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Vocab dict

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  1. Class Size – The number of students enrolled in a school classroom. Second EditionCognitive – A term which refers to reasoning or intellectual capacity. 2010 - 2011Cognitive Development – The changes in the way we think, process information and learn. The process begins at birth and is affected by sensory perception, memory, and observation.Cognitive Learning – The mental processes involved in learning, such as remembering and understanding facts and ideas.Collaboration – Individuals working together to Family Dictionary of Education Terms accomplish goals more successfully together than they could have separately.Collaborative Learning – An instructional strategy where students of different abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a problem, complete a project, or achieve a common goal. Also known as Lists and defines Cooperative Learning. vocabulary and abbreviations used inCollege Readiness – The level of preparation a elementary and secondary public schools student needs to be ready to enroll and succeed, without remediation, in credit-bearing college in the state of Washington course.Community College – A two-year college, may also be known as a Junior College.Competence Tests – Tests created by a school district or state that students must pass before graduating.Complex sentences – Sentences with more than one clause or verbal phrase.Comprehension – This is a term used to describe the interpretations, understanding, and meaning readers construct as they listen to and read stories.Constructivism – A learning theory that states that students learn by creating their own knowledge. Also known as Discovery Learning.Content Standards – Standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each grade level.Content-related Vocabulary – The words a student must know to communicate effectively about subject area material such as math, social studies, science, etc.Context Clues – The words, phrases, and sentences surrounding an unfamiliar vocabulary word that help the student arrive at a possible definition. Office of the Education OmbudsmanCore Academic Subjects– The academic subjects Governor’s Office / State of Washington schools and districts require all students to take in order to be eligible for grade promotion and 1-866-297-2597 graduation. www.waparentslearn.orgCore Curriculum – The main body of knowledge that all students are expected to learn.Credit – A unit of coursework given for satisfactory completion of the course.
  2. IntroductionThe Office of the Education Ombudsman believes that good communication between families andeducators is one of the keys of student academic success. The Family Dictionary of Education Termsis a tool developed to help families understand school-related terminology so that they can bettercommunicate with school officials and advocate for their children’s education.This first edition contains terminology most commonly used in Washington schools however it is notinclusive of all terms related to public education. As we identify missing terms and find new terms, wewill include them in future editions.Let’s also keep in mind that school districts sometimes develop local terminology pertaining to theireducation practices, geographical location, and the culture of their communities. To reduce thechance of miscommunication, whenever you hear education terms that are new to you, ask theperson using the term to define it.If you have questions or comments regarding the first edition of The Family Dictionary of EducationTerms, please contact the Office of the Education Ombudsman at 1-866-297-2597 or atOEOinfo@gov.wa.govVisit our Website: www.waparentslearn.org to learn more about OEO and download otherpublications for parents regarding the public education system.How to Use This DocumentThis document is divided into three sections. List of Commonly Used Acronyms ...............................................................................page 3 General Education Terms ............................................................................................page 10 Special Education Terms ............................................................................................. page 29All sections are organized in alphabetical order. If a term is sometimes referenced by its initials, theterm is alphabetically listed, and the initials are shown in parentheses. If a term is generally referredto by its initials, then the initials reference is alphabetized, and the full term is shown in parentheses.AcknowledgementsWe appreciate the contributions made to this publication by our following partners in education: • The OEO Parent Advisory Council. • Staff from Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) and the Center for the Improvement of Student Learning (CISL). • Christie Perkins, Parent Educator and Coordinator of the Special Education Support and Washington State Special Education Training for All programs.1-877-297-2597 ­ www.waparentslearn.org 2
  3. CAAN Child and Adolescent Nutrition Frequently Used CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program Education Acronyms CAMP CAP College Assisted Migrant Program Corrective Action Plan CAS Cognitive Assessment System CASA Court Appointed Special AdvocateA CBC Circumstances Beyond Control CBO Community-Based OrganizationAA Affirmative Action CBSA Core-Based Statistical DataABE Adult Basic Education CCD Common Core of DataACJ Administrative Court Judge CD Communication DisordersACT American College Testing Program CD ROM Compact Disk Read only MemoryACTE Association of Career and Technical CDS Communication Disorder Specialist Education CDC Centers for Disease ControlADA Americans with Disabilities Act CE Community EducationADD Attention Deficit Disorder CEDARS Comprehensive Education Data andADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research SystemADP Average Daily Participation CEP Cultural Enrichment ProgramADR Alternative Dispute Resolution CEU Continuing Education Units (“ClockAFT American Federation of Teachers Hours”)AG Attorney General CFS Character and Fitness SupplementALE Alternative Learning Experience CFS Children and Family ServicesALJ Administrative Law Judge CHAP Comprehensive Homeless AssistanceAP Advanced Placement PlanAPE Adaptive Physical Education CHEF Comprehensive Health EducationARS At Risk Students FoundationASB Associated Student Body CIA Certificate of Individual AchievementASBF Associated Student Body Fund CIS Certificated Instructional StaffASL American Sign Language CISL Center for the Improvement of StudentAT Assistive Technology LearningAWSP Association of Washington School CNA Comprehensive Needs Assessment Principals CNP Child Nutrition ProgramAYP Adequate Yearly Progress CNS Child Nutrition Services COLA Cost of Living Adjustment COM Certificate of MasteryB CPF Capital Projects Fund CPR Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationBA Bachelor of Arts CPS Child Protective ServicesBD Behavioral Disability CPU Central Processing UnitBE Business Education CRA Civil Rights ActBEA Basic Education Act CR Civil RightsBIA Bureau of Indian Affairs CRT Criterion-Referenced TestsBIP Behavioral Intervention Plan CSHCN Children with Special Health CareBS Bachelor of Science Needs CSR Comprehensive School Reform CSRS Core Student Record SystemC CSTC CTBS Child Study and Treatment Center Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills CTE Career and Technical EducationCA Children’s Administration CTONI Comprehensive Test of Non-VerbalCAA Certificate of Academic Achievement Intelligence1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 3
