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    Chapter 3 conceptual understanding alternative conceptions Chapter 3 conceptual understanding alternative conceptions Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 3. Learning Science With understanding
      SCED 570, Fall 2009
    • constructivism
      • Constructivist approach
      • Learning is a construction based on the learner’s prior knowledge
      • New knowledge is always based on the prior or existing knowledge that learners bring to learning situation
      • Construct knowledge with understanding in science
      • Knowledge: integrated, growing in completeness, transferred to a wide range of contexts and situations
      • Understanding develops gradually
    • Alternative conceptions (p. 70-)
      • Personal theories of learners does not match what is known to be scientifically correct
      (i.e. causes of the seasons)
      • Conceptual change comes when personal theories are challenged
      • Provide learners with opportunities to challenge inconsistencies between personal thinking and accepted science explanations
      • Requires a reorganization of thinking and links
    • Alternative conceptions (p. 72-75)
      • Conceptual change 4 steps (Anderson, 1987):
      • Identify alternative conceptions
      • Promote dissatisfaction with alternative conceptions (discrepant events)
      • Share science conceptions
      • Provide for transfer of new conceptions
      • Inquiry approach to science is compatible with building conceptual change
    • Enhancing the understanding of science
      (p. 64-69)
      1. Provide for access to prior knowledge
      • Help students recall what they already know
      • abstract representation of knowledge (more concepts & principles rather than facts) promotes greater access and transfer
      2. Provide for transfer of new knowledge
      • Use of previous learned knowledge in new situations
      • Assessment: framework
      3. Enhance knowledge organization
      • Useful knowledge is organized into connected networks called knowledge structures
      • Graphic organizers – outlines, Venn diagrams, concept maps
    • Concept map
      • A visual representation of a major concept and its relationship to subsidiary concepts (Joseph Novak, 1995)
      • Structure: concepts, propositions, words linking, hierarchical structure, cross-links, examples
    • FORMS
      OF
      WATER
      GAS
      SOLID
      LIQUID
      WATER
      VAPOR
      FROST
      STEAM
      SNOW
      ICE
      RAIN
      CLOUD
      DEW
      FOG
      MIST
      Concept map
    • Venn diagram
    • Enhancing the understanding of science (cont.)
      4. Provide Scaffolding Support
      • Scaffolding – external support provided by teachers that helps students complete tasks.
      • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) – Vygotsky’s idea that what can be learned cooperatively can then be done individually.
      • Teacher provides suggestions, questions, prompts, hints
      • Students clarify, elaborate, provide evidence
      • What other factors should teachers consider in scaffolding instruction?
    • Enhancing the understanding of science (cont.)
      5. Build Learning Communities
      • Cooperative learning results in higher learning than individual
      • Teachers:
      • establish the learning environment
      • Make learner ideas more meaningful through comment, elaboration, questioning
      • Promote dialogue amongst learners