Leads to distorted balance of excitatory & inhibitory effects, contributes to systemic changes in UE. These changes in CSF may be response of early phase of disorder. Alterations occur in metabolism of dopamine & serotonin in brain, which may lead to early symptoms eg, sensorial clouding.
ROI placement. Axial FLAIR-prepped echo-planar T2-weighed images (TR/TE/TI, 10,000/91.7/2200; FOV, 40; b = 0 s/mm2) in a patient with PRES secondary to uremic encephalopathy. Nineteen ROIs were systemically placed in 22 patients with PRES and 18 control subjects, as shown. The images were coregistered to the ADC map, on which measurements were taken. Typical ROI sizes varied with brain region, as follows: cerebellum, 400 mm2; pons, 240 mm2; lenticular nucleus, 250 mm2; corticospinal tract, 60 mm2; posterior temporal lobe, 360 mm2; caudate head, 60 mm2; thalamus, 220 mm2; occipital lobe, 360 mm2; parietal lobe, 400 mm2; frontal lobe, 500 mm2.
Reduction in frequency of EEG waves correlates with the decrease in renal function and the alterations in cerebral function.
After the initial period of dialysis, clinical stabilization may occur while the EEG findings do not improve. Eventually, EEG results move toward normal.
Aside from the routine EEG, evoked potentials (EPs) (ie, EEG signals that occur at a reproducible time after the brain receives a sensory stimulus [eg, visual, auditory, somatosensory]) may be helpful in evaluating uremic encephalopathy.
CRF prolongs latency of the cortical visual-evoked response.
Auditory-evoked responses are generally not altered in uremia, but delays in the cortical potential of the somatosensory-evoked response do occur.