Hartman1996 Using Informational Books
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  • 1. Using Informational Books - 1USING INFORMATIONAL BOOKS IN THE CLASSROOM:LETTING THE FACTS (AND RESEARCH) SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES Douglas K. Hartman, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Using Informational Books - 2W e live in an age fueled by Nonfiction books are the centerpiece in information. When we slide helping students become better and out of bed in the morning we better at managing information. begin managing information Nonfiction books serve a number ofabout our day. What should I wear? purposes—especially if used well. In(based on the weather forecast, work or the pages that follow I outline manysocial calendar information, etc.). Which reasons why nonfiction books should beroute to work should I take? (based on used with students in all grades and howradio traffic reports, signage along the to use the books well. Knowing this willroadway, or your observations of traffic not only energize your own teaching,flow). How should I design tomorrow’s but broaden the vision of colleaguesreading lesson? (based on state when they see the difference it makesstandards, the school schedule, trade for students—both now and in theirand textbook resources, future student information-fueled future.needs, and how well this week’s lessonswent). Should I buy that new sofa for the WHY USE NONFICTION BOOKS?family room? (based on the checkbook The evidence from everyday experienceledger, district check stub total, bank suggests that informational books:statement, credit card statement, andprime interest rate). • satisfy and broaden curiosity, • provide breadth and depth ofAnd just when we’ve “burned” through information,one day’s supply of information, • offer accurate information,another is on the horizon. Almost as an • provide models for informationalafterthought, we manage all this writing,information for years, forgetting all the • challenge readers to read critically,preparation and practice it took to • help present familiar things in newbecome proficient at it. As educators, ways,our job is not to forget; it is to remember • promote exploration,what it’s like for a kindergartner, fourth- • simulate direct experience, andgrader, or middle-schooler to learn how • connect readers and reading to theto manage information, and to then help real world.them learn to do it better and better, sothat one day when they have burned In other words, nonfiction books helpthrough a day’s supply of information students feel, see, and know in waysthey will have done it in a way that was that no textbook can. Students can learnalmost an afterthought. facts from a textbook, but they learn to read passionately and critically with ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Using Informational Books - 3nonfiction trade books. Textbooks have but in the end nonfiction books pave theso many authors that they end up way for the thrill of reading more.having no unique voice or point of view;nonfiction trade books directly reveal By using informational books likethe author’s point of view. Textbooks Smelling (2000), Clouds (1998),cover many topics but none of them in- Vibrations (2000), or an entire set ofdepth; nonfiction trade books focus on a books on plant life, you can interesttopic with greater resolution. children in reading more because they want to do so—not because they areFor example, a textbook may mention rewarded by someone for doing so.Booker T. Washington, who started the And once a child’s enduring interestsTuskegee Institute in Alabama. But a are set loose, that child is likely to readnonfiction trade book such as Margo more—now and in the years to comeMcLoone’s (1997) Booker T. Washington (Alexander, 1997).makes the Institute’s founding andWashington’s part in it real, vivid, and Prepare Students for Later Academicimportant to students. McLoone tells and Adult Life. If you really want tothe story of Washington’s early life, the prepare a middle schooler for laterevents that lead him to found the success, teach that student how toInstitute, and the ideals that guided his fluently read, write, and critiqueleadership. A textbook may say that informational discourse. The researchWashington founded Tuskegee on workplace, community, andInstitute, but a nonfiction trade book academic performance all indicate thatlike Booker T. Washington places nonfiction literacy is central to long-students where they can feel, see, and term success and survival (Hull, 1997;know what it would be like to start a Spiro, Vispoel, Schmitz,school. It brings perspective and life to Samarapungavan, & Boerger, 1987;the two-dimensional textbook. Stuart, 1999; Whetzel, 1992). You can be an avid reader of fiction, but yourThere are also research-based reasons employers, council members, andfor using nonfiction books in your professors will expect you to locate, sort,classroom. analyze, synthesize, evaluate, and produce nonfiction texts with great easeMotivate Students to Read. If you and skill.want to motivate a reluctant first graderto read more, find a path into literature By using nonfiction books like Thethat fits the child’s interests and Grizzly Bear (1997), The Civil Warexperiences. The research evidence (2001), Mountaineering Adventuresindicates that many emerging (and (2001), or an entire set on Americanexperienced) readers find that path civics, you can equip your students tothrough nonfiction books (Caswell & read and write informational textsDuke, 1998; Worthy, Moorman, & critically and well. Without this skill,Turner, 1999). Children can be enticed they will lack the most important toolwith narratives and other forms of text, for contemporary survival—how to gather, work through, and communicate ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 4. Using Informational Books - 4knowledge-based information might have fluent readers of every(Hartman, 2000). leveled story and poem in print, but unless their nonfiction reading skills areExpand Student Vocabulary. If you strong they will continue to strugglewant to help fourth graders expand throughout their school years.their vocabulary, they need to read,read, read and talk, talk, talk—especially By using nonfiction books likeabout information-based topics. The Ladybugs (1999), Ants (1999),most recent reviews of research draw Grasshoppers (1999), or an entire set onthe same conclusion: voluminous insects, you can create opportunities toexperience with rich, information-based develop the necessary informationallanguage (written and spoken) enhances processing skills—even as early asstudent vocabulary growth (Anderson kindergarten. Without these& Nagy, 1991; Nagy & Scott, 2000). opportunities, many students are likelyNonfiction books provide the rich to experience the infamous fourth-gradevocabulary necessary for the reader to “slump”—when the amount ofencounter new words repeatedly so that nonfiction text increases dramaticallyvocabulary knowledge grows with each but a student’s skills for using it won’treading. be strong enough to deal with the heavy dose (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990).By using nonfiction books likeGrasslands (2001), Wetlands (2001), Support English Language Learners. IfDeserts (2001), or an entire set on you want to help a second grade Englishecosystems, you provide students with learner become more fluent in academicrepeated opportunities to encounter English, then that student needsnaturally occurring language that is experience with materials—likeinformation-based. Without these nonfiction books—that tap into his or heropportunities, they will be limited to the interests, experience, and culturaldirect instruction of vocabulary words values. Your task, of course, is totypically taught before reading a text— scaffold the use of these books so thewhich has little effect on overall next steps in learning are taken. Thevocabulary growth (Beck & McKeown, research evidence on English language1991). learners identifies a clear pattern: fluency in English comes moreImprove Students Academic completely and quickly when teachers:Achievement. If you want to help (a) use materials that providestruggling young kindergartners background knowledge and build onachieve in the long run, they need to previous knowledge, (b) value thesestart learning early how to be proficient materials in light of the student’s homeusers of nonfiction text. The research culture and language, and (c) balanceevidence is clear on this point: students the use of these materials withwho achieve academically also have responsive and sheltered instruction instrong informational reading and both basic and higher-order skillswriting skills (Bernhardt, Destino, (August & Hakuta, 1997; Brisk, 1998;Kamil, & Rodriguez-Munoz, 1995). You Greene, 1998; Mayer & Fienberg, 1992). ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 5. Using Informational Books - 5A child can be a fluent speaker and than they do standing at the drinkingreader in his or her home language, but fountain.unless the English learning at school is atailored set of material and instructional By using nonfiction books like Chiefcomponents that work from the Joseph of the Nez Perce (1998), Harrietresources in the child’s particular Tubman (1997), Susan B. Anthonylanguage community, fluency in English (1998), or an entire set of photo-will be leaner and take longer (Hakuta, illustrated biographies, you can tip theButler, & Witt, 2000). balance between narrative and nonfiction reading by linking coreBy using nonfiction books like Mexico program selections with nonfiction(1997), The Pueblo Indians (1999), Cesar books. Without this balanced “diet,” theChavez (1998), or an entire set on health of your reading curriculum is atweather and seasons, you can create stake—and while your students’ literaryopportunities for English language stomachs won’t be empty, they will stilllearners to develop fluency in English— be consuming an unbalanced dietand in their home language too. (Hartman & Hicks, 1996).Without the rich content knowledge andlanguage that informational books can HOW TO USE NONFICTION BOOKSprovide, students are likely to A number of concepts and practices areexperience the so-called “achievement central to creating a classroomgap”—where the lack of academic environment where informational bookscontent knowledge and English are used effectively.language proficiency keep them fromlearning like their native-English- Select Quality. How do youspeaking classmates (Freeman, distinguish an excellent nonfiction bookFreeman, & Mercuri, 2002). from a mediocre one? Three sources should be consulted when selectingBalance the Core Reading Program. quality nonfiction books (Bamford &Finally, if you want students to have a Kristo, 1998):balanced diet of narrative andinformational text, then supplement the First, check out the national committeescore reading program with nonfiction that use criteria to evaluate and producebooks. Recent research identifies a clear lists of outstanding books publishedpattern: commercially produced each year. For example, the Children’sreading programs contain little Book Council’s committees are made upinformational text (Hoffman, of children’s literature and content-areaMcCarthey, Abbott, Christian, Corman, experts who evaluate books of all typesCurry, Dressman, Elliott, Matherne, & according to professionally rigorousStahle, 1994; Moss & Newton, 1998). As criteria. They answer the question: Howa result, your students can spend more well does The Iroquois Indians (1997)time on reading/language