brothers blood is crying to Me from the ground.‖ God is just. Injustice is unacceptable to Him. Gen 18:25…Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right? KJV God hates shedding ―innocent blood‖ Deuteronomy 21:9 "So you shall remove the guilt of innocent blood from your midst… Woe to us!Blood Crying Out Loud
  • The IVP Bible Background Commentary says, ―Inareas where the central government had notgained full control, blood feuds between familieswere common. They were based on the simpleprinciple of ―an eye for an eye,‖ which demandedthe death of a murderer or the death of amember of his family as restitution. There wasalso an assumption that kinship ties included theobligation to defend the honor of the household.No hurt could be ignored, or the householdwould be considered too weak to defend itselfand other groups would take advantage of them.Cain‘s comment assumes that there is a moreextensive family in existence and that some fromAbel‘s line would seek revenge.‖Blood Vengeance
  •  ―And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain, lest anyone finding him should slay him.‖ The Bible Knowledge Commentary says, ―nowhere is the nature of this "mark" clarified), but God condemned him to a life of ceaseless wandering.‖ Yet it‘s amazing how much idle speculation there is. It‘s not black skin!What Was The Mark Of Cain
  •  The IVP Bible Background Commentary says, ―The Hebrew word used here does not denote a tattoo or mutilation inflicted on a felon or slave (referred to in the Laws of *Eshnunna and the Code of *Hammurabi ). It best compares to the mark of divine protection placed on the foreheads of the innocents in Jerusalem in Ezek 9:4-6. It may be an external marking that would cause others to treat him with respect or caution. However, it may represent a sign from God to Cain that he would not be harmed and people would not attack him…‖What Was The Mark Of Cain
  •  Calvins Commentaries say, ―…therefore, Moses now says, that a mark was set upon Cain, which should strike terror into all; because they might see, as in a mirrors the tremendous judgment of God against bloody men. As Scripture does not describe what kind of mark it was, commentators have conjectured, that his body became tremulous. It may suffice for us, that there was some visible token which should repress in the spectators the desire and the audacity to inflict injury.‖What Was The Mark Of Cain
  •  Ezek 9:3-4…Then the Lord called to the man clothed in linen who had the writing kit at his side 4 and said to him, "Go throughout the city of Jerusalem and put a mark on the foreheads of those who grieve and lament over all the detestable things that are done in it."What Was The Mark of God, OT
  •  Rev 7:3…put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God. Rev 9:4-5…They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads. Rev 14:1…with him [the Lamb] 144,000 who had his name and his Fathers name written on their foreheads… Rev 20:4…They had not worshiped the beast or his image and had not received his mark on their foreheads or their hands… Rev 22:4 They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.What Will It Be, NT
  •  Gen 4:15-16 But the Lord said to him, "Not so; if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over." Then the Lord put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him. 16 So Cain went out from the Lords presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden. Where?Gen 4:15
  •  It‘s in the UK.Lot’s of Folks Wonder About Nod
  •  J. Vernon McGee says he is sure it‘s in the pews of his church, because someone is always ―Nodding Off‖ there.Where’s Nod?
  •  Gen 4:17 Cain lay with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was then building a city, and he named it after his son Enoch.Gen 4:15-22
  •  18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of Mehujael, and Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech. 19 Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah. 20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock. 21 His brothers name was Jubal; he was the father of all who play the harp and flute. 22 Zillah also had a son, Tubal- Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron. Tubal-Cains sister was Naamah.Gen 4:15-22
  •  The Teachers Commentary says, ―Have you ever thought how striking the portrait of Cainitic culture is? (4:19-22) This is no subsistence-level economy, struggling in primitive poverty to scratch a meager living from the earth. The text portrays division of labor and the taming of animals to mans use. We see culture. There is time for leisure, music, and the arts. There is a technical competence that involves the smelting of ores and the development of metallurgy in bronze and iron. There is no suggestion here that the Fall limited the ability of man to function effectively in his world. OOP ARTS Gen. 4:19-22,
  •  June 26, 2009 -- Some of the worlds first farmers may have sped around in two-wheeled carts pulled by camels and bulls, suggests a new analysis on tiny models of these carts that date to 6,000-5,000 years ago. The cart models, which may have been ritual objects or childrens toys, were found at Altyndepe, a Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlement in Western Central Asia near Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Together with other finds, the cart models provide a history of how wheeled transportation first emerged in the area and later developed….. Models of Earliest (Camel- Pulled) Vehicles Found
  •  A large, sophisticated concrete floor has recently been discovered in China. The floor dates to a period that, not long ago, evolutionists called the "Stone Age." The concrete floor, discovered in northwest China, extends the record of technological man far beyond any age imagined by evolutionists. Concrete of excellent quality was widely used in the Roman Empire. However, according to the evolutionary scenario, when the Chinese floor was built, man had just perfected stone axes and arrowheads The concrete floor measures 144 square feet. The concrete itself is a greenish black. ... Stone Age concrete floor discovered in China, CreationMoments.com
  •  However, scientists report that when struck with an iron object, it gives the same hollow sound as modern concrete. The concrete is similar to todays and includes silicon and aluminum. Sand, stone, broken pottery and bones were mixed with the concrete. Obviously, so-called "Stone Age" man was involved in much more industry than some scientists had thought! Scientists who believe the Bibles view of history are not surprised by this discovery. They know that every human being, from the very first one, has been completely human and quite intelligent. Imagine, on his first day of existence, Adam was smart enough to understand the animals and give them meaningful names! To a man with such understanding of Gods creation, concrete would be a simple technology. The question really is: Are we as smart today as Adam, who knew the Creator face-to-face?
