FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS IN SUN MATCH CO (PVT) LTD

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FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS IN SUN MATCH CO (PVT) LTD

  1. 1. FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS IN SUN MATCH CO (PVT) LTD Submitted to National Institute of Business management A Project by Madhubhashini D K D Advance Certificate Level of Human Resources Management September, 2011
  2. 2. AcknowledgementI consider it is a great privilege to thank all those people who helped me to complete this project work. Iexpress my sincere thanks to the management of National Institute of Business Management-Kandybranch and my project guide Miss ShamalkaM.Uduwellafor giving me this opportunity to commence theproject work and guidance do so.I express my profound thanks to, Mr.Karunakaran Corporate Manager,Mr.B.D.RRajan ManagingDirector,Sun Match Company Limited, Bamunupolawatte, Kundasale, Srilanka; for giving me valuableassistance and guidance and sparing valuable time in clarifying various points raised by me.At for last not for least like to thank my parents who gave me a great deal of helping hand to make thisproject a success.D.K.D.Madhubhashini 1
  3. 3. AbstractHuman resource management defined in A handbook of human resource management practice byMichael Armstrong as „A strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s mostvalued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievementof its objectives.’ with key functions of organizing, resourcing, human resource planning, rewardmanagement and employee relations.The project report is about recruitment and selection process that‟s an important part of any organizationcoming under resourcing. Human Resource which is considered as a necessary asset of a companyshould assign after a thorough inspection unless the wastage will be high in organization premises. Infact, recruitment and selection gives a home ground to the organization acumen that is needed for properfunctioning of the organization. It gives an organizational structure of the company. It‟s a methodologyin which the particular organization works and how a new candidate could be recruited in such a waythat he/she would be fitted for the right kind of career. There are two types of factors that affect theRecruitment of candidates for the company  Internal factors  External factorsThe objective of selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform thejob from the pool of qualified candidates. Selection process or activities typically follow a standardpatter, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with final employment decision.So in this project there is the theoretical knowledge of how Recruitment and Selection processcommence and the application of that theory the Sun Co (PVT) Limit. Introduction of Sun matches CoPresent Functions of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd, Quality Policy of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd HumanResources Policy in Recruitment and Selection Process, and Data analysis are being included to get thatknowledge. 2
  4. 4. Table of ContentsAcknowledgement ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1Abstract ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5Chapter 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 What is Human Resource Management?................................................................................................................................ 6 Introduction to Human Recruitment and Selection process ................................................................................................... 6 What is Human Resource Planning? ................................................................................................................................... 7 Important of Human Resource Planning ............................................................................................................................ 7 What is Job Analysis? .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Recruiting .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Purpose and Importance .................................................................................................................................................. 13 Attracting recruits ............................................................................................................................................................. 14 Factors considering setting recruitment plan. .................................................................................................................. 15 Factors Affecting Recruitment .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Sources for Recruiting ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 Selection ................................................................................................................................................................................ 24 Selection Process .............................................................................................................................................................. 25 Difference between Recruitment and Selection ................................................................................................................ 25 Steps in selection .............................................................................................................................................................. 26 Selection techniques ......................................................................................................................................................... 26Chapter 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Introduction of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd ............................................................................................................................ 32 Present Functions of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd ................................................................................................................... 33 Quality Policy of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd ...................................................................................................................... 33 Human Resources Policy in Recruitment and Selection Process ...................................................................................... 33 Data analysis ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Suggestions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................................. 40References ................................................................................................................................................................................. 41Annexes ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 INTERVIEW RESPONSE FORM ................................................................................................................................................ 42 3