arts than any measure up against the criteria of accuracy,other subject during the day, but still organization, style, design, and author’sspend less time with informational text expertise? CBC’s book lists provide a ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 6. Using Informational Books - 6way to measure a book’s quality against level to students (Fountas & Pinnell,a common universal standard (Kristo, 1999).1998). The first set centers on three questionsSecond, use the recommendations of about the student(s):your district and building colleagues toselect books that will help students meet • What is their language knowledge? (i.e.,state and national standards. The aural and reading vocabulary, syntaxcommittees and teachers in your district structure, interpretive practices)that create these tailored book lists • What is their background knowledge?evaluate them according to the (i.e., direct and vicarious lifecurricular goals and objectives that must experiences with books, music, TV,be met in your locale. They answer the art, film, etc.)question: How well will Looking at Shapes(2002) help our students understand the • What are their literary experiences?math standard on analyzing characteristics (i.e., books, magazines, newspapers,and properties of two- and three- mail, etc.)dimensional geometric shapes? The booksthey choose determine a book’s quality By asking and then answering theseagainst a functional standard (Fredericks, questions with evidence from running1998). records, observations, informal reading inventories, and other measurementAnd finally, follow the trail of books tools, you can gauge what students dothat students create themselves. and don’t know for appropriate levelingStudent book preferences reflect their (Johnston, 1997).evaluations of books according to theirown needs and interests. They answer The second set of characteristics centersthe question: How well does Caving around three questions about theAdventures (2002) speak to me about the book(s):things I want or need to know? These • What are the print features of thechoices provide a way to determine a book? (i.e., length, print size, layout,book’s quality against a personal illustrations)standard (Avery, 1998). • What are the concepts in the book?These three sources contribute to the (i.e., content, themes, ideas)overall assessment of a book’s quality.Where the universal, functional, and • What are the language and literarypersonal standards intersect, quality features of the book? (i.e.,nonfiction books are found. perspective, language structure, literary device, vocabulary, wordLevel Appropriately. How do you types)match that “just right” nonfiction bookwith a student or group? Two sets of By asking and then answering thesecharacteristics should be considered questions with evidence from thewhen matching the appropriate book ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 7. Using Informational Books - 7book(s), you can gauge its appropriate The final step is to plan instruction withlevel (Fountas & Pinnell, 1999). the books in mind (Gagné & Briggs, 1974). The activities should be designedThe purpose for matching appropriate so that they provide evidence forstudent characteristics to book levels is assessing how well students haveto help students use what they already learned. This means imagining how oneknow to get to what they need to know. day’s activities fit together withTo work “at the edge” of their learning another’s into an integrated unit.and literacy, we need to know the Starting with the unit’s launch, then“deep” characteristics of our students moving through the connectedand books (Vygotsky, 1978). activities, until the final project isPlan Proactively. How do you plan for complete, the products and recordsthe use of nonfiction books? A few resulting from each activity can be usedsimple, straightforward ideas can help for evaluating how well students are(Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). moving toward the desired learning outcomes.The first step is to identify the learningoutcome(s) that these books naturally Integrate Completely. How do youlead to (Tyler, 1950). With state and fully integrate the nonfiction booksnational standards in one hand and being used? The best answer indicatesnonfiction book(s) in the other, you can that three layers of connectionsmatch the book and your instruction to characterize learning and teaching thatthe knowledge, skills, and dispositions are fully integrated (Petrie, 1992).of the standards. For example, a first - The first layer is integrating the contentgrade teacher browses a set of areas—social studies, science,nonfiction books on family relationships mathematics, literature, art, and music.and considers the social studies Using nonfiction books that logicallystandards and finds a perfect match: the lend themselves to making connectionscontent in the 14-book set parallels the across the curriculum is the first stepsocial studies standard for individual toward realizing complete integrationdevelopment and identity. (Wineburg & Grossman, 2000). ForThe second step is to determine the instance, suppose a class ofevidence that will tell you how well kindergartners wanted to learn howstudents have learned from the books to math is used by many people. To findachieve the desired outcome (McTighe answers, they will need to read across& Ferrara, 1998). For the first-grade nonfiction books from many contentteacher mentioned above, this means areas:deciding which forms of assessment will Mathprovide information directly related to Everyone Uses Math (2002)how well the students understand the Many Ways to 100 (2002)concepts included in the development Counting Many Ways (2002)and identity standard. Time to Estimate (2002) ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 