  4. CWS Child Welfare Services ELD English Language DevelopmentCY Calendar Year (January-December) ELL English Language Learner EPSDT Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and TreatmentD ER Extended Response ERIC Educational Resources InformationDAID District Assigned ID CenterDARE Drug Abuse Resistance Education ERL Essential Requirements LevelDD Developmentally Delayed ESA Educational Staff AssociateDDC Developmental Disabilities Council ESD Educational Service DistrictDDD Division of Developmental Disabilities ESEA Elementary and Secondary EducationDE Distributive Education ActDECA Distributive Education Clubs of America ESL English as a Second LanguageDAPE Developmentally Appropriate ESOL English for Speakers of Other Proficiency Exam LanguagesDHHS Department of Health and Human ESY Extended School Year ServicesDIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills FDOC Department of CorrectionsDOE United States Department of Education FACSE Family and Consumer SciencesDOH Department of Health EducationDORF DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency FAFSA Free Application for Federal Student AidDRA Developmental Reading Assessment FAPE Free Appropriate Public EducationDRP Degrees of Reading Power FAQ Frequently Asked QuestionsDSHS Department of Social and Health FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Services FBA Functional Behavioral AssessmentDVR Division of Vocational Rehabilitation FBLA Future Business Leaders of America FCCLA Family, Career, and Community Leaders of AmericaE FDPIR Food Distribution Program on Indian ReservationsE2T2 Enhancing Education Through FERPA Family Education Rights and Privacy Technology ActEALR Essential Academic Learning FFA Future Farmers of America Requirements (Essential Learnings) FIP Family Independence ProgramEBD Emotionally/Behaviorally Disabled FLSA Fair Labor Standards ActEBP Evidence Based Practice FOIA Freedom of Information ActECEAP Early Childhood Education and FSP Food Stamp Program Assistance Program FTE Full Time EquivalentED Emotional Disturbance FY Fiscal Year (July-June)ED United States Department of EducationEDGAR Education Department General Administrative Regulations GEEO Equal Educational OpportunitiesEETT Enhancing Education Through GA General Administration Technology GATB General Aptitude Test BatteryEHA Education for Handicapped Act GCERF Governor’s Council on EducationEIEP Emergency Immigrant Education Reform and Funding Program1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 4
  5. GEAR UP Gaining Early Awareness and IT Information Technology Readiness for Undergraduate ITBS Iowa Test of Basic Skills Programs ITED Iowa Tests of Educational DevelopmentGED General Education Development ITEIP Infants and Toddlers Early Intervention Certificate ProgramGED/HEP General Educational Development/High ITIP Instructional Theory Into Practice School Equivalency ProgramGEPA General Education Provisions ActGESA Generating Expectations and Student J AchievementGLE Grade Level Expectations JAG Jobs for America’s GraduatesGPA Grade Point Average JATC Joint Apprenticeship Training Council JDRP Juvenile Detention Rehabilitation ProgramH JRA Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration JTPA Job Training Partnership ActHD Health DepartmentHERO Home Economics Related ActivitiesHFALT Health and Fitness Assessment K Leadership TeamHFL Home and Family Life K-TEA II Kaufman Test of EducationalHIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Achievement 2nd EditionHIPAA Health Insurance Portability and K-TEA/NU Kaufman Test of Educational Accountability Act Achievement/Normative UpdateHOTS Higher-Order Thinking Skills K20 Videoconference NetworkHQ Highly Qualified KABC II Kaufman Assessment Battery forHRC Human Rights Commission Children, 2nd EditionHS Head Start KAIT Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test KM-R/NU Key Math-Revised/Normative UpdateI KSA Knowledge, Skills, and AbilitiesIASA Improving America’s Schools ActIB International Baccalaureate LIBEST Integrated Basic Education Skills Training L&I Department of Labor and IndustriesICW Indian Child Welfare LAP Learning Assistance ProgramIDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education LAS-O Language Assessment Scales Oral Act LCD Liquid Crystal DisplayIDEIA Individuals with Disabilities Education LD Learning Disability Improvement Act LEP Limited English ProficientIEE Independent Educational Evaluation LEITER-R Leiter-RevisedIEP Individualized Education Program LID Learning Improvement DayIFSP Individualized Family Services Plan LNF Letter Naming FluencyIHE Institution of Higher Education LON Letter of NotificationIMEC Interstate Migrant Education Council LPN Licensed Practical NurseIRT Item Response Theory LRE Least Restrictive EnvironmentISF Initial Sound Fluency LSES Low Socio-economic StatusISLLC Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 5
  6. M OMAA Medical Assistance Administration OCR Office for Civil RightsM&O Maintenance and Operation OEO Office of the Education OmbudsmanMALT Math Assessment Leadership Team OJT On-The-Job TrainingMAP Minority Achievement Program OME Office of Migrant EducationMAT Master of Arts in Teaching OPP Office of Professional PracticesMAT6 Metropolitan Achievement Test (6th OSEP Office of Special Education Programs Edition) OSERS Office of Special Education andMC Multiple Choice Rehabilitative ServicesMCE Multicultural Education OSPI Office of Superintendent of PublicMECCA Making Equity Count for Classroom Instruction Achievement OT Occupational TherapistMEN Migrant Education News OWLS Oral and Written Language ScalesMEP Migrant Education ProgramMERO Migrant Education Regional OfficeMETT Multi-Ethnic Think Tank PMHC Math Helping CorpsMHCC Math Helping Corps Cadre PA Phonemic AwarenessMIT Masters in Teaching PAC Parent Advisory CouncilMOE Maintenance of Effort PAIT-R/NU Peabody Individual Achievement Test-MOST Measureable, Observable, Specific, Revised/Normative Update Time-bound Goals PASS Portable Assisted Study SequenceMPR Median Percentile Rank PAVE Parents Are Vital in EducationMR Mental Retardation PC Personal ComputerMSDR Migrant Student Data and Recruitment PDD Pervasive Development DisorderMSIS Migrant Student Information System PGP Professional Growth PlanMSRS Migrant Student Record System PGT Professional Growth TeamMSRTS Migrant Student Record Transfer PI Prevention/Intervention System PIP Primary Intervention ProgramM-V McKinney-Vento Act PL Public Law ProCert Professional Certification PSE Public School EmployeeN PSESD Puget Sound Educational Service DistrictN/A Not Applicable PSF Phoneme Segmentation FluencyNAEP National Assessment of Educational PT Physical Therapist Progress PTA Parent - Teacher AssociationNBPTS National Board for Professional PTO Parent - Teacher Organization Teaching Standards PTSA Parent - Teacher Student AssociationNCLB No Child Left Behind (The 2001 Elementary and Secondary Education Act QNEVAC North East Vocational Area CooperativeNRT Norm-Referenced TestsNWF Nonsense Word Fluency R R2R Right to Read1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 6
  7. RALT Reading Assessment Leadership Team SLP Student Learning PlansRAP Remediation Assistance Program SPED Special EducationRCW Revised Code of Washington SPI Superintendent of Public InstructionRD Registered Dietitian SRSAP Small Rural School AchievementREAP Rural Education Achievement Program ProgramRESA Regional Education Services Agency SSALT Social Studies Assessment LeadershipRFI Request for Information TeamRFP Request for Proposal SSID State Student Identification NumberRTF Retell Fluency STBIP State Transitional Bilingual InstructionRIC Resource Information Center ProgramRLISP Rural Low-Income Schools Program STC School-To-CareerRN Registered Nurse STEPS Sequenced Transition from Education toRRC Regional Resource Center Post-School SettingsRSN Regional Support Network STW School-To-WorkRTL Readiness To LearnRTI Response to Intervention TS TA Technical Assistance TAP Teacher Assistance ProgramS-BIV Stanford-Binet IV TESA Teacher Expectations and StudentS-B5 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Achievement Edition TBI Traumatic Brain InjurySA Short Answer TBIP Transitional Bilingual InstructionSAT Scholastic Achievement Test ProgramSBD Severely Behaviorally Disabled TDD Telecommunication Device for the DeafSBE State Board of Education TPR Total Physical ResponseSBP School Breakfast Program TSE Traffic Safety EducationSC Skills CenterSD School DistrictSDI Specifically Designed Instruction USE Special EducationSEAC Special Education Advisory Council UNIT Universal Nonverbal Intelligence TestSEALT Special Education Assessment URRD Urban, Rural, Racial, Disadvantaged Leadership Team USIC Unique Student Identifier CodeSEC Special Education CoalitionSEMY Secondary Education for Migrant YouthSES Supplemental Education Services VSETC Special Education Technology CenterSFSP Summer Food Service Program VC Video ConferenceSI School ImprovementSIF School Improvement FacilitatorSIPSIT School Improvement Plan School Improvement Team WSLA Second Language AcquisitionSLD Severe Learning Disabled WAAS Washington Alternate AssessmentSLD Specific Learning Disability SystemSLE Supportive Learning Environments WAC Washington Administration CodeSLO Student Learning Objective WAIS-III Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale ­SLP Speech-Language Pathologist Third editionSLP Student Leadership Program1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 7
  8. WAIS-R Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale RevisedWASA Washington Association of School AdministratorsWASL Washington Assessment of Student LearningWEA Washington Education AssociationWIAA Washington Interscholastic Activities AssociationWIAT Wechsler Individual Achievement TestWIAT-II Wechsler Individual Achievement Test ­ Second EditionWIC Women, Infants, and ChildrenWISC-III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third EditionWISC-IV Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth EditionWJ-III Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities or Achievement – Third EditionWJ-R Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery - RevisedWLPT II Washington Language Proficiency Test – Second editionWOIS Washington Occupational Information ServiceWPC Washington Pre-College (test)WRMT-R/NU Woodcock Reading Mastery Test ­ Revised/Normative UpdateWUF Word Use FluencyWWW World Wide WebXYZ1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 8