  5. 5. List of FiguresFIGURE 1- HRM RESOURCING PROCESS ...................................................................................................... 7FIGURE 2-IMPORTANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 8FIGURE 3-EXAMPLE FOR JOB DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................... 10FIGURE 4-EXAMPLE FOR JOB SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................. 12FIGURE 5-SELECTION PROCESS .................................................................................................................. 26FIGURE 6-EXAMPLE JOB APPLICATION ...................................................................................................... 27FIGURE 7-ROAD MAP TO THE COMPANY ..................................................................................................... 32FIGURE 8-QUALITY POLICY ....................................................................................................................... 33 4
  6. 6. List of TablesTABLE 1- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT ............................................ 24TABLE 2-ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT ............................................ 24TABLE 3-DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION .............................................................. 25 5
  7. 7. Chapter 1What is Human Resource Management?As Michael Armstrong define HRM is „A strategic and coherent approach to the management of anorganization‟s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectivelycontribute to the achievement of its objectives.‟HRM is a management function that helps organization to recruit, select, train, develop and manage itsmembers. Simply stated, HRM is all about management of people in the organization from Recruitmentto Retirement. HRM refers to set of programs, functions, and activities designed and carried out in orderto maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness. Recruitment and selection is just subfunctions of Human Resource Management which comes under Resourcing a keyfunction of HRM.Introduction to Human Recruitment and Selection process“The number and categories of people required should be specified in the recruitment. Program which isderived from Human resource plan…” (A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practicepage409- 410)People are integral part of any organization today. No organization can run without its human resources.In today‟s highly complex and competitive situation, choice of right person at the right place has farreaching implications for an organization‟s functioning. Employee well selected and well placed wouldnot only contribute to the efficient running of the organization but offer significant potential for futurereplacement. This hiring is an important function. The process of hiring begins with human resourceplanning (HRP) which helps to determine the number and type of people on organization needs. Jobanalysis and job design enables to specify the task and duties of hobs and qualification expected fromprospective job HRP, job analysis, hob design helps to identify the kind of people required in anorganization and hence hiring. It should be noted that hiring is an ongoing process and not confined toformative stages of an organization. Employees leave the organization in search of greener pastures,some retire and some die in the saddle. More importantly an enterprises grows, diversifies, take over theother units all necessitating hiring of new men and women. In fact the resourcing function stops onlywhen the organization ceases to exist.Resourcing involves two board activities:- i) Recruitmentii)Selection 6
  8. 8. What is Human Resource Planning? “Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number of people, at the right place and at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization to achieve its overall strategic objective” Decenzo and Robbins have define HRP as such. And the simplified meaning of the Human Resource Planning is the process of filling the gap between the future human resource supply forecast and human resource demand forecast in the least time, money, effort consuming way. Important of Human Resource Planning Minimizing the risk of over recruiting Facilitates in budget allocation for various Human Resource activities including Training and development Linking business strategy to the Human resource strategy To minimize risks resulting from the environment uncertainties To identify possible internal candidates for positions arising in the future And by below you can understand the link between HRP and Recruitment and selecting process AccessOrganization Establish Human current HR Recruitment corporate goals Resource needs- and selection Mission and objective Planning Job analysis Figure 1- HRM Resourcing process 7
  9. 9. What is Job Analysis?“Job Analysis is a process of collecting and studying the information relating to operations andresponsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are „Job Description‟ and „JobSpecifications‟.”It is a basic technical procedure that is used to define duties and responsibilities and accountabilities ofthe job.Purpose of Job Analysis Human Resource Planning (HRP) : Job analysis helps in determining staffing needs, type, quality and quantity. Recruitment & Selection: Knowing the staffing needs is essential for Recruitment and Selection – Right person for each job. Sourcing of recruits also becomes easy and cost effective Training & Development : Job analysis is the key to determining Training and Development programs. Job Evaluation : Job evaluation means determination of relative worth of each job for the purpose of establishing wage and salary. This is possible with the help of job description and specifications; i.e. Job Analysis. Remuneration:Job analysis also helps in determining wage and salary for the jobs. Performance Appraisal : Job analysis helps in fixing the bench marks of performance standards which in turn help in objective Performance appraisal, rewards, promotions, etc. Safety &Health: Job Analysis helps to uncover hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors so that corrective measures can be taken to minimize and avoid possibility of human injury. Human Resource planning. Selection process Performance appraisal Job analysis Training & development Basis line management function Compensation Figure 2-Importance of Job analysis (International Students Edition Managing Human Resource Edition 13page 156) 8