8. Using Informational Books - 8Science And the third layer is integrating theThe Wright Brothers (2000) student—internally and externally.Robert Fulton (2000) Developing Renaissance students whoRobert Goddard (2000) can skillfully draw on information fromThe Doctor’s Office (1998) numerous resources to solve personal, social, and intellectual problems in aSocial Studies constantly changing world is the finalWe Need Farmers (2000) step toward complete integrationWe Need Mail Carriers (2000) (Hopkins, 1937). For example, supposePeople Work (2001) a classroom of second graders wasSome Kids Are Blind (2001) asked to demonstrate what they knowHealth and can do with information from sevenWe Need Dentists (2000) nonfiction books on water.We Need Doctors (2000) • The Water Cycle (2000)We Need Nurses (2000) • Water as a Gas (2000)We Need Veterinarians (2000) • Water as a Liquid (2000)The second layer is integrating the • Water as a Solid (2000)language arts—reading, writing, • We Need Water (2000)speaking, and listening. Designing • Keeping Water Clean (2000)language-based activities that prompt • Drinking Water (2000)students to make connections among To carry out this project, they will neednonfiction books is the next move to develop a unified (internal)toward complete integration (Gavelek, understanding of what water is, how itRaphael, Biondo, & Wang, 2000). For works, why it is important, where it isexample, suppose small groups of third located, when it is needed, and whograders were asked during a unit on regulates its use. They can then use thisecosystems to use four nonfiction books information (externally) to shape theto create a chart that compares world by helping to clean a nearbyinformation about temperate forests in stream, lobbying for stronger cleanthree countries across the northern water policies, or conserving water forhemisphere. future generations.• Temperate Forests (2001) Teach Strategically. How do you• Canada, (1998) decide which teaching method is best• Germany (1997) suited for the nonfiction book(s) you are• Russia (1999) using? Start with the end in mind.To accomplish the task, students will What is the goal? What knowledge, skill,need to read the books, speak and listen to or strategy are students to develop byeach other’s ideas, and write the using these nonfiction books? With theinformation they’ve selected on the end in mind, you can select a teachingchart—thereby using the four language method that strategically movesarts together. students toward that goal or objective (Hartman, 2000). For example: ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 9. Using Informational Books - 9 help them learn when to flexibly• If you want second graders to apply particular learning skills and develop declarative knowledge—core strategies (Ogle, 1992). vocabulary, concepts, facts, and information (Pearson & Fielding, • If you want sixth graders to develop 1991)—for reading a nonfiction book discursive knowledge—knowing how like How Things Move (2001), then to put ideas together, integrate one use a teaching strategy like list- with another, and compare group-label to help them visualize declarative, procedural, and textual the often abstract physics-related ideas (Harré & Gillett, 1994)— for vocabulary concepts (Taba, 1967). reading a set of nonfiction books on law enforcement, then use a teaching• If you want fifth graders to develop strategy like questioning the author procedural knowledge—processes for to help them learn how to query the carrying out intellectual tasks and reasons why a text is assembled as it projects (Pearson & Fielding, 1991)— is (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, and for reading a nonfiction book like Kucan, 1997). Caving Adventures (2002), then use • And if you want eighth graders to a strategy like PORPE (Predict, develop social knowledge—knowing Organize, Rehearse, Practice, how to work with others on a project Evaluate) to help them actively plan, (Gee, 1999)—for reading a set of monitor, and evaluate their content nonfiction books on dangerous learning (Simpson, 1992). adventures, then use a teaching• If you want seventh graders to strategy like conversational develop textual knowledge—how texts discussion groups to help them are organized and hang together develop a repertoire of participation (Meyer & Rice, 1984)—for reading a skills for constructing meaning with nonfiction book like Elections in the others (O’Flahavan, 1989). United States (1999), then use a By keeping the end in mind and teaching strategy like expository text selecting instruction that moves learning structure maps to help them toward it, students will gain the recognize and use the organizational knowledge, skills, and strategies patterns used by authors to present essential for navigating informational ideas (Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, conversation. 1995). Discuss Intelligently. Pose questions• If you want first graders to develop that are likely to initiate intelligent conditional knowledge—knowing discussion. While there are many when to use declarative, procedural, taxonomies for categorizing question and textual knowledge (Paris, types, one of the more useful schemes Lipson, & Wixson, 1983)—for divides questions into three types reading a set of nonfiction books on (Hartman & Allison, 1996). looking at simple machines, then use a teaching strategy like K-W-L to ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Using Informational Books - 10• Intratextual – These questions prompt Then lead the discussion in such a way students to connect information within that it is likely to sustain intelligent a book. They ask students to construct discussion. responses that draw on information from several parts of a book. For • Let students talk. Talk is