  9. Notes:1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 9
  10. by the federal government, that publicGeneral Education Terms schools must achieve each year.A Administrator – A school district employee, such as principal, director, or superintendent, who is responsible forAbility grouping – Assigning students with directing and managing a school or similar skills to learning groups. program.Absence – Any part of a school day when a Advanced Placement (AP) Program – A student is not in school. series of high-level courses that high school students can take to earn college credits.Academic Achievement – What a student has learned from classroom instruction. Advisory Group – A small group of students who meet regularly with a school staffAcademic Advisor – The member of the member to discuss school work and teaching staff assigned to provide school requirements. advice and guidance to students. Advocate – (noun) Someone who acts onAccountability – The expectation that schools behalf of another person. and/or educators should be held responsible for improving student achievement and Advocate (To) – (verb) To support or speak in should be rewarded or sanctioned for their favor of an idea, issue, or person(s). success or lack of success in doing so. Affective – A term which refers to emotionsAccreditation – Official recognition that a and attitudes. person or an organization meets specific requirements to be able to deliver After-school Program – Programs run by instruction. schools and/or organizations that provide recreational and learning activities forAccuracy – The ability to correctly read, write, students after the end of the regular school and solve problems. day or on the weekends.Achievement Gap – A consistent difference in Alignment – How well the skills and academic test scores between groups of knowledge taught in schools match the students. The gaps most frequently referred requirements of state and/or federal learning to are those between white students and standards. minority groups such as African-American and Hispanic students. Alternative Assessment – Any form of measuring what students know and are ableAchievement Tests – Tests used to measure to do other than traditional tests. Examples how much a student has learned in various are: oral reports, projects, performances, school subjects. experiments, portfolios (collections of student’s work), and class participation.Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) – The minimum level of improvement established1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 10
  11. Alternative School – A public school designed AVID – AVID stands for Advancement Via by a school district to serve students whose Individual Determination and is a fourth- needs are not being met in the traditional through twelfth-grade system to prepare public school environment. students for four-year college eligibility. Schools that participate in AVID are requiredAmerican College Test (ACT) – The ACT is to meet staff training and membership one of the two commonly used tests requirements. designed to assess high school students general educational development and their ability to complete college-level work. BAppeal – A request for a person or entity with Bachelor’s Degree – An award that normally greater authority to review and change an requires at least four years of full-time earlier decision. equivalent college courses.Apprenticeship – A combination of on-the-job Basic Skills – The fundamental skills needed training (OJT) and related classroom to succeed in school and eventually in life. instruction under the supervision of a trade Historically, these skills have included the professional. ability to read, write, and calculate (math).Aptitude Tests – Tests that attempt to predict Becca Bill – A Washington state law that a persons ability to do something. requires school districts to take specific actions when students are absent. The lawArticulation Agreement – An agreement is RCW 28A.225.030. between a high school or skill center and a community or technical college that allows Below Average – Under the usual, expected, the high school or skill center to offer or ordinary quality or performance. college credit for a secondary career and technical education (CTE) course. Benchmark – The level of performance students should show by a particular point inAssessment – Teacher-made tests, their schooling. standardized tests, or tests from textbook companies that are used to measure a Best Practices – Classroom instructional students skills or knowledge. strategies that have been demonstrated and accepted by the professional community toAssociate Degree – An award showing that a improve student learning. student has completed a two-year course of study in a community college. Bilingual Education – School program where two languages are used to teach theAverage – Usual, expected, or ordinary curriculum so that students gain knowledge performance. of both languages.Average Daily Attendance (ADA) – The total Block Scheduling – Usually used in middle or number of days of student attendance high school, this scheduling allow student to divided by the total number of days in the have fewer classes per day and longer time regular school year. in each class.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 11
  12. Bond Measure – An agreement by the citizens Certificate of Individual Achievement – An of a school district to repay the money official document available for students with borrowed by the school district for major an Individualized Education Program (IEP) construction or purchases, such as new who are unable to take the High School school buildings, computers, or school HSPE (with or without accommodations). improvements. Certificated Staff – School employees who areBoosters – A volunteer organization, usually required by the state to hold teaching parents and alumni, whose sole objective is certificates. Also referred to as Certified to provide ongoing financial assistance in Staff. support of a schools’ extracurricular programs, for example athletic program Character Education – A method that teaches boosters or music boosters. students about basic human values.Breakfast Program – A program using state Charter School – A school that is run by a and federal dollars to provide low-cost or group of organizers other than the school free breakfasts to low income students. board and free from most state and local regulations.Budget – The plan for how to spend the school’s or school district’s funds. Classroom Management – The way a classroom is organized to make instructionalBulletin – A printed news publication. time as productive possible for all students.Bullying – Repeated negative behavior that a Class Size – The number of students enrolled person uses to take advantage of someone in a school classroom. with less power. A bully is someone who uses bullying behavior. Closed Campus – A school where students are not allowed to leave the school grounds during the school day without permission.C Cognitive – A term which refers to reasoningCadre – A group. or intellectual capacity.Calendar Day – Refers to all days of the week, Cognitive Development – The changes in the including weekends and holidays. way children think, process information, and learn as they grow up.Career and Technical Education (CTE) – Classes that allow students to get credit for Cognitive Learning – The mental processes training in a skill or trade while still in high involved in learning, such as remembering school. CTE classes may be held on-site or and understanding facts and ideas. at a skill center. Collaboration – Individuals working togetherCategorical Funds – Funds from the state or to accomplish goals. federal government granted to qualifying school districts for specific programs and/or Collaborative Learning – An instructional for particular groups of students. strategy where students of different abilities1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 12