  10. 10. Job descriptionIt is the lists the and tasks, duties and responsibilities for a particular job and specifies the major jobelements, provides examples of job tasks, and provides some indication of the relative importance in theeffective conduct of the job.Job description is a word picture of the duties, responsibilities andorganizational relationships that constitutes a given job or position. It defines work assignment and ascope of responsibility that are sufficiently different from those of the other jobs to warrant a specifictitle. Job description is a broad statement of purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particularjob.Contents of Job Description1. Job Identification2. Job Summary3. Job Duties and Responsibilities4. Supervision specification5. Machines, tools and materials6. Work conditions7. Work hazards8. Definition of unusual termsFormat of Job Description1. Job Title2. Region/Location3. Department4. Reporting to (Operational and Managerial)5. Objective6. Principal duties and responsibilities 9
  11. 11. Following is an example for a job description. Figure 3-Example for Job Description 10
  12. 12. Job/Personal specificationThis focuses on the individual who will perform the job and indicates the knowledge abilities, skills andother characteristics that an individual must have to be able to perform the job.In other words, it is a statement of minimum acceptable physical/psychological attributes andprofessional skills necessary to perform the job properly. Job specifications seek to indicate kind ofpersons who can be expected to meet the role requirements. Thus, it is basically concerned with mattersof selection, screening and placement and is intended to serve as a guide in hiring.Contents of Job Specifications1. Physical Characteristics2. Psychological characteristics3. Personal characteristics4. Educational Qualifications5. Skill Set and Experience/Responsibilities6. Demographic features 11
  13. 13. Following is an example for a job specification Figure 4-Example for Job Specification 12
  14. 14. Recruiting“Is the process of developing a pool of qualified applicants who are interested in working for theorganization and from which the organization might reasonably. Select the best individual or individualsto hire for a job.” (International Students Edition Managing Human Resource Edition 13 page 183)The word „recruitment‟ has many meaning and plays an important role. Employees leave theorganization in search of greener pastures- some retire some die in saddle. The most important thing isthat enterprise grows, diversifies, and takes over other units-all necessitating hiring of new men andwomen. In fact recruitment functions stop only when the organization ceases to exist. To understandrecruitment in simple terms it is understood as process of searching for obtaining applications of jobfrom among from which the right people can be selected. To define recruitment we can define itformally as it is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The processbegins when new recruit are sought and ends when their application are submitted. The result is a poolof applicants from which new employees are selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to endwith receipt of application in practice the activity extends to the screening applicants as to eliminatethose who are not qualified for job.Purpose and ImportanceThe general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates.Specifically, the purposes are to:1. Determine the present and future requirement of the organization in conjunction with its personnelplanning and job analysis activities;2. Increase the job pool of job candidates at minimum cost;3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number visibly under qualifiedor job application;4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited selected, will leave the organizationonly after a short period of time;5. Meet the organizations legal and social obligation regarding the composition of its workforce;6. Being identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates;7. Increase organization individual effectiveness in the short term and long term;8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting technique and sources for all types of job applicants. 13
  15. 15. Attracting recruits“Attracting candidates is primarily a matter of identifying, evaluating and using the most appropriatesources of applicants. However, in cases where difficulties in attracting or retaining candidates are beingmet or anticipated, it may be necessary to carry out a preliminary study of the factors that are likely toattract or repel candidates – the strengths and weaknesses of the organization as an employer.”To select that kind of individual attraction needed. Ways of attracting right person for the correct job  Walk-ins  Recruitment brand development  Employer website  Recruitment microsites  National media  Local media  Specialist media  Lifestyle magazines  Radio commercials  Billboards  Candidate referral and network schemes  Online resume databases  E- recruitment  Word of mouth  Regional job boards  National job boards  Generic job boards  Specialist/niche job boards  Lifestyle websites  Websites of professional bodies and institutions  Pay per click campaigns  Generalist recruiters  Specialist recruiters and head hunters  Internal market optimization  Good Leaver schemes 14
  16. 16. Attraction strategies  Communications and promotions (increasing awareness): Design and develop presentation “deck "for use at career fairs and community outreach presentations. Creating relationship between possible candidate pool.  Design, develop and implement promotional materials, like executive recruitment brochure and career advertisements.  Design, develop and implement a corporate careers website to provide information about career opportunities, culture for employees and the public  Corporate employee orientation (welcoming culture): Design, develop, and implement a corporate employee orientation program for employeesFactors considering setting recruitment plan.  Cost  Time taken  Labor market  Mobility of labor  Legislation on gender, race, disability discriminationFactors Affecting RecruitmentThere are a number of factors that affect recruitment. These are broadly classified into two categories: 1. Internal factors 2. External factors 15