central to all example, an intratextual starter effective learning and literacy (Green question for fourth graders discussing & Dixon, 1993). The challenge for the nonfiction book Rain Forests (2001) teachers is to cultivate a responsive is: How do the author’s views of the rain and collaborative form of talk where forest ecosystem change from the the teacher and students are jointly beginning, to the middle to the end of the talking, reading, writing, and book? listening (Gutierrez, 1993). For example, after posing an intertextual• Intertextual – These questions prompt question about two books that students to connect information from students have read on land and sea two or more books. They ask students transportation, a teacher can invite to construct responses that require students to respond by talking in integrating information from several pairs or trios before sharing their books on a common topic. For ideas with the entire class. instance, an intertextual starter question for third graders discussing • Offer support when students are Everyone Is a Scientist (2001), Henry stuck. Most often students get Ford (2000), Alexander Graham Bell frustrated because they are doing (1999), Thomas Edison (1999), something that is beyond their Veterinarians (1997), and Zoo Keepers current ability, so they need a teacher (1998) is: How have the books on to “scaffold” what they cannot do inventors and community helpers helped alone (Bruner, 1986). Slowly you understand how everyone is a encourage the student(s) to take over scientist? parts of the learning as he or she is able to do so (Rogoff, 1990). For• Extratextual – These questions prompt example, if fourth graders are students to connect information from struggling to decode and understand the world to information in a book. many key terms in the book Rock They ask students to construct Climbing (1996), then you can responses that make connections scaffold by reading the book aloud between their background knowledge the first time or two and defining a and information from a book (or few of the terms out loud while books). For example, an extratextual reading. As students become more starter question for seventh graders familiar with the technical discussing Sheryl Swoopes (2001) and terminology of extreme rock Kevin Garnett (2001) is: How would climbing, they can take on the role of you compare either one of these athletes to reading the book with peers or alone. your own sports hero? ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 11. Using Informational Books - 11Assessing Accurately. How do you the method for assessing needs to beaccurately assess what students learn aligned with that goal.from informational books? Typically, two formatting methods areFirst determine what the goal is for used for assessing: recognition orassessing students (McTighe & Ferrara, construction (Cambourne & Turbill,1998). 1994). Recognition formats prompt students to select a response (e.g.,• What do we want students to multiple-choice, true-false, matching). understand and be able to do? Construction formats prompt students• Why are we assessing and how will to construct a response, create a the assessment information be used? product, perform a task, or describe their learning (e.g., short answer and• For whom are the assessment results fill-in-the-blank; stories and models; oral intended? presentations and dramatic readings; observing, interviewing, and learningFor example, if a second-grade teacher logs). In the first-grade example onwants to find out what students have plant life, the learning log format islearned from a set of nonfiction books probably the method of choice, becauseon the galaxy, it will be necessary to it aligns with the goals by providingidentify: formative information about the learning strategies and thinking• the content standard(s) the assessment processes students are using to explain will measure. plant life cycles.• the purpose(s) for doing the FINAL THOUGHTS assessment. (To inform and guide instruction? To provide practice This overview is grounded in the best applying knowledge and skills? To research and scholarly-based evidence determine program effectiveness?) to date. In the first section I outlined the rationale for using nonfiction books,• the audience for the assessment highlighting their importance for our information. (Teachers? Parents? student’s learning and lives. In the Students? Board of Education? second section I outlined seven concepts General Public?) that are central to creating a classroomThe second decision—determing how to environment where nonfiction booksassess student learning—should are used effectively. In both cases, thelogically follow the conclusions made concepts are intended to be suggestivefrom the first decision (Wiggins, 1998). rather than prescriptive, and theFor instance, if the goal for assessing examples are intended to be illustrativestudent understandings midway rather than exhaustive.through a unit on plant life is to provideformative feedback so you can determine Educators who avidly use nonfictionhow well an explanation-based content books offer three suggestions for gettingstandard in science is being met, then started. First, start smart. By selecting ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 12. Using Informational Books - 12nonfiction books that feature topicsaligned to your standards, you will get ahigher return for your instructionaltime. Second, talk with others. Find theardent users of nonfiction books in yourschool or district. Their ideas andfeedback are the best professionaldevelopment you can find. And third,start now. Find the books that will fitwith what you are teaching today.Putting off for tomorrow—or nextyear—what students need today islimiting their future.Dr. Douglas K. Hartman