  •  These aren‘t cavemen stepping on their thumbs. If you want to see ―cavemen‖, buy a ticket to the island of San Torini, Greece.Gen. 4:19-22
  •  Gen 4:23 Lamech said to his wives, "Adah and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, hear my words. I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for injuring me. 24 If Cain is avenged seven times, then Lamech seventy-seven times [sounds like Peter lopping off ears]."Lamech; Murder/Manslaughter
  •  Landof Nod, UK Genesis 4:16 the land of Nod, east of Eden.
  • The EndLet’s Finish Before We All Go ToThe Land Of Nod
  •  Would the early Indian settlers in North America have been able to understand modern twentieth-century America? Beneath the peat deposits of Windover Pond in Titusville, Florida, scientists are finding the bodies and possessions of Indians who lived in Florida thousands of years ago. The bones of almost 100 individuals have been found buried in the peat at the deepest part of the pond. Each was buried in a near-fetal position, with feet toward the east and head toward the west. Each body lay on its left side, facing north. Children were buried with tools and jewelry. To the surprise of scientists, each burial shows clear evidence of ritual and knowledge of the compass points. Textiles found at the site convinced scientists that this ancient society was much more advanced than they had ever expected. Scientists also marveled at the discovery of a young person who had a crippling spine disorder. The fact that the child lived 15 or more years illustrated that this was not a survival-of-the-fittest type of society. We who know that the Creator made man fully human from the start are not surprised to see the same humanity in ancient man as we know today. These people would have watched the space shuttle fly off into space with a universal human curiosity and desire to know more about the new frontier of space. Man has always been man because we were made that way by our Creator.CreationMoments.com, used VBF,Sharing Time, 9-23-12
  •  Ex 20:8 "Remember the Sabbath day…[?] Don‘t forget what I‘m about to tell you about the 7th. Day Or remember something you already know about from Gen. 2:2, &; Gen 4:3 In the course of time [Sabbath?]Cain brought [to a specified place & time?] some of the fruits of the soil as an offering to the Lord.the Sabbath day
  •  Dear Friends, In our last newsletter we started a series about interpretation of the Bible. What I would like to do this week is discuss different interpretations of the Bible, which existed in antiquity. In order to do so, I would like to examine different ancient sources and see how they deal with one very small question: what was it that Cain said to Abel in the field before he killed him? The problem arises from the simple reading of the text in Genesis 4:8: - - And Cain said to his brother Abel. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him. The text of the Bible does not specify what it was that Cain said to Abel. We also do not know when and where the conversation took place – was it in the field, or is the text describing an event which occurred before the actual murder scene? The syntactic form of the verse is unclear, thus leaving a tempting window for interpretation that will clarify the events or the structure of the verse, making it more comprehensible. The first ancient source I would like to review is the Septuagint. The Septuagint is the ancient Greek translation of the Bible. The Septuagint of the Pentateuch was made in Alexandria (Egypt) in the third century BCE, and we will dedicate an additional newsletter to the Septuagint and its exegetical aspects in general. Naturally, when translating a text, the translator is often required to interpret and clarify what is before him in order to create a comprehensive translation of the text which will be understandable to those who have only his translation for reference. In this case, the translator of the Septuagint did something quite simple, and translated: ―And Cain said to his brother Abel: ‗Let us go out into the plain‘. And it came to pass when they were in the plain . . .‖ The translator adds a few words in his translation, which solve many of the problems: the conversation took place before they went out into the field, and it did not contain a fight nor does it reveal any more of the reasons for the murder than were previously known – Cain merely suggested that they go out into the field. This solves the syntactic problem, because the clause ―And Cain said to his brother Abel‖ is no longer left stranded with no content of what he said revealed. However, we still do not know any juicy details about the actual murder, which the translator obviously did not know either, and therefore left vague: was the purpose of Cain‘s suggestion that they go out into the field so that he would be able to murder Abel there? Or was the outing not connected to the feud between the brothers? Was this a premeditated murder, or a spontaneous act of rage? All this is left unsolved by the Septuagint translator. An interesting interpretation of these verses can be found in the writings of Philo of Alexandria. Philo was a Hellenistic Jew of Alexandria, who lived in the first century BCE. He composed many writings in Greek, not all of which survived. He suggests allegorical and philosophical interpretations of the Bible, and is much concerned with apologetics – justifying the Jewish faith to the gentiles and giving it Greek philosophical meanings. Philo‘s writings were sanctified by the church. Philo‘s base text is usually the Septuagint, and in his interpretation ―That the Worse is Wont to