Group Dynamics zenithBy group D.K.D. Madhubhashini K. Sujeevakanthan K.P.W.A.S.B Kaduwela H.M. Madhumathi K.Haluwana K.D.D.U.S.B. Amarathunga Aroshi S. Tennekoon A.M.S.B. Abeysekara U.P. Wijewardane on 14th January 2012
What is a “Group”? Two or more people who share a common definition andevaluation of themselves and behave in accordance with such adefinition.(Vaughan & Hogg, 2002, p. 200)
Two or more Who see them selves People as group members GroupShare common goals Inter act with each other
Groups Vs Teams All teams are Groups but not all groups are teams Skills in team is a force of together “Less me more Us” Team have individual tasks and Responsibility link to the task. A team have a positive synergy 1+1<2
Classification of Groups Groups Formal Informal Command Tasks Interest Friendship groups groups groups groups
Formal GroupsStructured to perform specific tasksCommand GroupsGroups that are determined by the organization chart and composed ofindividuals who report directly to a given managerTasks GroupsGroups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specificjob task ; their existence is often temporary because once the task iscompleted, the group disbands.
Informal GroupsCreated by workers to meet their needs.Friendship GroupsMade up of employees who enjoys each other’s company.satisfy the need for human interaction and social support.Interest GroupsWorkers seek to achieve a common goal based on their membership in thenorganization.managers should observe interest groups to learn whatemployees see as
Reasons for Joining GroupsSecurityStatusSelf –EsteemAffiliationPowerGoal Achievement
Members join & begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure & leadership.
StormingConflict & confrontation(disagreements) Intra group conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group & disagree over lead. .
Norming Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive & establishes its norms for acceptable behavior.
Performing Group fully functional Devoted to task at hand Mutual assistance Creativity Understanding goals & roles (Independence)
Adjourning(End of group / new modified group)The group prepares to disband & is no longer concerned with highlevels of performance.
Dynamics of a group Composition Size Status Group Dynamics Leadership Roles Cohesiveness Norms
Dynamics of a groupComposition Factor that determines the efficiency of collaborative learning is the composition of the group. Most intensive variable is the heterogeneity of the groups. Underlying Types of diversity Attributes Age Information Gender Knowledge Intelligence Creativity Race Values Ethnicity Skills
Dynamics of a groupSize Smaller group – Cohesion develops more quickly. Productive For completion of a particular task Larger group – more effective for problem solving. Social loafing effect can be occur. ( more numbers can lead to less individual effort and individual becomes a free rider)
Dynamics of a groupRoles Group roles are largely determined by a combination of aperson’s personality and his or her experience with group settingsAssigned roles- chairmen , secretary , manager, treasurerEmergent roles- confidant , group joker , gossiper , mentor
Dynamics of a groupNorms stands behavior Acceptable What should/should not to doCommon classes of norms….. Performance ppearance Social arrangement Allocation of resourceWhy…… Group survival Measure predictability of members behavior Reduce embarrassing
Dynamics of a groupCohesiveness Forming united whole Degree of motivated to remain in groupDepend on….. Interpersonal attraction Record of high performance in past Competition with other groups
Introduction: George Elton Mayo whos known as the founder of “HumanRelations Movement” has mentioned in his book, “The HumanProblems of an Industrialized Civilization” the importance of GroupBehavior and its benefit towards an Organization. When it comes to Group Behavior, the Conditions Effecting GroupBehavior is an important aspect, which it could be divided as, External (organizational) conditions Internal Group variables
Conditions Effecting GroupBehaviorExternal (organizational) Conditions Internal Group Variables •Overall strategy •Individual competencies and traits •Authority structures of members •Formal regulations •Group structure •Available organizational resources •Employee selection criteria •Size of the group •Organizational culture •General physical layout •Internal pressure on members to conform or the group’s norms •Personal selection processes •Performance evaluation and reward systems
Group decision In this path Introduction about group decision process…. Method of decision making…… Advantages of group decision making…… Disadvantages of group decision making……
Group decision A complex process…………………………. Require opinions from others………… On the process of decision making there are several methods…. A. Authoritarian Style like a dictatorship Decision rest in the hand of the power full person…..
B. Brainstorming Excellent method Get the decision on consensusc. Voting Based Method Can you remember Voting Based Method????
Generate more complete information and knowledge... Generate more diverse alternatives….. Increases acceptance of a solution…… Increases legitimacy of decision…. Time consuming……. Minority domination….. Pressure to conform……
Summary What is a group Difference between a group and a team Types of groups Reasons of joining groups Tuchman’s five theory of group development Dynamics of groups Conditions effecting group behavior Group decisions