isAssociate Professor ofLanguage and Literacy in theschool of Education at theUniversity of Pittsburgh. Hehas served on the editorialreview boards of The ReadingTeacher, the ReadingResearch Quarterly, the Journal of Literacy Research,and other scholarly journals. He received nationalrecognition for his dissertation, including theOutstanding Dissertation Award, the StudentResearch Award, and Finalist recognition for thePromising Research Award. Dr. Hartman is theauthor of numerous journal articles and bookchapters. He has been a visiting Assistant Professorat the University of California at Berkley, Division ofEducation in Language and Literacy. His currentresearch centers on literacy learning frominformational, technological, cognitive, sociocultural,and historical perspectives. For more information about Red Brick Learning or the titles referenced in this article, please contact: 1-888-262-6135 www.redbricklearning.com ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 13. Using Informational Books - 13RESEARCH REFERENCES Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook ofAlexander, P.A. (1997). Knowledge Reading Research, Volume II (pp. seeking and self-schema: A case 789-814). New York: Longman. for the motivational dimensions of exposition. Educational Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., Hamilton, Psychologist, 32, 83-94. R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: AnAnderson, R.C., & Nagy, W.E. (1991). approach for enhancing student Word meanings. In R. Barr, M.L. engagement with text. Newark, Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, & P.D. DE: International Reading Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Association. Reading Research, Volume II (pp. 690-724). New York: Longman. Bernhardt, E., Destino, T., Kamil, M., & Rodriguez-Munoz, M. (1995).August, D., & Hakuta, K. (1997). Assessing science knowledge in Improving schooling for an English/Spanish bilingual language-minority children: A elementary school. Cognosos, 4, research agenda. Committee on 4-6. Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited- Brisk, M.E. (1998). Bilingual education: English-Proficient and Bilingual From compensatory to quality Students, Commission on schooling. Mahwah, NJ: Behavioral and Social Sciences Lawrence Erlbaum. and Education, National Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible Research Council. Washington, worlds. Cambridge, MA: DC: National Academy Press. Harvard University Press.Avery, C. (1998). Nonfiction books: Cambourne, B., & Turbill, J. (1994). Naturals for the primary level. In Responsive evaluation: Making R.A. Bamford & J.V. Kristo (Eds), valid judgments about student Making Facts Come Alive: literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Choosing Quality Nonfiction Heinemann. Literature K-8 (pp. 193-204). Norwood, MA: Christopher- Caswell, L.J., & Duke, N.K. (1998). Non- Gordon. narrative as a catalyst for literacy development. Language Arts, 75,Bamford, R.A., & Kristo, J.V. (1998). 108-117. Making Facts Come Alive: Choosing Quality Nonfiction Chall, J.S., Jacobs, V.A., & Bladwin, L.E. Literature K-8. Norwood, MA: (1990). The reading crisis: Why Christopher-Gordon. poor children fall behind. Cambridge, MA: HarvardBeck, I., & McKeown, M. (1991). University Press. Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M.L. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 14. Using Informational Books - 14Cullinan, B.E., & Glada, L. (1994). Literature and The Child (3rd Gavelek, J.R., Raphael, T.E., Biondo, Edition). New York: Harcourt S.M., & Wang, D. (2000). Brace. Integrated literacy instruction. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D.Ferrara, S., & McTighe, J. (1992). Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Assessment: A thoughtful Handbook of Reading Research, process. In A. Costa, J. Bellanca, Volume III (pp. 587-607). & R. Fogarty (Eds.), If Minds Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Matter: A Forward to the Future, Erlbaum. Volume 2 (pp 337-348). Palatine, IL: Skylight. Gee, J.P. (1999). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses.Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (1999). New York: Taylor & Francis. Matching books to readers: Using leveled books in guided Green, J.L., & Dixon, C.N. (1993). reading, K-3. Portsmouth, NH: Talking knowledge into being: Heinemann. Discursive and social practices in classrooms. Linguistics andFredericks, A.D. (1998). Evaluating and Education, 5, 231-239. using nonfiction literature in the science curriculum. In R.A. Greene, J. (1998). A meta-analysis of the Bamford & J.V. Kristo (Eds), effectiveness of bilingual Making Facts Come Alive: education. (Tomas Rivera Policy Choosing Quality Nonfiction Institute, in collaboration with Literature K-8 (pp. 109-122). the University of Texas at Austin Norwood, MA: Christopher- and Harvard University.) Gordon. Claremont, CA: Tomas Rivera Policy Institute.Freeman, Y.S., Freeman, D.E., & Mercuri, S. (2002). Closing the Gutierrez, K.D. (1993). How talk, achievement gap: How to reach context, and script shape context limited-formal-schooling and for learning: A cross-case long-term English learners. comparison of journal sharing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Lingustics and Education, 5 335- 365.Gagné, R.M., & Briggs, L.J. (1974). Principles of Instruction Design. Hakuta, K., Butler, Y.G., & Witt, D. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & (2000). How long does it take Winston. English Learners to attain proficiency? Stanford, CA: TheGambrell, L.B., & Almasi, J.F. (1996). University of California Lively discussions: Fostering Linguistic Minority Research engaged reading. Newark, DE: Institute. International Reading Association. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 15. Using Informational Books - 15Harré, R., & Gillett, G. (1994). The Nonfiction Literature K-8 (pp. 19- discursive mind. Thousand Oaks, 38). Norwood, MA: Christopher- CA: SAGE. Gordon.Hartman, D.K. (2000). What will be the McTighe, J., & Ferrara, S. (1998). influences on litereacy in the next Assessing learning in the millennium? Reading Research classroom. Washington, DC: Quarterly, 35 (2), 281-282. National Educational Association.Hartman, D.K., & Hicks, C. (1996). Using literature in your Meyer, M.M., & Fienberg, S.E. (1992). classroom. In J. Baltas & S. Shafer Assessing evaluation studies: (Eds.), Balanced Reading: Grades The case of bilingual education 3-6 (pp. 47-59). New York: strategies. Panel to Review Scholastic Professional Books. Evaluation Studies of Bilingual Education, Committee onHoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J., Abbott, National Statistics, National J., Christian, C., Corman, L., Research Council. Washington, Curry, C., Dressman, M., Elliott, DC: National Academy Press. B., Matherne, D., & Stahle, D. (1994). So what’s new in the new Moss, B., & Newton, E. (1998, basals? A focus on first grade. December). An examination of Journal of Reading Behavior, 26, the informational text genre in 47-73. recent basal readers. Paper presented at the NationalHopkins, L.T. (1937). Integration: Its Reading Conference, Austin, TX. meaning and application. New York: D. Appleton Century. Myer, B.J., & Rice, E. (1984). The structure of text. In P.D. Pearson,Hull, G. (1997). Changing work, R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, & P. changing workers: critical Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of perspectives on language, Reading Research (pp. 319-352). literacy, and skills. Albany, NY: New York: Longman. State University of New York Press. Nagy, W.E., & Scott, J.A. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In M.L.Johnston, P.H. (1997). Knowing literacy: Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Constructive literacy assessment. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), York, ME: Stenhouse. Handbook of Reading Research, Volume III (pp. 269-284).Kristo, J.V. (1998). Choosing quality Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence nonfiction literature: Examining Erlbaum. aspects of accuracy and organization. In R.A. Bamford & O’Flahavan, J.F. (1989). An exploration J.V. Kristo (Eds), Making Facts of the effects of participant Come Alive: Choosing Quality structure upon literacy ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 16. Using Informational Books - 16 development in reading group discussion. Unpublished doctoral Simpson, M.L. (1992). A study strategy dissertation, Urbana, IL: for learning in the content areas. University of Illinois. In E.K. Dishner, T.W. Bean, J.E. Readence, & D.W. Moore (Eds.),Ogle, D. (1992). KWL in action: Reading in the Content Areas: Secondary teachers find Improving Classroom Instruction applications that work. In E.K. (pp. 340-348). Dubuque, IA: Dishner, T.W. Bean, J.E. Kendall/Hunt. Readence, & D.W. Moore (Eds.), Reading in the Content Areas: Spiro, R.J., Vispoel, W.P., Schmitz, J.G., Improving Classroom Instruction Samarapungavan, A., & Boerger, (3rd edition), pp. 270-282). A.E. (1987). Knowledge Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. acquisition for application: cognitive flexibility and transferParis, S.G., Lipson, M., & Wixson, K. in complex content domains. In (1983). Becoming a strategic B.K. Britton & S.M. Glynn (Eds.), reader. Contemporary Executive Control Processes in Educational Psychology, 8, 2293- Reading (pp. 177-199). Hillsdale, 316. NJ: Erlbaum.Pearson, P.D., & Fielding, L. (1991). Stuart, L. (1999). 21st century skills for Comprehension instruction. In R. 21st jobs: A report of the U.S. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & Department of Commerce, U.S. P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Department of Education, U.S. Reading Research, Volume II (pp. Department of Labor, National 815-860). New York: Longman. Institute for Literacy, and Small Business Administration.Petrie, H. (1992). Interdisciplinary Washington, DC: U.S. education: Are we faced with Department of Education, Office insurmountable opportunities? In of Educational Research and G. Grant (Ed.), Review of Improvement, Educational Research in Education (pp. 299- Resources Information Center. 333). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Taba, H. (1967). Teacher’s handbook for Association. elementary social studies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Readence, J.E., Bean, T.W., & Baldwin, R.S., (1995). Content area reading: Tyler, R.W. (1950). Basic principles of An integrated approach. curriculum and instruction. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: in social context. New York: The development of higher Oxford University Press. psychological processes (M. Cole, ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 17. Using Informational Books - 17 S. Scribner, V. John-Steiner, & E. Baxter, K.A., & Kochel, M.A. (1999). Souderman, Eds. & Trans.). Gotcha! Nonfiction booktalks to Cambridge, MA: Harvard get kids excited about reading. University Press. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.Whetzel, D. (1992, March). The Secretary of Labors Commission on Burke, E.M. (1994). Using nonfiction in Achieving Necessary Skills the classroom. New York: (SCANS). ERIC Digest. [ERIC Scholastic Professional Books. Document: ED 339749]. Callison, D. (2000). Nonfiction. SchoolWiggins, G. (1998). Educative Library Media Activities assessment: Designing Monthly, 16 (10), 29-32. assessments to inform and improve student performance. Carr, J. (1982). Beyond fact: Nonfiction San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. for children and young people. Chicago, IL: American LibraryWiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). Association. Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Cianciolo, P.J. (2000). Informational Supervision and Curriculum picture books for children. Development. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.Wineburg, S., & Grossman, P. (2000). Interdisciplinary curriculum: Colman, P. (1999). Nonfiction is Challenges to implementation. literature, too. New Advocate, 12 New York: Teachers College (3), 215-223. Press. DeLuca, G., & Natov, R. (Eds.) (1982).Worthy, J., Moorman, M., & Turner, M. Informational books for children. (1999). What Johnny likes to read The Lion and the Unicorn, 6. is hard to find in school. Reading Research Quarterly, 34 (1), 12-27. Doiron, R. (1994). Using nonfiction in a read-aloud program: Letting the facts speak for themselves.PROFESSIONAL REFERENCES Reading Teacher, 47 (8), 616-624.Armstrong, J. (1999, Summer). Truth in Doll, C.A. (1990). Nonfiction books for storytelling. Riverbank Review, children: Activities for thinking, 14-16. learning and doing. Englewood, CO: Teacher Ideas Press.Bamford, R.A., & Kristo, J.V. (1998). Making facts come alive: Donovan, J. (Ed.) (1974). Aspects of Choosing quality nonfiction children’s informational books. literature K-8. Norwood, MA: Wilson Library Bulletin, 49 (2). Christopher-Gordon. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 18. Using Informational Books - 18Duke, N.K. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informational Pappas, C. (1991). Fostering full access texts in first grade. Reading to literacy by including Research Quarterly, 35 (2), 202- information books. Language 224. Arts, 68, 449-462.Duthie, C. (1996). True stories: Saul, E.W. (Ed.) (1994). Nonfiction for Nonfiction literacy in the primary the classroom. New York: classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse. Teachers College Press.Fisher, M. (1972). Matters of fact: Short, K.G., & Armstrong, J. (1993). Aspects of non-fiction for Moving toward inquiry: children. New York: Crowell. Integrating literature into the science curriculum. NewFreeman, E.B., & Person, D.G. (1992). Advocate, 6 (3), 183-199. Using nonfiction trade books in the elementary classroom: From Smith, M.W., & Wilhelm, J.D. (2002). Ants to Zeppelins. Urbana, IL: Reading don’t fix no Chevy’s: National Council of Teachers of Literacy in the lives of young English. men. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Graves, D.H. (1989). Investigate nonfiction. Portsmouth, NH: Teale, W.H. (Ed.) (1991). Nonfiction, Heinemann. language learning, and language teaching. Language Arts, 68 (6).Harvey, S. (1998). Nonfiction matters: Reading, writing, and research in NONFICTION BOOKS AVAILABLE grades 3-8. York, ME: Stenhouse. FROM RED BRICK LEARNINGKobrin, B. (1988). Eye-openers! How to Beers, B. (2002). Everyone Uses Math. choose and use children’s books about real people, places, and Coughlan, C. (1999). Ants. things. New York: Penguin.McElmeel, S.L. (1995). Great new Coughlan, C. (1999). Grasshoppers. nonfiction reads. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Coughlan, C. (1999). Ladybugs.Meltzer, M. (1976). Where do all the Curry, D.L. (2001). How Things Move. prizes go? The case for nonfiction. Hornbook, 52, 17-23. Dahl, M. (1997). Mexico.Moss. B., Leone, S., & DiPillo, M.L. Davis, L. (1998). Cesar Chavez. (1997). Exploring the literature of fact: Linking reading and writing Davis, L. (1998). Susan B. Anthony. through information trade books. Language Arts, 74, 418-429. Deedrick, T. (1998). Zoo Keepers. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 19. Using Informational Books - 19 McAuliffe, B. (1998). Chief Joseph of theDoeden, M. (2001). Mountaineering Nez Perce. Adventures. McLoone, M. (1997). Booker T.Ecker, D. (2001). People Work. Washington.Franco, B. (2002). Many Ways to 100. McLoone, M. (1997). Harriet Tubman.Franco, B. (2002). Time to Estimate. Molzahn, A.B. (2001). Kevin Garnett.Frost, H. (2000). Drinking Water. Potts, S. (1997). The Grizzly Bear.Frost, H. (2000). Keeping Water Clean. Ready, D. (1997). Veterinarians.Frost, H. (2000). Smelling. Richardson, A.D. (2001). Rain Forests.Frost, H. (2000). The Water Cycle. Richardson, A.D. (2001). Wetlands.Frost, H. (2000). Water as a Gas. Ross, P. (1999). The Pueblo Indians.Frost, H. (2000). Water as a Liquid. Saunders-Smith, G. (1998). Clouds.Frost, H. (2000). Water as a Solid. Saunders-Smith, G. (1998). The Doctor’s Office.Frost, H. (2000). We Need Water. Schaefer, L.M. (2000). Henry Ford.Giganti, Jr., P. (2002). Counting Many Ways. Schaefer, L.M. (2000). Robert Fulton.Graves, K.A. (2001). The Civil War. Schaefer, L.M. (2002). Robert Goddard.Heath, D. (1999). Elections in the United Schaefer, L.M. (2001). Some Kids Are States. Blind.Linder, G. (1999). Alexander Graham Schaefer, L.M. (2000). The Wright Bell. Brothers.Linder, G. (1999). Thomas Edison. Schaefer, L.M. (2000). Vibrations.Lund, B. (1996). Rock Climbing. Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Dentists.Lund, B. (1997). The Iroquois Indians. Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Doctors. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved
  • 20. Using Informational Books - 20Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Farmers.Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Mail Carriers.Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Nurses.Schaefer, L.M. (2000). We Need Veterinarians.Todd, A.M. (2002). Caving Adventures.Trumbauer, L. (2001). Everyone is a Scientist.Tucker, S. & Rambo, J. (2002). Looking at Shapes.Wallner, R. (2001). Sheryl Swoopes.Wilkins, S. (2001). Deserts.Wilkins, S. (2001). Grasslands. ©Red Brick Learning, 2002 All Rights Reserved