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Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier
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Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier

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  • 1. Breaking the Barrier: towards the creation of an holistic approach to the economic value of archaeology? Paul Burtenshaw Institute of Archaeology, University College London
  • 2. Culture and Economics in Opposition <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Indeed there is a strongly felt, and frequently articulated, view that any attempt to attach economic values to heritage, and to other cultural products and performances, is at best a pointless irrelevance and at worst an unacceptable soiling of the aesthetically sublime with the commercially mundane’ . (Graham et al 2000:129) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of Incompatible Philosophies: Values vs. Price. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic impacts favoured over cultural impacts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some attempts to try and close this divide - Cultural Economics and value schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide exists conceptually and practically - ultimately unhelpful. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. ‘ Value’ and ‘Capital’ <ul><li>‘ Value ’ - Values, Value and Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Economic Value’ – both a quality and a valuation. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Capital ’ - defined as a ‘ power to ’ or ‘ ability to ’ (Klamer 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Capital: ‘ the ability to produce economic impacts ’ – jobs, revenues, GDP. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeology and heritage also have social and cultural capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is not a replacement for ‘value’ – but highlights what a resource does for the public. </li></ul>
  • 4. Economic Capital as a Force for Value <ul><li>Used in environmental conservation – incentives, ICDPs, ecotourism, ecosystem service valuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall and McArthur ‘ The economic returns from tourism have become one of the main justifications for the public and private sectors to designate and maintain heritage. ’ (1996:2) </li></ul><ul><li>Internationally – World Bank, Global Heritage Fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally - UK heritage organisations scramble to show economic impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Locally - Local tourism projects aiming to change behaviours which threaten sites, or problems due to lack of access to revenues </li></ul>
  • 5. Economic Capital and Holism <ul><li>Economic Capital is not isolated from other capitals and values but exists in a complex relationship with them. </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship may be positive or negative. Must avoid the view that they are in opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic capital and its impacts must be identified, and its relationship with other values and capital understood, for better management. </li></ul><ul><li>This management should be based on good data. </li></ul>
  • 6. Kilmartin Glen and House Museum – Interacting Capitals. <ul><li>Economic data needed to protect site and to better understand current tourism </li></ul><ul><li>At least 150 prehistoric remains within 6 miles of Kilmartin village (although recent surveys suggest there are many, many more). 50 scheduled archaeological monuments and 13 are in state care. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilmartin House Museum opened in 1997 – to provide education and orientation to visitors and receive artefacts. Partly relies on state-funding . </li></ul>
  • 7.  
  • 8. <ul><li>Economic Capital : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaeology: Tourism worth approx. £5 million per year, roughly 300 jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum: Impact of approx. £1.5 million per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spending over large area – Museum’s vital economic role. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually beneficial economic and cultural capital, and social and cultural capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural aims had important economic consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic facilities had strong social role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic revenues invested in cultural capital </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Wadi Feynan, Jordan <ul><li>Famous for Neolithic sites and remains associated with copper production – Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of over 250 tourists and over 90 local interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Current tourists not motivated by archaeology. Local people gain economically through academic projects. </li></ul>Feynan <ul><li>Economic Value one of the main reason local people think the archaeology is important. Also historical and prestige values. </li></ul><ul><li>Local and tourists knowledge very low, results of projects not known. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is there, but less than for mining. </li></ul>
  • 10. The Need for Control and Data <ul><li>Archaeologists must understand economic capital, measure it, study its relationships with other capitals and values, and communicate its relevance and use to the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual - Be comfortable with economic capital and avoid a Jekyll and Hyde relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Data - Need more consistent data and a consensus of approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists need to better understand the capital of their own sites through data and better monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>For both we need to break down the barrier between the cultural and economic, understand the relationship between them and view them holistically. </li></ul>

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