  13. and interests work together in small groups Constructivism – A learning theory that states to solve a problem, complete a project, or that students learn by creating their own achieve a common goal. Also known as knowledge. Also known as Discovery Cooperative Learning. Learning.College Readiness – The level of preparation Contempt of Court – Someone who has a student needs to be ready to enroll and willfully violated a court order can be judged succeed, without remediation, in credit- to be in contempt of court. bearing college course. Contempt Hearing – The court hearing whereCommunity Schools – Schools that provide a judge determines whether or not someone essential services, such as medical and is in contempt of court. dental services, nutrition classes, parent programs, and social services, for both Content Standards – Standards that describe students and families. what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each gradeCommunity College – A two-year college, level. may also be known as a Junior College. Content-related Vocabulary – The words aCompetence Tests – Tests created by a student must know to communicate school district or state that students must effectively about subject area material such pass before graduating. as math, social studies, science, etc.Complex sentences – Sentences with more Context Clues – The words, phrases, and than one clause or verbal phrase. sentences surrounding an unfamiliar vocabulary word that help the student arriveComprehension – This is a term used to at a possible definition. describe the interpretations, understanding, and meaning readers construct as they Continuous Progress – A system of listen to and read stories. education in which individuals or small groups of students go through a sequenceComputer-assisted Instruction (CAI) – of lessons at their own pace, rather than at Educational programs delivered through the the pace of the entire classroom group. use of computers and educational software. Conditional Certificate – A temporaryConflict Management – A strategy that teaching certificate given to a person who schools use to prevent and address conflict has expertise in a particular subject and that among students. It usually includes a set of has been hired by a school district because expectations for behavior. they cannot find a certificated teacher with an endorsement in that subject.Conflict Resolution – A defined practice based on an understanding that there are Core Academic Subjects– The academic various perspectives to address and solve a subjects schools and districts require all problem. students to take in order to be eligible for grade promotion and graduation.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 13
  14. Core Curriculum – The main body of (adjectives and adverbs) and are more knowledge that all students are expected to elaborate than simple sentences. learn. Detention – A disciplinary action that removesCredit – A unit of coursework given for a student from the classroom to another satisfactory completion of the course. designated space within the school.Criterion-referenced Tests – Tests designed Developmentally Appropriate – Curriculum to measure how thoroughly a student has and instruction that is based on the mental learned a particular subject compared to an and physical development of the student. established benchmark. Developmental Screening Tests – TestsCritical Thinking – Logical thinking based on used to identify students who may have sound evidence. physical, behavioral, and/or developmental disabilities or delays, or sensoryCultural Competence – A set of attitudes, impairments. awareness, knowledge, and skills that enables effective teaching in racially, DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early culturally and socio-economically diverse Literacy Skills) – A testing tool that helps classrooms. teachers determine at what level students in grades Kindergarten through 6th are able toCurriculum – The subject matter that is to be read and write. learned. Differentiated Instruction – An instructionalCurriculum Materials – Text, audio, video, technique that includes various ways to and/or electronic media used to teach the teach content and assess learning. It is used curriculum of a school or subject area. to meet student needs and differences in readiness, interests, and learning styles.Cut Score – The minimum score needed to pass a test. Diploma – A certificate conferred by a high school, college, university or otherCyber Schools – Educational institutions that educational institution as official recognition offer most or all of their instruction by for the completion of a program of studies. computer through the internet. Direct Instruction – A teaching technique in which the teacher presents the content andD students are expected to respond in a specific manner.Decoding – The process of translating individual letters or groups of letters into Discipline – All forms of corrective action or sounds so that the reader can pronounce a punishment used with students. word. Distance Learning – Taking classes inDescriptive Sentences – Sentences that locations other than the classroom or places contain modifying words or phrases where teachers present the lessons including online, DVD, or telecommuting.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 14
  15. Diversity – Diversity involves recognizing a Early Childhood Education – The education variety of student characteristics including of pre-school age children. those of ethnicity, language, socioeconomic class, disabilities, and gender. Electronic Media – The different electronic sources such as television, web pages, e-Dismissed – When a court case is dismissed, mail, CDs, etc. that may provide information it ends. or be used to share information.DRA (Developmental Reading Assessment) ELL (English Language Learner) – A person A tool teachers use to assess and record learning English whose primary language is Kindergarten to 3rd grade students reading other than English. development. Emergency Expulsion – Immediate removalDropouts – Students who leave high school of a student from school or class for an before graduating. indefinite period of time.Dual Credit – A course or program where high Emergent Literacy – The view that reading school students can earn both high school and writing learning begins at birth and is and college credits for the same course. supported by adult interactions.Dual-language Program – A school program Emotional Development -The ways in which designed to serve both language minority individuals learn to interact in socially and language majority students at the same acceptable ways, establish and maintain time. Students from two language groups relationships, and view themselves in receive instruction in both languages. Also positive ways. known as Dual Immersion Program. Enrichment – Topics and activities that are notDue Process of Law – Ensures that a person considered part of basic education. will be notified and have an opportunity to be heard before any public entity can Environmental Education – An educational change her/his rights. practice that builds students’ awareness of the natural world and how to protect it.Dyslexia – Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is Equal Access –Case law based on religious characterized by difficulties with accurate non-discrimination. It requires schools that and/or fluent word recognition and by poor allow extra-curricular, voluntary-participation spelling and decoding abilities. student clubs to meet on school property to also allow extra-curricular school use to religious groups.E ESL (English as a Second Language) –EALR (Essential Academic Learning English language instruction for students Requirement) – Washington State’s whose primary language is not English. definition of what all students should know and be able to do as a graduate of public schools.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 15
  16. Evaluate – To conduct a careful appraisal or Fine Motor – Functions which require tiny study of something and determine its worth muscle movements, for example, writing or or value. typing.Expenditure – All amounts of money paid out Fluency – The ability to read a text accurately, by a school system. quickly, and with proper expression and comprehension.Experiential Education – Education that emphasizes learning from experiences Formative Assessment – A test that rather than from lectures, books, and other determines what students have learned at a secondhand sources and which may take particular time in order to plan further the form of internships, service learning, instruction. Also knows as Formative Test. school-to-work programs, field studies, or similar experiences. Free or Reduced-Price Meal – A federal program that provides breakfast, lunch,Expulsion – Removal of a student from and/or after school snacks for students from school, class, or sometimes district property low-income families. for an indefinite period of time. Functional Illiteracy – The inability to read orExtra-curricular Activities – Activities that are write well enough to perform many basic, not part of the required curriculum and that necessary tasks in daily life. take place outside of the regular course of study. GF Guardian – Person legally placed in charge of the welfare of a minor or of someoneFact Finding Hearing – A court procedure incapable of managing her or his own where a judge determines whether a legal affairs. case can be made against an individual. GEAR-UP (Gaining Early Awareness andFamiliar Sounds – Sounds that students hear Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) or speak in their primary language. A federal grant program created to increase the number of low-income students who areFamily involvement in education – Another prepared to enter and succeed in college. term for parent participation in the education of their children . Gender Bias – The idea that one gender or the other is short-changed by schoolFERPA (Family Educational Rights and practices and expectations. Privacy Act) – A federal law that protects General Educational Development (GED) the privacy of student education records. Test – A high school equivalency test certifies that a person has the skills andFinancial Aid – Grants, loans, and funds knowledge equal to those of a high school provided by the government for college graduate. expenses, such as college tuition, textbooks, and sometimes the living costs of students.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 16
