Integrating the Elementary Language Arts: A Historical Perspective E. Jennifer Monaghan Douglas K. Hartman Chapter 16
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events Reading is taught before writingThe New England Primer: because it is through readingSequential Teaching of Reading 1620s to 1780s that the young acquire the& Writing values (at this time, the religious values) of adults. In the 1730s, spelling books emerge as the key text forNoah Webster’s Spelling Books: American reading instruction,Integrating Speaking & Spelling 1780s to 1840s which is based on the alphabetwith Reading Instruction method. Noah Webster’s spellers outstrip all others in their sales. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events The sterility of the alphabet method and rote learning givesPestalozzianism & Child- rise to reform. ReformersCentered Schoolbooks: invoke the child-centered 1820s to 1880sParallel Shifts in Reading & principles of Johann PestalozziWriting Materials to introduce child-centered reading and writing instructional texts. The same principles areFrancis Wayland Parker: adopted by Progressives, whoProgressivism & the Integration 1880s to 1930s integrate reading & writing intoof Literacy Instruction their curricula. Children read what they have written. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events Both the Progressives & their successful rivals, the adherents of the scientific movement inThe Whole Word Approach: education, adopt the whole 1930s to 1970sDisintegrating the Language Arts word approach to reading instruction while synthetic phonics and writing take a back seat. Research on language acquisition & emergent literacy,Integrating the Language Arts: combines with process writing,The Impact of Cognitive 1980s to 1990s whole language, & literature-Research based reading to renew a focus on integrating the language arts. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
Summary of Chapter Era Years Themes/Events New voices call for “balanced” reading instruction, but “high stakes” national and stateWhere we Are Now: testing conflict with integrative 1990s to 2010sIn the Era of No Child Left Behind goals since they renew the exaggerated emphasis on reading, rather than writing instruction. (Monaghan & Hartman, 2010)
For More Information … http://historyliteracy.org
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