Integrating the Elementary Language Arts: A Historical Perspective E. Jennifer Monaghan Douglas K. Hartman Chapter 16
Toward Defining the Language Arts …• “Our goal is to define … what students should learn in the English language arts—reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visual representing.” International Reading Association/National Council of Teachers of English (IRA/NCTE). (1996). Standards for the English Language Arts. Newark, DE: International Reading Association/National Council of Teachers of English.
1620s to 1780sSequential Teaching of Reading & Writing Reading the Bible is the route to salvation New-England Primer (n.p.). (1727). Boston: S. Kneeland & T. Green.
1780s to 1840sIntegrating Speaking & Spelling Instruction Oral spelling is the route to reading acquisition Webster, N. (1843). The elementary spelling book; being an improvement on the American Spelling Book (p. 20). New York: Cooledge & Brother. (Original work published 1829).
1840s to 1880sPestalozianism & Schoolbooks A shift toward child-centered reading instruction William Holmes McGuffey (1837). Eclectic First Reader (p. 14). Cincinnati: Truman & Smith. Reproduced in John H. Westerhoff III (1978). McGuffey and His Readers: Piety, Morality, and Education in Nineteenth-Century America (p. 115). Nashville, TN: Abingdon.
1840s to 1880sPestalozianism & Schoolbooks (continued) A shift toward child-centered writing instruction Frost, J. (1839). Easy exercises in composition (p. 24). Philadelphia: W. Marshal. Reproduced in Schultz, L.M. (1999), The young composers: Composition’s beginning in nineteenth-century schools (p. 52). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
1880s to 1930sProgressivism & the Integration of Literacy Instruction Francis Wayland Parker Source: http://www.ucls.uchicago.edu/photo_album/1809s/parker.html
1930s to 1970sDisintegrating the Language Arts The Whole Word Approach Kleiser, C., Ettinger, W.L., & Shimer, E.D. (1917). The Progressive road to reading: Story steps (p. 7). Boston: Silver, Burdett.
1980s to 1990sIntegrating the Language Arts Emergent literacy, process writing, whole language, & literature- based reading Mavrogenes, N.A. (1987). Young children composing then and now: Recent research on emergent literacy. Visible Language, 21, p. 281.
1990s to 2010 Citations of the Words “Reading,” “Writing,” “Language Arts,” and “Literacy” in Public Law 107-110 (2001), the No Child Left Behind law Reading Writing Language Arts Literacy COMBINED TOTALS -249 26* 7 108 The disparity in favor of reading and reading instruction over writing andWhere We Are Now in the Era writing instruction is obvious. * This total includes a deduction of 3 citations of the phrase “in writing.” of NCLB Sources: TITLE 1 Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged Sections 1001-1004; Part A, Improving Basic Programs, sections 1111-1120B; Part B, Student Reading Skills Improvement, sections 1201-1208; Subpart 2, Early Reading First, sections 1221-1226; Subpart 3, William F. Goodling Family Literacy, sections 1231-1242; Subpart 4. Improving Literacy…School Libraries, section 1251; Part C, Education of Migratory Children, sections 1301-1309. TITLE 2 Preparing, Training, and Recruiting High Quality Teachers and Principals Subpart 2. National Writing Project, sections 2331-2332. Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind of 2001. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html Renewed emphasis on reading rather than writing instruction
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events Reading is taught before writingThe New England Primer: because it is through readingSequential Teaching of Reading 1620s to 1780s that the young acquire the& Writing values (at this time, the religious values) of adults. In the 1730s, spelling books emerge as the key text forNoah Webster’s Spelling Books: American reading instruction,Integrating Speaking & Spelling 1780s to 1840s which is based on the alphabetwith Reading Instruction method. Noah Webster’s spellers outstrip all others in their sales. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events The sterility of the alphabet method and rote learning givesPestalozzianism & Child- rise to reform. ReformersCentered Schoolbooks: invoke the child-centered 1820s to 1880sParallel Shifts in Reading & principles of Johann PestalozziWriting Materials to introduce child-centered reading and writing instructional texts. The same principles areFrancis Wayland Parker: adopted by Progressives, whoProgressivism & the Integration 1880s to 1930s integrate reading & writing intoof Literacy Instruction their curricula. Children read what they have written. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events Both the Progressives & their successful rivals, the adherents of the scientific movement inThe Whole Word Approach: education, adopt the whole 1930s to 1970sDisintegrating the Language Arts word approach to reading instruction while synthetic phonics and writing take a back seat. Research on language acquisition & emergent literacy,Integrating the Language Arts: combines with process writing,The Impact of Cognitive 1980s to 1990s whole language, & literature-Research based reading to renew a focus on integrating the language arts. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events New voices call for “balanced” reading instruction, but “high stakes” national and stateWhere we Are Now: testing conflict with integrative 1990s to 2010sIn the Era of No Child Left Behind goals since they renew the exaggerated emphasis on reading, rather than writing instruction. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
For More Information … http://historyliteracy.org