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  1. 1.  The Significance Color Levels, Brightness, Contrast, Mid- Tones and Highlights of an Image.
  2. 2. In This Chapter, you’ll learn on:  Describe image composition in terms of o tone o sharpness o colour scale o arrangement  Describe the image’s aesthetic appeal.
  3. 3. Image Composition  Although image composition is quite subjective depending on the message you're trying to convey, there are some basic rules. There are four elements that come into play when composing your image, tone, sharpness, colour scale, and arrangement. By controlling and taking advantage of each, you can make your composition speak to your audience. Tone  Tone is the brightness and contrast of your image, the interplay of light and shadow. By using light and shadow, you can focus attention on or draw attention away from your subject. You can use image tone to control where the viewer's eyes are directed, and even the mood of the photo.
  4. 4. Adjusting Brightness and Contrast  In most cases, you will probably want to adjust the brightness and contrast of the image, if only if certain areas. For example, you might want to lighten up just the dark areas and maintain the brightness and contrast of the rest of the image. Brightness and Contrast The best way to adjust brightness and contrast in Adobe Photoshop is to go to Image > Adjust > Curves. When the curve’s shape changes the image’s appearance changes accordingly. In this case, a flatter curve provides a “softer” image and a steeper curve a “harder”.
  5. 5. Adjust Color Casts  An image with an erroneous gray balance will wind up with what is called a “color cast”, which means that the entire image will appear to be tinted a certain color.  There are several tools for adjusting the gray balance in order to eliminate possible color casts. One can be found under Curves, Color Balance and Variations under the menu Image > Adjust.  Color Balance allows you to regulate each respective color, while Variations allows you to view several versions of the image with different compensations for the color cast.  Variations allow you to modify just the highlights, midtones, or dark areas of an image. You can also modify the hightones of the images under Variations.
  6. 6. Adjust Color Casts Brightness and Contrast A: The image is not adjusted thus the curve is straight. B: The image has been “softened” by flattening the mid-section of the curve. C: The dark areas of the image have been brightened. The rest of the image is not affected. D: The image has been made “harder” by sharpening the mid-section of the curve.
  7. 7. Sharpness  Like tone, sharpness can be used to direct where in the image you want the viewer's attention to be focused.  By having your subject in focus, and the extraneous elements of the image blurred, the viewer will naturally be drawn to the item in focus.  Depth of field will play a big part in how you control the sharpness of your image.  “Unsharp Mask” is the best sharpening filter in Adobe Photoshop. This same filter is also available in many other image editing programs. This tool had three settings: o Radius, o Threshold o Amount
  8. 8. Sharpness An image is softened when it’s converted into halftone screens and in the printing process. Because of that you need to sharpen the image even more.
  9. 9.  Scale  Scale is simply the size relationship between the objects in your image. You can use scale to make a statement about something. For example, your image is to emphasize how small an object is in reality, you can place an object that is known to be small beside your object. On the other hand, you could do a close-up on your object and the impression would be entirely different.  close up of a soccer ball to emphasize the size
  10. 10. Arrangement How you arrange the elements of your image can make all the difference in how it's interpreted. Useless junk will draw attention away from the focus, cluttering the image unnecessarily. Objects that are not essential to the composition should be removed.  Use of colours and arrangement to bring focus to the object