  17. General Vocabulary – Words that are critical Graphic Features – Maps, diagrams, graphs, to understanding the main idea, events, charts, or pictures that help make the text characters, themes of a lesson. meaningful and interesting to readers.Generalize – To arrive at a broad conclusion Graphing Calculator – A calculator with a based upon a small piece of evidence. May larger display that draws and displays math also be referred to as Generalization. functions and data.Genres – A term used to classify literary and Gross motor – Functions which require large informational works into categories, such as muscle movements, for example, walking or biography, mystery, historical fiction, etc. jumping.Gifted and Talented Program- A program that Guidance Counselor – School staff member offers advanced coursework to students who provides academic advice to students identified as being academically gifted or and their families, helps them address talented. learning problems, and assists students in career and personal development.GLE (Grade Level Expectation) – The essential content or subject matter to be Guided Practice – A teacher-led activity that learned by students at a specific grade level. the class completes together.Grade Point Average (GPA) – A system of scoring student achievement. Students H GPA is computed by multiplying the grade received in each course by the number of Head Start Program – A federally sponsored credits offered for each course, then dividing preschool program for children from low- by the total number of credit hours studied. income families.Graduate – A student who has received a Health Education – Curriculum that addresses diploma for successfully completing a physical, mental, emotional, and social program or school’s course requirements. health.Graduate School – University level school that Hearing Examiner/Officer – The decision- provides instruction and degrees beyond the maker in school discipline hearings. bachelor degree. Heterogeneous Grouping – The practice ofGraduation Requirements – The courses and grouping together students of varying number of credits required by a school abilities, interests, or ages for instruction. district or the state to receive a high school diploma. The state provides a minimum set Higher Education – Study beyond high school of requirements, and school boards can set at a college or university that results in an additional graduation requirements for their associate, bachelor, or higher degree. Also school district. known as Post-secondary Education.Grant – Funds provided for students to attend college that do not have to be repaid.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 17
  18. Higher-Order Questions – Questions that Immersion – A program that teaches children require thinking and reflection rather than to speak, read, and write in another single-solution responses. language by instructing them in that language.Higher-Order Thinking Skills – The ability to understand complex concepts and apply Inclusion – The practice of educating all sometimes conflicting information to solve a children of various needs and capabilities in problem that may have more than one the same classroom. correct answer. Incomplete – A temporary grade stating that aHigh Frequency Words – High utility words student has not finished all class which make up 50% of printed text, for assignments at the end of a grading period. example: A, the, this, that, etc. Independent Study – An opportunity forHighly Qualified Teacher – Teachers are students to conduct self-directed learningrequired by federal law (NCLB) to meet and receive credit.following three criteria to be considered highlyqualified: Individualized Instruction – A practice 1) Holds at least a bachelor’s degree. provides each student with the lessons and 2) Holds full state certification. assignments according to her/his strengths 3) Demonstrates subject matter knowledge and needs. Students work at their own pace and teaching skill in each core academic to learn the material. Also called subject assigned to teach. Individualized Education, Differentiated Curriculum, Individualized Education, orHigh School – Generally grades 9th through Differentiated Instruction. 12th. Inference – A conclusion reached afterHomework – Regular assignments to be reading text and using past knowledge and completed outside the classroom. experience to understand it.Honors Program – Courses a school or Informal Knowledge – Knowledge about a district designs and offers to students to topic that students learn through experience challenge their learning beyond the regular outside of the classroom. curriculum. Inquiry – A process in which students explore a problem, and create and work through aI plan to solve the problem.Idiom – An expression that does not mean Inquiry-based Learning – An instructional what it literally says, for example, “you drive method where students create questions me crazy”, “hit the deck”. about a phenomenon, fact, or piece of literature, and work to answer theirIlliteracy – Lack of reading and/or writing questions through an exploration of the skills. topic.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 18
  19. In Loco Parentis – Refers to an individual who takes on the parent role and responsibilities Interpretation – The process of verbally for a child without formally adopting him/her. communicating information from one language into another language keeping theIntegrated Curriculum – The practice of using intent and meaning of the original a single theme to teach a variety of subjects. information.Internship – Workplace learning that gives students an opportunity to apply their J knowledge and learn new skills.In-service – Continuing professional education for educators. Also known as Staff K Development or Professional Development. K-12 – Refers to Kindergarten through 12th grade education.Instructional Aide – A school employee assigned to help teachers with the education Kindergarten Entry Age – The age when of students. Also known as an Instructional children are eligible to enroll in Kindergarten, Assistant, Paraeducator, or usually at least 5 years old. Paraprofessional.Interactive Learning – Occurs when the L teacher or computer software adjusts the instruction in response to the learner’s Language Arts – Another term for English needs. curriculum. The focus is on reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills.Interdisciplinary Curriculum – A way to organize curriculum in which content is Learner-centered Classroom – Classroom in drawn from two or more subject areas to which students are encouraged to choose focus on a particular topic or theme. Also their own learning goals and projects. Also referred to as Multidisciplinary known as a Student-Centered Classroom. Curriculum, Integration, or Integrated Curriculum. Learning Contract – An agreement between a student, teacher, parent (or other adult as aInternational Baccalaureate (IB) – IB courses family member) detailing how the student are offered as part of the International will work toward specified learning Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, a objectives. rigorous two-year curriculum (geared primarily to students aged 16 to 19) that Learning Disability – A condition that leads to a degree that is widely recognized interferes with a student’s ability to learn. internationally. It prepares students for a Also known as a Learning Disorder. university education, with a specific focus on the ability to communicate with and Learning Styles – Differences in the way understand people from other countries and students learn best including through cultures. hearing, seeing, or doing the learning task.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 19