  17. 17. Internal FactorsThe internal factors also called as “endogenous factors” are the factors within the organization thataffect recruiting personnel in the organization.Such asSize of the organizationThe size of the organization affects the recruitment process. Larger organization finds recruitment lessproblematic than organization with smaller in size.Recruiting policyThe recruitment policy of the organization eg:recruiting from internal sources and external sources alsoaffect the recruitment process. Generally, recruitment through internal sources is preferred, because ownemployees know the organization and they can well fit in to the organization culture.Image of the organizationImage of the organization is another factor having its influence on the recruitment process of theorganization. Good image of the organization earned by the number of overt and covert action bymanagement helps attract potential and complete candidates. Managerial actions like good publicrelations, rendering public service like building roads, public parks, hospitals and schools help earnimage or goodwill for organization. That is why chip companies attract the larger numbers ofapplication.Image of the jobBetter remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of a job.Besides, promotion and carrier development policies of organization also attract potential candidates. 16
  18. 18. External FactorsLike internal factors, there are some factors external to organization, which have their influence onrecruitment process. Some of these are given belowRecruitment PolicyEvery company adopts a uniform method of resourcing staff some may direct on internal recruitingmethod while some focuses on external recruitment. In meanwhile in some organizations it depend onthe situation, job and HRP.Demographic factorsAs demographics factors are intimately related to human beings, .eg: employees, these have profoundinfluence on recruitment process. Demographic factors include age, sex, Literacy, economics status etcLabor marketLabor market condition like supply and demand of labor is of particular importance in affectingrecruitment process. E.g. if the demand for specific skill is high relative to its supply is more than forparticular skill, recruitment will be relatively easier.Unemployment situationThe rate of unemployment is yet another external factor its influence on the recruitment process. Whenthe employment rate in an area is high, the recruitment process tends to simpler. The reason is notdifficult to seek. The number of application is expectedly very high which makes easier to attract thebest-qualified applications. The reserve is also true. With low rate of unemployment, recruiting processtend to become difficult. 17
  19. 19. Growth and Expansion PlansThis means organizational over roll strategy matter when the resourcing recruits. If they need new bloodto make innovations they recruit form outside or else they need to keep market secrets long term recruitinternally.Labor lawsThere are several labor laws and regulations passed by the provisional and district governments thatgovern different type of employment. These cover working condition, compensation, retirementbenefits, safety and health of employee in industrial undertakings.  Shop and Office Act no 19 of 1954  Industrial Disputes Act  Wages Board Ordinance  Workmen‟s Compensation Ordinance  Trade Union OrdinanceLegal considerationAnother external factor is legal consideration with regard to employment reservation of jobs forschedule communities, and other backward class (OBC) is the popular examples of such legalconsideration. 18
  20. 20. Sources for RecruitingOne fundamental decision that organization must make as part of its recruiting strategy is whether tofocus recruiting efforts internally or externally. Both internal and external recruiting methods have ownadvantages and disadvantages.Internal SourceRecruitment lies within the organization is called internal sources. The main ones are listed as follows:Job postingIs a mechanism for internal recruiting in which vacancies in theorganization are publicized throughvarious media such as company newsletters, bulletin boards, internal memos, and the firm‟s intranet.Present employeesPromotions and transfer from among the present employees can be good sources of recruitment.Promotion implies upgrading of an employee to a higher position carrying higher status, pay andresponsibilities. Promotion from among the present employees is advantageous because the employeespromoted are well acquainted with the organization culture, they get motivated and it is cheaper also.Promotion from among the person employees also reduces the requirement of job training. However, thedisadvantage lies in limiting the choice of the few people and denying hiring of outsiders who may bebetter qualified and skilled. Furthermore, promotion from among present employees also results ininbreeding, which creates frustration among those not promoted. Transfer refers to shifting an employeefrom one job to another without any change in the position/post, status and responsibilities. The need fortransfer is felt to provide employees a broader and carried base, which is considered necessary forpromotion. Job rotation involves transfer of employees from one job to another job on the lateral basis.Former employees:Former employees are another source of applicant for vacancies to be filled up in the organization.Retired or retrenched employees may be interested to e come back the company to work on the part timebasis. Similarly, some former employees who had left the organization for any reason, any come back towork. This source has the advantages of hiring people whose performance is already known to theorganization. 19
  21. 21. Employee referrals:This is yet another internal source of recruitment. The existing employees refer to the family members,friends and relatives to the company potential candidates for the vacancies to be filled up in theorganization. This source serves as the most effective methods of recruiting people in the organizationsbecause refer to those potential candidates who meet the company requirement known to them fromtheir own experience. The referred individuals are expected to be similar in type in the of race and sex,for example, to those who are already working in the organizationPrevious applicant:This is considered as internal source in the sense that applications from the potential candidates arealready lying with organization. Sometimes the organization contacts though mail or messengers theseapplicants to fill up the vacancies particularly for unskilled or semiskilled jobs.Union through assigningThis method is particularly common in organizations that have strong and well-established unions.Indeed the union contract itself may specify that union members be accorded the opportunity to applyfor new position on a priority basis. The mechanics of this approach may parallel those of job posting,along with application procedures and this information is made available to union members throughvarious channels like newsletters, bulletin boards. 20
