The 14th Amendment<br />From states’ rights toequal protection under the law<br />
James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />
James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />Wanted to protect against state action<br />
James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />Wanted to protect against state action<br />Failure to do so was a huge ...
Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />
Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />Said states could nullify unconstitutional federal laws<br />
Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />Said states could nullify unconstitutional federal laws<br />Sta...
Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />
Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />Constitutional law must trump...
Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />Constitutional law must trump...
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />Sup...
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />Sup...
Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />
Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />15th Amendment granted voting rights<br />
Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />15th Amendment granted voting rights<br />14th Amendm...
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />Justice Brown ruled there was no issue involving the 14th Amendme...
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />Justice Brown ruled there was no issue involving the 14th Amendme...
Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />
Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall (right) represented de...
Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall (right) represented de...
Gitlow v. New York (1925)<br />Gitlow (left) loses, but Justice Sanford paves the way for future victories<br />
Gitlow v. New York (1925)<br />Gitlow (left) loses, but Justice Sanford paves the way for future victories<br />The 14th A...
Justice Sanford<br />	“[W]e may and do assume that freedom of speech and of the press … are … protected by the due process...
Justice Holmes<br />“The great principle of free speech, it seems to me, must be taken to be included in the Fourteenth Am...
Justice Holmes<br />“The great principle of free speech, it seems to me, must be taken to be included in the Fourteenth Am...
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The 14th Amendment

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From states' rights to equal protection under the law.

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The 14th Amendment

  1. 1. The 14th Amendment<br />From states’ rights toequal protection under the law<br />
  2. 2. James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />
  3. 3. James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />Wanted to protect against state action<br />
  4. 4. James Madison<br />Wrote the First Amendment<br />Wanted to protect against state action<br />Failure to do so was a huge setback <br />
  5. 5. Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />
  6. 6. Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />Said states could nullify unconstitutional federal laws<br />
  7. 7. Thomas Jefferson<br />Wrote the Kentucky Resolutions<br />Said states could nullify unconstitutional federal laws<br />States’ rights also used to defend slavery<br />
  8. 8. Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />
  9. 9. Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />Constitutional law must trump laws passed by Congress<br />
  10. 10. Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />John Marshall (left) established idea of judicial review<br />Constitutional law must trump laws passed by Congress<br />No one seriously questions the Court’s role today<br />
  11. 11. Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />
  12. 12. Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />Supreme Court, under Justice Marshall, said the U.S. Constitution can’t be applied to state laws<br />
  13. 13. Barron v. Baltimore (1833)<br />Barron sought redress under the “just compensation” clause of the Fifth Amendment<br />Supreme Court, under Justice Marshall, said the U.S. Constitution can’t be applied to state laws<br />A major boost for states’ rights<br />
  14. 14. Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />
  15. 15. Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />15th Amendment granted voting rights<br />
  16. 16. Post–Civil War amendments<br />13th Amendment abolished slavery<br />15th Amendment granted voting rights<br />14th Amendment, passed in 1868:<br />Citizens of the United States<br />“Due process” and “equal protection” cannot be abridged by the states<br />The United States becomes an it instead of a they — a union at last<br />
  17. 17. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />
  18. 18. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />Justice Brown ruled there was no issue involving the 14th Amendment<br />
  19. 19. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />“Separate but equal”<br />Justice Brown ruled there was no issue involving the 14th Amendment<br />Justice Harlan wrote a stirring dissent to Brown’s “pernicious” decision<br />
  20. 20. Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />
  21. 21. Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall (right) represented defendants<br />
  22. 22. Brown v. Board of Education(1954)<br />Ended separate but equal<br />NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall (right) represented defendants<br />Turned the promise of the 14th Amendment into reality<br />
  23. 23. Gitlow v. New York (1925)<br />Gitlow (left) loses, but Justice Sanford paves the way for future victories<br />
  24. 24. Gitlow v. New York (1925)<br />Gitlow (left) loses, but Justice Sanford paves the way for future victories<br />The 14th Amendment is incorporated into the First Amendment<br />
  25. 25. Justice Sanford<br /> “[W]e may and do assume that freedom of speech and of the press … are … protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the States.”<br />
  26. 26. Justice Holmes<br />“The great principle of free speech, it seems to me, must be taken to be included in the Fourteenth Amendment”<br />
  27. 27. Justice Holmes<br />“The great principle of free speech, it seems to me, must be taken to be included in the Fourteenth Amendment”<br />“Every idea is an incitement”<br />
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