  20. supports defined in their IndividualizedLetter of Recommendation – A letter written Education Plan. by a teacher or other adult that supports a student’s application for a program, college, Magnet Schools – An alternative public school or a job. that often focuses on a particular area of study, such as performing arts or scienceLevy – (noun) An additional sum to property and technology, in addition to the core taxes within a school district for education- curriculum. related expenditures. Residents of the school district vote on whether to pay these Manipulatives – Any object, for example, levy taxes. blocks, toothpicks, or coins, that can be used to represent or model a problemLevy – (verb) To impose taxes. situation or develop a mathematical concept.LEP (Limited English Proficient) Students – McKinney-Vento Act – Federal legislation that Students who are reasonably fluent in provides educational services to homeless another language but who have not yet students which are equal to all other achieved comparable skills in reading, enrolled students, and ensures that writing, listening, or speaking English. Also homeless children and youth have equal known as English Language Learner opportunities to enroll in, attend, and be (ELL). successful in school.Literacy – Ability to read and write. Also refers Measurement of Student Progress (MSP) – to other types of knowledge and skills such Beginning in the 2009-10 school year, the as scientific literacy, computer literacy, etc. Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) for grades 3rd through 8thLiteral – The common or ordinary meaning of will be replaced by the Measurements of words. Student Progress (MSP) to identify students’ abilities in math (grades 3rd through 8th),Local Revenues – The money a school district reading (grades 3rd through 8th), science receives from local taxes, investments, and (grades 5th and 8th), and writing (grades 4th student activities. and 7th). The testing window for the MSP will be in May beginning spring 2010.Long-Term Suspension – Exclusion from school for more than 10 days. Mediation – A strategy for conflict resolution which relies upon a neutral third party workLooping – A school practice where the teacher to help parties arrive at an agreed upon moves with his or her students to the next compromise. grade level, rather than sending them to another teacher the next school year. Mentor – To serve as a role model for another person.M MESA (Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement) – The MESA programMainstream – To place students with assists academically disadvantaged disabilities into regular classrooms with the students, especially students of color, girls,1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 20
  21. and students in poverty, by helping them to students make plans, set class schedules, prepare for and successfully complete a 4­ and prepare for life beyond high school. year college program. Neighborhood Schools – Public schoolsMiddle School – Schools for students in the nearest to students’ homes as determined early adolescent years, generally grade 6th by school district attendance boundaries. through grade 8th . No Child Left Behind (NCLB) – A federal lawModeling – The practice of demonstrating to that requires yearly student testing, the learner how to do a task, so that the consequences for schools or districts that do learner can copy the model. It often includes not meet standards, and requires all thinking aloud or talking about how to work teachers and assistants to be highly through a task. qualified.Multi-age Classroom – A classroom that Non-verbal Communication – Messages sent includes children from different grades. by way of gestures and other body language, and drawings.Multi-disciplinary Curriculum – Generally refers to learning a particular topic area Notice – Notification of an action that usually through the viewpoint of more than one contains information about legal rights to subject. appeal a decision.Multiple Intelligences – A theory of intelligence developed in the 1980s by O Howard Gardner that broadly defines intelligence beyond mathematical and Office of the Superintendent of Public linguistic, to include musical, spatial, bodily- Instruction (OSPI) – The primary state kinesthetic, and intrapersonal. agency charged with overseeing K-12 education in Washington State.N Office of the Education Ombudsman (OEO) A state agency that helps resolve problemsNational Assessment of Educational and disputes between families and schools. Progress (NAEP) – Also called “the (www.waparentslearn.org) Nation’s Report Card,” this federal test uses groups of students in grades 4th , 8th and Ombudsman – A person that helps resolve 12th from around the country to measure conflict or disputes. progress in reading, mathematics, science, writing, U.S. history, civics, geography, and On-Time Graduation rate – The number of the arts. Scores are reported nationally and students who started grade 9th in the fall of by state, but not for individual students or a particular year and are expected to schools. graduate four years later.Navigation 101 – A program for students in Open-Ended Question – A question that can grades 6th through 12th with the goal to help be answered in more than one way and may have more than one correct answer.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 21
  22. Outcomes – What students are supposed to Per-pupil Expenditures – Expenditures made know and be able to do. by schools, a school district, or the state divided by the total number of students in the school, school district, or state.P Petition for Readmission – A request to haveParent Involvement – The participation of a student return to school before the end of parents in the education of their children. an expulsion or suspension.Parent Teacher Association (PTA) – A Phonemic Awareness – The ability to identify national, nonprofit organization, independent and combine individual sounds (phonemes) of the public school system that supports into spoken words. family involvement in schools and advocates for children. When student members are Phonics – An instructional strategy used to included, the name often becomes PTSA or teach reading. It helps beginning readers by Parent Teacher Student Association. teaching them letter-sound relationships and having them sound out words.Parent Teacher Conference – A meeting where the parents and the teacher of a Picture Dictionary – A dictionary that defines particular student discuss present and future words using pictures and graphics. academic progress. Placement Exam – A skills test given to newParent-Teacher Organization (PTO) – A students to determine what class or courses local, school-based, organization of parents, are best for their abilities and interests. and others to support family and public involvement in the school and advocate for Policy – A piece of legislation, norm, or students. regulation.Pedagogy – The art or profession of teaching. Portable – A building, often with one or two rooms, that is used as a classroom and canPeer Mediation – Programs in which students be moved when it is no longer needed. are trained in conflict resolution and assist other students to work through problems Portfolio – A collection of work that without using violence. demonstrates and documents the students learning progress over time. It might includePerformance Assessment – A test that writing samples, examples of math determines what students know through problems, and results of science their ability to perform certain tasks. experiments.Performance Criteria – The skills or Prerequisite – A course that must be knowledge that will be evaluated as a completed before a student is allowed to student completes a task. register for a more advanced course.Performance Tasks – Activities, exercises, or Primary Language – A students first problems that require students to show what language. The language spoken at home. they can do.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 22