  22. 22. External SourcesExternal sources of recruitment lie outside the organization. These outnumber internal sources. Themain ones are listed as follows:Employment exchanges:The main functions of these employment exchanges with the branches in most cities are registration ofjob seeker and tier placement in the notified vacancies. It is obligatory for employer to inform about theoutcome of selection within 15 days to the employment exchange. Employment exchange is particularlyuseful in recruiting blue-collar, white- collar and technical workers.Employment agencies:In addition to the government agencies, there are number of private agencies that the register candidatesfor employment and furnish a list of suitable candidates from the data bank as and when sought by theprospective employer. Generally, these agencies select personnel for supervisory and the higher levels.The main function of these agencies is to invite application and short-list the suitable candidates for theorganization. Of course, the representative of the organization takes the final decision on selection. Theemployer organizations derive several advantages through this source. The time saved in this methodcan be better utilized elsewhere by the organization. As the organizational identity remains unknown tothe job speakers, it, thus, avoid receiving letters and attempts to influence.Professional AssociationsVery often, recruitment for certain professional and technical positions is made throughprofessionals association also called ‘Headhunters’. Instituteof Chartered Accountants , etc.,provide placement service to the members. The professional associations prepare either list ofjobseekers or publish or sponsor journal or magazines containing advertisements for theirmember. It is particularly useful for attracting highly skilled and professional personnel.E-recruitmentE-recruitment or online recruitment uses web-based tools such as a firm‟s public internet site or its ownintranet to recruit staff. The processes of e-recruitment consist of attracting, screening and trackingapplicants, selecting, and offering jobs or rejecting candidates 21
  23. 23. Advertisement:This method of recruitment can be used for jobs like clerical, technical, and managerial. The higher theposition in the organization, the more specialized the skills or the shorter the supply of that resources inthe labor market, the more widely dispersed the advertisement are likely to be. Someemployers/companies advertise their post by giving them post box number of the name of somerecruiting agency. This is done to particular keep own identity secret to avoid unnecessarycorrespondence with the applicants. However the disadvantage of these blind advertisementAdvertising is the most obvious method of attracting candidates. Nevertheless, the first question to ask iswhether an advertisement is really justified. This means looking at the alternative sources mentionedabove and confirming, preferably on thebasis of experience, that they will not do. Consideration shouldbe given as to whether it might be better to use an agency or a selection consultant. The advertisementcopy should be prepared by using a four-point guide called AIDA. The letters in the acronym denote thatadvertisement should attract Attention, gain Interest, arouse a Desire and result in action. When makingthe choice, refer to the three criteria of cost, speed and the likelihood of providing good candidates. Theobjectives of an advertisement should be to:  Attract attention – it must compete for the interest of potential candidates against other employers;  Create and maintain interest – it has to communicate in an attractive and interesting way information about the job, the company, the terms and conditions of employment and the qualifications required;  Stimulate action – the message needs to be conveyed in a manner that will not only focus people‟s eyes on the advertisement but also encourage them to read to the end, as well as prompt a sufficient number of replies from good candidates.A recruitment advertisement should start with a compelling headline and then contain information on:●The Organization;●The Job;●The Person Required – Qualifications, Experience Etc;●The Pay and Benefits Offered;●The Location;●The action to be taken. 22
  24. 24. Campus RecruitmentThis is another source of recruitment. Though campus recruitment is a common phenomenon inSrilankahave started visiting educational and training institute/ campuses for recruitmentpurposes. Many Institutes have regular placement offices to serve liaison between the employer andthe students.The method of campus recruitment offers certain advantages to the employer organizations. First, themost of the candidates are available at one place; second, the interviews are arranged at shortnotice; third, the teaching is also met; fourth, it gives them opportunity to sell theorganization to a large students body who would be graduating subsequently. The disadvantagesof this of recruitment are that organizations have to limit their selection to only “entry’’positions and they interview the candidates who have similar education and experience, if at all.DeputationAnother source of recruitment is deputation such sending an employees to another organizationfor the short duration of two to three years. This method of recruitment is practice in a prettymanner, in the Government department and public sector organization does not have to incurredthe initial cast of induction and trainingWord-of-mouth:In this method , the word is passed around the vacancies or opening in the organization. Anotherform of word-of-mouth method of “employee-pinching’’ like the employee working in anotherorganization is offered by the rival organization.The advantage of this method is no cost involved in recruitment. However, the disadvantages of thismethod of recruitment are non- availability of the candidates when needed choice of candidates isrestricted to a too small number.Walk-insThis means direct applicants who seek employment with or without encouragement from other source. Ifthere isn‟t suitable position for them they are been added to pool of candidates for future reference. 23
  25. 25. Alternative ways  Leasing employees  Overtime  Part time workers  Temporally workers  Out sourcingAdvantages and Disadvantages of Sources of Recruiting INTERNAL RECRUITMENT Advantages Disadvantages1. Less Costly 1. Old concept of doing things2. Candidates already oriented towards 2. It abets raiding organization 3. Candidates current work may be3. Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Politics play greater roles4. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. Table 1- Advantages and Disadvantages of internal recruitment EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT Advantages Disadvantages1. Benefits of new skills, talents and Ideas 1. Better morale and motivation2. Benefits of new experiences associated with internal recruiting is3. Compliance with reservation policy denied becomes easy 2. It is costly method4. Scope for resentment, jealousies, and 3. Chances of creeping in false positive heartburn are avoided. and false negative errors 4. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Table 2-Advantages and Disadvantages of external recruitmentSelectionSelection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualification to fill jobs in anorganization. Can also say selection is the process of picking up individuals (out of the pool of job 24
