Psychological Reasons for Segmenting Principle <ul><li>Most people think on one side of the brain, either left or right which affects their approach of life, work, and learning. A person’s memory heavily effects a person’s education. Memory is the power or process of reproducing or recalling what has been learned and retained especially through associative mechanisms. Working memory is the most crucial aspect of memory. All problems solving and thinking skills people acquire is done in working memory. </li></ul>
<ul><li>When working with the working memory, there are three phases an instructor must understand in order for their students to understand the lesson. The first phase is getting the proper information into short term memory. This will allow the students to get a brief understanding of what is being taught. </li></ul>I have to read all this and have a report ready by tomorrow????!!!!
<ul><li>The next phase is to carefully nurture the information the student process. This is where the instructors are to stick to the topic of the lesson and accompany it with good examples, through visuals and audio. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The last phase is to move the information learned from working memory into long term memory. At this phase the students are beginning to understand the concept being taught by the instructor. The instructor must make sure the students understand by having the students do practices, experiments, assessments, or projects. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The most crucial phase is the first phase. During this phase students are able to receive small pieces of information at a short amount of time. Adults can retain roughly seven items of information in a few seconds. The best way to educate students knowing this information is to… </li></ul>
<ul><li>Make sure the working memory is fed small amounts of information at a short period of time. Breaking down the information into segments allows the students to easily remember what is being taught. The working memory and the long term memory are working at the same time at this point. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the information is clear. Don’t use a lot of jargon. Some times it can be difficult to understand a lesson when you are trying to figure out the words in the sentences. </li></ul>How to Get to Microsoft Word GOOD <ul><ul><li>Login to the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Click on the “start” button. </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “All Programs” </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “Microsoft Office “ </li></ul><ul><li>Click on Microsoft Word. </li></ul>How to Get to Microsoft Word BAD <ul><ul><li>Go to the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Click on start and go to Microsoft Word. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Use visual or audio to support the lesson. Pictures and audio helps students understand the concept. The instructor must be care when choosing visual or audio. Pictures can be easily misunderstood and audio can be hard to understand. I would suggest using one or the other because it could distract the learner using both. </li></ul><ul><li>Use practices, projects, assessments, etc. to make sure the students acquire the knowledge. The students must practice what they learn and the teachers must assess the students to see if they understood what was being taught. </li></ul>
Psychological Reasons for the Pretraining Principle Pretraining can prevent future cognitive learning overload Pretraining helps learner to manage cognitive processing Pretraining allows the learner to redistribute information
The learner needs to attend to new relevant material for a successful e-learning experience
New Relevant Material The learner needs to make sense of new relevant material
The learner must connect new material to prior knowledge STM LTM
Pretraining principles need to be implemented for a successful cognitive processing experience, in the present and in the future when additional material is introduced
Introductory Lesson Implement cognitive load reduction by introducing new material in an introductory lesson
Pretraining allows for: Cognitive load reduction Stored knowledge to be retrieved from LTM when needed STM LTM
Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite Size Segments <ul><li>It’s easy to get caught up in the design of any single PowerPoint slide, since the “Normal” view of the program is the place where you design individual slides. But when you focus on a single slide, it’s easy to pile on the information which only serves to shut down understanding. </li></ul>
Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite Size Segments <ul><li>Break up information through your PowerPoint by referring back frequently to the Slide Sorter view. From this perspective, you can read the headlines you’ve written and see how your story flows. Your story should have an even pace from one slide to the next, without long pauses on any single slide. </li></ul>
Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite Size Segments <ul><li>Where your pauses are long, or you have much to say, those are signs that you need to break up that slide into more slides. One technique is to duplicate the offending slide, then cut the amount of information on each slide in half. If you have too many slides for the time you have to speak, return to Slide Sorter view and think about ways you can distill your story down to its essence. </li></ul>
Break up your story into digestible bites in the Slide Sorter view
Break a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Sized Segments
Lesson Overload Categorize the information of the topic. Is the information able to be presented clearly to someone who knows nothing about the topic? It’s a step-by-step process like writing a recipe with a tasty, satisfying and digestible outcome. Segmenting Principle – break complex lesson into smaller parts Don’t leave out any steps. Break the lesson up into manageable segments
Lesson Example: How to Log In This is a three step lesson presentation for logging in to a computer. 1 topic = 3 steps Last, you have the option to tell your computer whether you want it to remember your password by clicking the Remember my password box or not. Then click the OK box to continue the log in process to your computer or Cancel to abort log in process. Then type in your password in the Password box. You will not see your text password, but dots indicating the number of symbols used. A good password will have nothing to do with your username and mix numerals with letters. When your log in screen box is visible, type in your User Name in the box with the person icon in it. karin.king karin.king ********
Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts <ul><li>Transfer: Application of previously learned knowledge and skills to new situations encountered after the learning event. </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on retrieval of new knowledge and skills from long-term memory during performance. </li></ul>
Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts <ul><ul><li>Relieve essential processing by providing learner with pretraining of key concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners preformed better on transfer tests when they received pretraining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive diagram with name and characteristics of parts given before 60 second narrated animation of how system worked </li></ul></ul></ul>(Mayer, Mathias, and Wetzell, 2002)
Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts Based on data from Mayer, Mathias, and Wetzell, 2002.
Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts <ul><li>No-pretraining group shown how all components work together </li></ul><ul><li>Pretraining group shows how each component worked individually then how worked together </li></ul><ul><li>The pretraining group outperformed no-pretraining group on transfer tests, yielding effect size greater than 1. </li></ul>(Pollock, Chandler, & Sweller, 2002)
What We Don’t Know <ul><li>We need a larger research base in order to determine if the effects are the same across varying situations. </li></ul>Picture Retrieved from- http://www.cs.duke.edu/research/graphic_front/research_front.jpg
We Still Don’t know <ul><li>How large a segment should be. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How much information should be in a bite-sized chunk?” </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you break a lesson into meaningful segments? </li></ul>Picture retrieved from- http://www.justinspaintings.com/images/p309_OrangeSegment.jpg
Mysteries of Pretraining <ul><li>How to figure out which key concepts should be included. </li></ul><ul><li>How much pretraining should there be? </li></ul>Picture Retrieved From- http://forpd.ucf.edu/newsletter/word-wall.gif
Final Thoughts <ul><li>Segmenting and Pretraining help manage essential processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Segmenting and Pretraining can help reduce cognitive overload on learners. </li></ul>
Additional Final Thoughts <ul><li>Studies show that segmenting works. </li></ul><ul><li>Some additional research would help determine how strong the effects are. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Askins, B., & Young, T. (1994, January 1). An Action Research Project to Assist Incarcerated Females to Become More Effective Adult Learners. Journal of Correctional Education , 45 (1), 12. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ484444) Retrieved April 8, 2008, from ERIC database. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer, R.E., Mathias, A., & Wetzer, k. (2002). Fostering understanding of multimedia messages through pretraining. Evidence for a two-stage theory of mental model construction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8 , 147-154. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollock, E., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2002). Assimilating complex information. Learning and Instruction, 12, 61-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Sousa, David A. (2001). How the Brain Learns: A Classroom Teacher’s Guide. 2nd ed. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number ED447094) Retrieved April 8, 2008, from ERIC database. </li></ul>
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