  23. Principal – The certificated hired by the Superintendent to manage the day-to-day R business of the school, supervise and evaluate school staff. Readability – The level of difficulty in a written passage.Professional Development – Programs that allow teachers or administrators to acquire Reference Tools – Materials for students to the knowledge and skills they need to refer to in order to check spelling, word perform their jobs successfully. Also known meaning, grammar, etc., such as picture as Inservice. dictionaries and/or bilingual dictionaries.Proficiency – The ability to do something at Remedial Class – Instruction, usually in grade level. addition to regular classroom learning, that provide additional time or attention for aPrompt – Pictures or words to which a student student to learn what’s expected at their responds orally or in writing. grade level.Pull-out Programs – The practice of providing Report Card – The record of student instruction in small groups outside of the attendance and grades for each grading regular classroom in order to give particular period and the entire school year. Student students additional learning opportunities. report cards are sent home for parent reviewPupil – A student. each grading period.Purge – An action to be done by an individual Response to Intervention (RTI) – A tool that found to be in violation of a court order. helps educators identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, provide evidence- based instructional strategies, monitorQ student progress, and adjust the interventions in response to students’Quick Write – An exercise where students reaction to the intervention. quickly write down everything they know about a topic. Rubric – A grading or scoring system that lists what work students must show to beQuota – The number or amount constituting a proficient. Also called a Scoring Guide. proportional share. Running Start – A college preparation optionQuotation – The repeated statement from a that permits students in grades 11th and 12th person or from text. When written, it is to take courses on local community and enclosed in quotation marks. technical college campuses and earn credit toward both high school graduation and aQuorum – The minimum number of members college degree. of a group required to be present at a meeting in order to make decisions for an organization. S1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 23
  24. Sanctions – Another word for punishment. School-Family Partnership – Collaborative relationships between educators and familyScaffolding – An instructional technique in members based on mutual respect, trust, which the teacher breaks a complex task equality and shared goals that support and into smaller tasks and supports students as focus on student academic success. they learn, and then gradually shifts responsibility for learning to the students. School Improvement Plan (SIP) – The long- term plan schools create with staff andSchool-Based Management – A system of parents to ensure that all students are school governance by which many school achieving at high levels. level decisions are made by the individual school rather than at district or other agency School Improvement Status – The level. Also known as Site-Based consequences faced by schools and districts Management or Site-Based Decision that do not meet adequate yearly progress Making. (AYP) required by No Child Left Behind federal legislation.School Board - The school board is formed by School Board Directors or members. They School Readiness – The basic background set goals and policy, hire and supervise the and knowledge that children are usually Superintendent, and manage the finances of expected to have upon entering the school district. kindergarten.School Board Directors – Citizens who live School Records – Any information about a within a school district and are elected by student kept by the school. other citizens to be part of the school board of directors. School-to-Work – A curriculum that integrates academic study with up-to-date career andSchool Choice – The opportunity for families technical education and work-readiness to choose which schools their children will skills. attend. Scientifically-based Research – ResearchSchool Culture – The values, cultures, safety about educational programs and activities practices, and organizational structures that that uses systemic and objective procedures cause a school community to function and that provide results considered reliable and react in particular ways. Also knows as valid. School Climate or School Environment. Section 504 Plan – Section 504 of theSchool Day – Any day, including a partial day, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 extended civil when students attend school for instruction. rights to people with disabilities. It allows for reasonable accommodations as necessarySchool District – The organization for each student. Services, responsible for providing free public accommodations, and program education for school-age children residing modifications for students who qualify under within a specific area of a city, county, or Section 504 are outlined in a document state. called “504 Plan.”1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 24
  25. Self-correction – Student recognizes and Standardized Achievement Tests (SAT) – A corrects error without input from others. test widely used as a college entrance examination. Also known as the SATSelf-efficacy – Learners beliefs about their Reasoning Test (formerly called the capacity of succeeding when learning Scholastic Aptitude Test). specific topics or tasks. Standardized Testing – A test provided in theSelf-esteem – An affective or emotional same format for all who take it. reaction to the self. Standards – Statements of what studentsSign Language – A way of communicating should know and be able to demonstrate. that uses signs made with the hands, facial expressions, and body movements. Statute – A piece of legislation, law.Sight Vocabulary – Words that a reader can Story Elements – The critical parts of a story immediately read without having to decode. include character, setting, plot, problem, Also known as Sight Words. solution.Snow Day – Refers to a day that schools are Student-centered Classroom – Classroom in closed because of unsafe winter weather. It which students are encouraged to choose can also refer to the day added to the school their own learning goals and projects. Also calendar that replaces the missed school known as Learner-centered Classroom. time. Student Learning Plan (SLP) – A formalSocial Studies – Includes the subjects of education document to provide regular civics, geography, economics, history, and communication to parents about the the skills of research, reasoning, and student’s continued academic progress and analysis that students should be able to use to assure that students are on track for high in their studies of these subjects. school graduation.Social Promotion – The practice of promoting Student-led Conference – A variation of the students to the next grade whether or not parent-teacher conference in which the they have accomplished the goals of their student prepares for the conference and current grade. leads it by showing the parents or family members samples of her work andSpecial Education – Instruction provided for discussing areas of strengths and students with disabilities according to the weaknesses. requirements of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Student Study Team – A team of educators (See also Special Education Glossary and school staff that comes together at the section of this publication) request of a classroom teacher, parent, or counselor to develop a support system toSpecial Needs Students – Students who meet the needs of a particular student. Also require special instructional programs to referred to as a Multi-disciplinary Team or reach their learning potential. Student Intervention Team.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 25
  26. Student Teacher – A teacher in training Team Teaching – An arrangement by which whose practice teaching is supervised by two or more teachers teach the same group certificated staff or teacher. of students.Substitute Teacher – A certified teacher who Tenure – The legal provision that people in teaches classes when the regular teacher is certain positions may be fired only for absent. specific cause.Summary – A condensed form of a particular Thematic Units – A unit of study that uses a piece of information. specific theme. Sometimes thematic units include all core subject areas.Summons – An official call or notice to attend court at a specific date and time for a Think, Pair, Share – A cooperative learning particular purpose. strategy where students first think about a topic, pair with another student to discussSuperintendent – The person hired by the their ideas, and then share with the whole School Board to manage the day-to-day class. business of the school district. The superintendent evaluates other district Title I –A federal program that provides funds administrators and principals. to improve the academic achievement for educationally disadvantaged students whoSuperintendent of Public Instruction – The score below the 50th percentile on individual elected by the state’s voters to standardized tests. lead the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI). Total Physical Response (TPR) – A language-learning approach thatSupplemental Education – Additional emphasizes the use of physical activity to instruction to basic education. increase vocabulary retention.Suspension – A disciplinary action that Tracking – A teaching practice that groups removes a student from school for a definite students to receive instruction according to period of time. Long-term suspensions last their abilities. for more than 10 days; short term suspensions last fewer than 10 days. Transcript – A copy of a students permanent school record that shows courses taken,Syllabus – An outline and description of a grades, graduation status, and attendance course. and often includes assessments such as PSAT, SAT, ACT. Also known as Student Records.T Transfer of Learning – The ability to takeTeacher Certification – Official state previously learned knowledge or skills and recognition that a person is meets state apply them to new situations. standards and is qualified to be a teacher in Washington’s public schools. Translation – The process of transcribing written information from one language into1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 26