  26. 26. applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. A formaldefinition of Selection is as under:Selection ProcessConcerned with identify the best candidates or candidates for job form among the pool of qualifiedapplicants developed during recruiting process.Difference between Recruitment and Selection Recruitment Selection1. Recruitment refers to the process of 1. Selection is concerned with picking up identifying and encouraging people the right candidates from a pool of with required qualifications to apply for applicants. job. 2. Selection on the other hand is negative2. Recruitment is said to be positive in its in its application in as much as it seeks approach as it seeks to attract as many to eliminate as many unqualified candidates as possible. applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates. Table 3-Difference between Recruitment and Selection 25
  27. 27. Steps in selection Selection Preliminary screening interview Completion of application or form if not done previously Employment tests Comprehensive interview Back ground investigation Final employment decision Figure 5-Selection processSelection techniquesApplication and back ground Checks“An employment application asks individuals for various bits of information pertaining to the personalbackgrounds” (International Students EditionManaging the Human Resources –Page221)Application forms set out the information on a candidate in a standardized format. They provide astructured basis for drawing up short lists, the interview itself and for the subsequent actions in offeringan appointment and in setting up personnel records. 26
  28. 28. An example of a form is Figure 6-Example Job ApplicationThe following suggestions have been made by Pioro and Baum (2005) on 27
  29. 29. How to use application forms more effectively:● Decide what the criteria for selection are and how these will be assessed by use of the applicationform.● Keep questions clear, relevant and non-discriminatory.●Ask for only the minimal personal details.● Widen your pool of applicants by offering different options and guidance for completing and viewingapplication forms.● Develop a consistent and effective sifting process.● Use a team of sifters from a range of backgrounds to represent the diversity of your candidates.Evaluation of Application FormsClinical method:In this method, all the information furnished by the applicant in the application form is analyzed andinferences are made about applicants personality.Weighted method:In this method, certain points or weights are assigned to each item in the application form. 28
  30. 30. Psychological TestingTest is defined as a systematic procedure for sampling human behaviorClassification of Tests on the Basis Of Human BehaviorAptitude or potential ability testSuch tests are widely used to measure the latent ability of a candidate to learn new jobs or skills.  Mental/Intelligence Test - measures and enables to know whether he or she has mental capacity to deal with new problems.  Mechanical Aptitude Test - measures the capacity of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical wok.  Psychometric tests – these tests measures a person‟s ability to do a specific jobAchievement testAlso known as proficiency tests they measure the skill, knowledge which is acquired as a result of atraining program and on the job experience they determine the admission feasibility of a candidate andmeasure what he/she is capable of doing.  Tests for measuring job knowledge – this type of test may be oral or written and administered to determine proficiency in operating computers and simple mechanical equipment.  Work sample tests – demand the administration of the actual job as a test. A typing test provides the material to be typed and notes the time taken and mistakes committed.Personality testsThese tests aim at measuring those basic make up or characteristics of an individual which are non-intellectual in their nature/ discover clues to an individual‟s value system, his emotional reactions andmaturity and motivation interest his ability to adjust himself to the illness of the everyday life and hiscapacity for interpersonal relations and self-image.Objective tests – it measures neurotic tendencies self-sufficiency dominance submission and self-confidence. These are scored objectively. They are written tests or personal discoverers. 29
  31. 31. Projective tests – it is a test in which a candidate is asked to project his own interpretation into certainstandard stimulus situation.Situation tests – these tests measures an applicant‟s reaction when he is placed in a peculiar situation hisability to undergo stress and his demonstration of ingenuity under pressure.Interest tests – these tests aim at finding out the types of work in which a candidate‟s likes and dislikesof the people of some occupation hobbies and recreational activities. They are useful in career guidanceand are assessed in the form of answers to a well prepared questionnaireInterviewsInterviews are a crucial part of the recruitment process for most organizations. Their purpose is to givethe selector a chance to assess the candidate and to demonstrate their abilities and personality, assessthem and to make sure the organization and position are right for the candidate. An interview is anattempt to secure maximum amount of information from candidate concerning his suitability for the jobunder consideration.The interview format can vary considerably and may include an assessment centre and/or tests. Thenumber of interviews also varies.  Chronological Interviews -These work chronologically through the candidate‟s life to date and are usually based on the CV or a completed application form.  Competency-Based Interviews -These are structured to reflect the competencies that an employer is seeking for a particular job (often detailed in the recruitment information). This is the most common type of interview for graduate positions today.  Technical Interviews - If a candidate has applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge (, at some stage in the selection process, that the candidate will be asked technical questions or have a separate technical interview to test his/her knowledge.Kinds of Interviews:1. One to one interview: in this type of interview one selector interviews one candidate alone.2. Informal interview: in this type there are discussions between the candidate and two or moreinterviewers.3. Panel of interviews: in these pre planned standard questions ranging overall aspects of the job areasked. They focus directly on elements of person specification. 30