Attack the Better‖ he first quotes Genesis 4:8 as it appears in the Septuagint. He then explains, allegorically, that Cain represents the love of self while Abel represents the love of God, and the dispute between them represents the struggle between these two approaches. As for the interpretation of the point at hand, Philo understands that: What Cain is aiming at is by means of a challenge to draw Abel into a dispute, and to gain the mastery over him by plausible sophistries that have the appearance of truth. For, drawing our conclusions about things that are obscure from things that are manifest, we say that the plain, the rendezvous to which he summons him, is a figure of contest and desperate battle. (Quote from Loeb Classical Library edition)Philo uses the Septuagint text, but draws a clear-cut conclusion from it: Cain, who in his eyes represents the evil of self-love, purposely drew Abel into a fight. The suggestion that they go to the plain was not only part of a pre-meditated plan to kill Abel, Cain purposely drew Abel into a dispute, at a place which is prone for such battles, and killed him as part of their struggle. Alexandria, EgyptAn important resource for ancient interpretation is the texts of the ―Targum‖ - different Aramaic translations of the Bible, which are Jewish translations from the first centuries CE, made for the benefit of the Jews who no longer spoke Hebrew as their first language. In translations made in the Land of Israel, we often find exegetical expansions. In these ―targumim‖ (known as Pseudo-Jonathan and Neofiti) for Genesis 4:8, we find two interesting translations: the first is apparently the literal translation of the verse, and there we find that it is identical to that of the Septuagint – ―And Cain said to his brother Abel: ‗Let us go outside‘‖. Thus, the Targum solves the syntactic problem in the verse, in exactly the same way as the Septuagint. We then find an expansion of approximately 10 lines which describes in great detail what exactly happened between the brothers. In this dialogue, they argue about the pillars of faith: Cain wants to understand why his sacrifice to God was not accepted, while Abel‘s was. Abel tries to explain that his sacrifice was better than Cain‘s, but Cain refuses to accept this, and his conclusion from the episode is a complete lack of faith in God. Seeing that he no longer believes that he will be punished for his bad deeds, in the heat of the fight, Cain kills Abel. The Targum here solves many problems: it gives a simple solution for the syntactic problem, just like the Septuagint, and also expands on the actual events, based on Jewish traditions, so that the readers of the Targum are given a very clear picture of what happened. Incidentally, it appears from the Targum that Cain did not plan the murder and it happened in the heat of the fight – unlike Philo‘s version which ascribes Cain with pre-meditation. Another approach which we often find in ancient interpretations, when dealing with difficulties in the biblical text, is to ignore them or smooth them over. A good example of this can be found in the description of Abel‘s murder in the Book of Jubilees (we discussed this book in our previous newsletter). In Jubilees 4:2, we simply hear that Cain killed Abel in the field – there is no record of anything that Cain said to Abel, and therefore we do not need to try to guess what he said. The readers of Jubilees simply knew that the murder took place in the field. This naturally does not satisfy the readers‘ curiosity as to how the murder took place and what set of mind Cain was in, but it does solve the syntactical problem which arises from the biblical text, by simply ignoring it. Have a great week! Naama Baumgarten The Biblical Hebrew Online Team
  •  Heb 12:23-24….You have come to God, the judge of all men, to the spirits of righteous men made perfect, 24 to Jesus the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel. If this is referring to Christ‘s blood being sprinkled, why does ―the sprinkled blood‖ of Christ speak ―a better word than the blood of Abel‖? Because it‘s the fulfillment of the type?The First Martyr
  •  A large, sophisticated concrete floor has recently been discovered in China. The floor dates to a period that, not long ago, evolutionists called the "Stone Age." The concrete floor, discovered in northwest China, extends the record of technological man far beyond any age imagined by evolutionists. Concrete of excellent quality was widely used in the Roman Empire. However, according to the evolutionary scenario, when the Chinese floor was built, man had just perfected stone axes and arrowheads. The concrete floor measures 144 square feet. The concrete itself is a greenish black. However, scientists report that when struck with an iron object, it gives the same hollow sound as modern concrete. The concrete is similar to todays and includes silicon and aluminum. Sand, stone, broken pottery and bones were mixed with the concrete. Obviously, so-called "Stone Age" man was involved in much more industry than some scientists had thought! Scientists who believe the Bibles view of history are not surprised by this discovery. They know that every human being, from the very first one, has been completely human and quite intelligent. Imagine, on his first day of existence, Adam was smart enough to understand the animals and give them meaningful names! To a man with such understanding of Gods creation, concrete would be a simple technology. The question really is: Are we as smart today as Adam, who knew the Creator face-to-face?Stone Age concrete floordiscovered in China, CreationMoments.com