  32. 32. 4. Direct planned interview: this interview is straight forward, face to face, question and answersituation intended to measure the candidate‟s knowledge and background.5. Indirect and direct interview: in this type of interview the interviewer refrains from asking directand specific questions but creates an atmosphere in which the interviewee feels free to talk and go intoany subject he considers important. The object of the interview is to determine what individual himselfconsiders of immediate concern, what he thinks about these problems, and how he conceives of his joband his organization.6. Structured interview: in this interview a series of questions which illuminates validated againstthe record of employees who have succeeded or failed on the job.7. Stress interview: in this interview the interviewer deliberately creates stress to see how anapplicant operates in stress situation. To induce stress, the interviewer responds to the applicant‟sanswers with anger, silence and criticism. This interview aims attesting the candidate‟s job behavior andlevel of withstanding during the period of stress and strain.8. Unstructured interview: in this type of interview, the candidate would be examined extensivelyin core areas of knowledge and skills of the job.Medical, Background Checks and EnquiriesOffers of appointment are subject to references and security checks and medical checking. Thereferences given in the candidate‟s application will be taken up and a security check will be conducted.Security checks can take a while if the candidate has lived abroad for any period of time.Final Selection DecisionThose individuals who perform successfully on the employment tests and the interviews, and are noteliminated by development of negative information on either the background investigation or physicalexamination are now considered to be eligible to receive an offer of employment. 31
  33. 33. Chapter 2Introduction of Sun matches Co (PVT)LtdLaunched in Sri Lanka in 1979, Sun Match Company Ltd has a collaboration agreement with the Indian-based Pioneer Group of Companies. The two state-of-the-art factories situated in Kundasale and Diganaprovide employment for 3000 persons, the company said in a statement.Sun Match Co (PVT)Ltd is a company that based on quality which received ISO 9001:2000 QMSCertification and also SLS quality standard. Excellence in manufacturing has enabled Sun MatchCompany to become the largest producer of promotional matches in Srilanka.It owns more than 50% ofthe industrial market and been awarded from Surya-Sinha logo as one of the leading local product. Thebrands are mostly local and hold a strong position in their respective markets. Figure 7-road map to the Company 32
  34. 34. Present Functions of Sun matches Co (PVT) LtdQuality Policy of Sun matches Co (PVT) Ltd Quality Policy We are committed to understand customers’ requirements and to meet those by production and selling consistently improvement the effectiveness of our quality management system. We are committed to develop the skills of our fellow employees to achieve excellence in our work. Figure 8-Quality PolicyHuman Resources Policy in Recruitment and Selection ProcessObjectivePurpose of the procedure is to hire the best qualified applicant for a position vacancy promoting a fullyefficient and consistent approach to meet the organization goal responsibility.ResponsibilitiesThe group co-ordinary 1. Secretary is responsible to ensure that the procedure is implemented it the organization effectively and to review the same as and when required. 2. All the division managers are responsible for implementing Human Resource procedure at the division level of the organization. 33
  35. 35. ProcedureWhen vacancies occur such vacancies should be advertise internally or externally with the approve ofthe managing director.The procedure is for recruitment of permanent/ temporally cadre excluding casual employment.Job VacancyThe occurrence of a vacancy in an opportunity to review the necessity for the post and its duties,responsibility and grade of a post have changed significantly the head of division must seekconfirmation from the Human Resource division of vacant position should fill the form HR/FM/01Job descriptionA job description is a document inresourcing process it should clearly and accurately set out duties andresponsibilities of the job and must include.  The job title  Division  Grade  Reporting to  Main duties and responsibilities  And special working conditionsJob SpecificationShould include the Knowledge, Skills, Experiences, Abilities and Expertise that are required toperform a job. It should drown up after the Job Description. Must include personal  Knowledge  Skills  Abilities  Experiences  Aptitudes 34
  36. 36. Attracting Recruits-method AdvertisingThis could be done both internally and externally. Internal advertise to the available position through e-mail and other means of communication. In the even suitable applicant is not found an externaladvertisement could be placed. An advertisement is written from job description and job specificationand should contain following.  Company name and logo  Title of vacancy  Brief details of the job  Key details of Job SpecificationInterviewSelecting Interview Panel  All interviews must be conduct by a panel  The preliminary interview will be held by a panel of members. Panel including Group Co- Ordinating Secretary, Management-Consultant and the Divisional Head of the vacant post. The same panel members should assist in the short listing process.  After the closing date, the interview panel will assess the applicants‟ suitability‟s and short list candidates for second/final interview  The preliminary interview panel should undertake the task of shortlisting decision based on evidence that the applicant has met the requirements of the job description and the job specification.  All shortlisted applications will be handed over to the Human Resource Division. 35
  37. 37. Arrangement for the interview1) All shortlisted applications should be offered an interview(through letters or telephone/e-mail)2) Human Resources Division will inform the reception to receive and direct the candidates to interview venue. Prior to the interview the Human Resources Division will ensure that all members of interview panel have, a) CV‟s of those shortlisted. b) Advertisement c) Job Description and Job Specification d) Salary scales e) Interview data sheet3) Also candidates informed following a) Forward original certificates b) Date, time and place their interview c) One Passport size photograph d) Instructions on how to find their way to the interview venue4) Those interviewed and founded suitable will be shortlisted by the preliminary interview panel and will called for the second/final interview venue.Final Interview  The final interview for the clerical grade upwards will be conducted with the participant of the Director/ Managing Director.  Director/Managing Director will participate in the selection of Sales Executives, Executives, Managing grades and professionals.  For grades below the clerical grades, selection will be done by the preliminary interview panel and shall obtain Managing Director/ Director‟s approvalAppoint Successful applicantsSelected applicants CV‟s along w the duly filled interview data sheet will be handed over to the HRDivision to informal (Letter/email/telephone) to enable them call over to collect their offer letter.The offer and appointments letters are prepared and issued by the Human Resources Division, other thansenior managerial positions which is handled by Director.Offer letter (with two copies) include the following  Position offered 36
  38. 38.  Probation period  Salary offered  Office hours  Leave  Terms if anyThe successful applicant upon calling over to the office will be issued with the originalof the offer letteron signing; confirming his acceptance of the terms and conditions stipulated and will communicate thedate of reporting to the work.The Appointment Letter (original and copy), the original will be issued will be issued on the date ofreporting to work on signing, confirming his acceptance of the terms and conditions stipulated therein.Induction ProgramAll employees who are new to the company undergo a training period during which they will beintroduced to the main duties and responsibilities of their post.Process of introducing the new employee to the general and the job environment. Further details aregiven in the employee hand book work rules)FormsHR/PO/01- Staff Requisition form -HR/FM/01HR/PO/01-Job Description form -HR/FM/02HR/PO/01-Interview letter -HR/FM/03HR/PO/01-Interview data sheet -HR/FM/04HR/PO/01-Offer letter -HR/FM/05HR/PO/01-Appointment letter -HR/FM/06HR/PO/01-Personal Information -HR/FM/07 37
  39. 39. Data analysis  Recruitment and Selection processstrategy is linked with over roll strategy of Quality and Continuous Improvement.  HRP occurrence of a vacancy in an opportunity to review the necessity for the post and its duties, responsibility and grade of a post have changed significantly the head of division must seek  Recruiting both internally or externally. Mostly in external and labor union placements are not seen in Sun Co(PVT) Ltd as they don‟t have a labor union.  Attracting process based on Advertising in internally or externally  Selection process Call of Application Preliminary screening interview Completion of application or form if not done previously First Comprehensive interview Final second interview Back ground investigation Appointment 38
  40. 40. Chapter 3Suggestions  Recruiting for each department in the company is identified well in advance.  Can use more attracting methods to attract the recruits  The recruitment team of the HR department alone cannot satisfy it, then help from the placement agencies is needed.  Time management is very essential and it should not be ignored at any level of the process.  The recruitment and selection must be adopting new techniques as interview method is not the most essential in every situation.  The recruitment and selection procedure should not to lengthy and time consuming.  The candidates called for interview should be allotted timings and it should not overlap with each other.  Should try to find candidates have possible practical knowledge before recruiting  They give appointment at once and selection is not that much based on the way they handle practical situation after job is given slack him if he is not suitable that is waste of recruiting and selecting expense 39
  41. 41. ConclusionRecruitment and selection are getting very much importance these days in the organization. It is verycritical thing to evaluate the human resources.It is a systematic procedure that involves many activities. The process includes the step like HRplanning attracting applicant and screening them. It is very important activity as it provides right peoplein right place at right time. It is not an easy task as organization‟s future is depends on this activity. Ifsuitable employees are selected which are beneficial to the organization it is at safe side but if decisiongoes wrong it can be dangerous to the organization. So it is an activity for which HR department getsvery much importance.Recruitment and selection procedure and its policies changed as per the organization. And as for the sun(PVT) Limit Recruitment and Selection process strategy is linked with over roll strategy of Quality andContinuous Improvement thus they try to build the best talent level of employees to up the level qualityand market that they want to achieve. Its importance also gets changed as the organization changedaccording to the market need and recruiting and selecting process will be a continues as the organizationchange. 40
  42. 42. ReferencesName of the book or Website Author Published year Publisher and and the edition addressHuman Resource Management. -H.JhonBernardin 1998 McGraw-Hill Book Co-SingaporeAn Experiential approach -Joyce E.A Russell 2nd EditionHuman Resource Management. Edited by JhonStorey 1995 RoutlerA Critical Text 11 new Fetter Lane, London ECA4p 4EECases in Human Resource Edited by Ann E. 1996 PITMANManagement McGoldrick PUBLISHING,128 1st Edition Long Acre, London WC2E 9ANhttp://www.google.lkA Handbook of Human Resource Michael Armstrong 2006 120 Pentonville Road ,Management Practice London N1 9JN 10th edition United Kingdom 525 South 4th Street, #241, Philadelphia, PA 19147, USAPersonnel and Human Resources G.A Cole 2002 Gamut, The TowerManagement building, 11 York 5th Edition road, London SE17 7 NXInternational Students Edition -G.Bohlander 2007 Thomas HigherManaging the Human Resources. Education, 519 Natorp -S.Shell 13th Edition Boulevard, Mason OHInternational Students Edition 45040, USA 41
  43. 43. Annexes INTERVIEW RESPONSE FORM (To be filled for all Managerial and other key positions by the interviewer)Kindly spare a couple of minutes to fill the information asked below. This would help us in improvingthe speed as well as the quality of hiring.1) What is the status of the candidate a) Shortlisted for the next round b) Final selection c) Waitlisted d) Rejected2) Please list the main reasons why the candidate is shortlisted/waitlisted/rejected 1) 2) 3)3) - Current Salary (monthly Take home): - Expectations:4) Any other comments:Name of the Interviewer: Date:Signature:Thank You,HR Department 42
  44. 44. Walk in Interviews 43
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