  27. another language keeping the meaning and which course Credit is awarded. Also known intent of the original information. as Work-site Learning.Truancy Petition – Paperwork submitted by a Work-study Program – A Financial Aid school district to juvenile court listing the program that provides jobs for students to number of school days missed by the earn part of their college related costs. student and the actions taken by the district to help the student return to school. This Writers’ Workshop – A classroom practice paperwork must be submitted before the that teaches students how to write through a student can be summoned to juvenile court short strategy lesson, an opportunity to write for a hearing. independently, and a discussion of how the writing lesson was used to change orTruant Students –Youth ages 8 to 18 who do improve their skills. not attend school every day as required by Washington State law. XTutor – Person who provides extra help for students with their schoolwork. A tutor may be another student or an adult. YU Year-round Schooling – A school calendar that gives students shorter breaksUnit of Study – A segment of instruction throughout the year, instead of a traditional focused on a particular topic. three-month summer break.University – An institution of higher education and research, which grants academic Z degrees in a variety of subjects in both undergraduate and postgraduate education. Zero Tolerance – School district policy that defines specific punishment for students who break certain rules.VWWhole Language Approach – A teaching method that emphasizes reading for meaning in context.Work-based Learning – Supervised learning activities for students that occur in paid or unpaid workplace assignments, and for1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 27
  28. Notes:1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 28
  29. Special Education Terms ASpecial education is a service that some Accessibility – A barrier-free environmentchildren with disabilities receive. Not all where students with disabilities can havechildren with disabilities qualify for special maximum participation in all programs andeducation services. activities offered in a school setting.Some of the following terms are for students Accommodations – Changes in the waywho receive accommodations either through a instruction, assessment, and instructional504 plan or through the use of differentiated materials are designed and used to respondinstruction that is part of a quality general to the special needs of students witheducation program. The federal and state laws disabilities. Most often related to studentsfor special education pursuant to the who have a 504 plan or an IEP.Individuals with Disabilities Education Act(IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Adaptive Skills – A term which refers to age-Act of 1973 (a civil rights law) concerning appropriate self-help skills, includingstudents with disabilities can sometimes be independent eating, toileting, personalcomplex and confusing. hygiene and dressing skills. This may be an area for evaluation and may be a goal areaThe brief definitions provided here are not for some students with an IEP.intended to be complete, but rather to providea concise description of the topic as it is being Administrative Hearing – A formal processused during a conversation among adults who for parents and school districts to resolvework with and/or care for children with disagreements about discipline and specialdisabilities. Users are encouraged to seek education services. An administrativefurther, more fully descriptive information about hearing concerning Special Educationeach of these terms from medical professionals matters is known as a Due Process Hearing.and other knowledgeable sources such as There are other types of hearings that areschool staff, parent groups, or disability- used in education, including discipline, thatspecific support groups. Users should also are not a part of Special Education.refer to the federal and state statutes andregulations for legal definitions. Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) – A judge who handles only administrative hearings (ofSee also: Protecting the Educational Rights all types, not just education). ALJs serve asof Students with Disabilities in Public the judges in special education due processSchools a free publication from the Office of hearing.the Education Ombudsman’s available at:www.waparentslearn.org. Advocate – An individual who is not an attorney, but who assists or represents parents to communicate their concerns and obtain necessary special education and related services for their child. Affective – A term which refers to emotions and attitudes.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 29
  30. Alternate Assessment – A tool used for social interactions that is often observed students with disabilities who cannot take before age three. It is part of a group of standardized exams. The alternate disorders known as autism spectrum assessment methods to be used are usually disorders (ASD). These disorders are often specified in IEPs. characterized by impaired communication skills and social abilities, and by repetitiveAnnual Goals – A required component of an behaviors. Symptoms can range from very IEP. Goals are written for the individual mild to quite severe. student to address the needs identified in their individual evaluation. The IEP goals Aversive Intervention Plan - A plan must be reviewed and rewritten annually. developed by the IEP team that describes the systematic use of stimuli or otherAssistive Technology Device – Any piece of treatment which a student is known to find equipment or product used to increase, unpleasant for the purpose of discouraging improve, or maintain the abilities of a child undesirable behavior on the part of the with a disability. student. The purpose of an aversive intervention plan is to assure that studentsAssistive Technology Service – Any service eligible for special education are that directly assists a child with a disability in safeguarded against the use and misuse of using or choosing an Assistive Technology various forms of aversive interventions. Device. Aversive interventions should not be used with a student until a plan is developed toAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) – Children clearly define what specific aversive diagnosed with attention deficit disorder tend interventions will be used, how often and to have problems staying on task and under what circumstances. focusing on conversations or activities.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder B (ADHD) – Children with ADD who are also hyperactive may be diagnosed with ADHD. Baseline Data - The level at which a skill or Hyperactivity, a disorder of the central behavior occurs BEFORE an intervention is nervous system, makes it difficult for implemented. Baseline data should be affected children to control their motor collected at the beginning of an assessment activities, and they may move rapidly from period and used to compare against post- one task to another without completing any intervention data to determine any changes of them. as a result of intervention.Audiology – A related service that addresses BCBA – Board Certified Behavior Analyst. the impact of hearing loss for a student in the educational setting through evaluation, Behavior Intervention Plan – The plan of identification, modifications, maintenance of action designed and implemented to student and classroom equipment or address behavior that may negatively impact devices, and other services. the success of a student with disabilities. The plan includes positive strategies,Autism – A developmental disability affecting program modifications, and aids and verbal and non-verbal communication and supports that address a students disruptive1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 30
  31. behaviors and allows the child to be environment. The IEP team must have the educated in the least restrictive environment opportunity to consider placement in the (LRE). general education classroom, special education classroom, home or hospital setting with whatever supports or servicesC that are necessary.Change of Placement – A change of placement occurs anytime a student is, for D disciplinary reasons, removed from the placement identified on his/her IEP for more Deafness – Deafness means a hearing than 10 days. A change of placement may impairment that is so severe that the student also occur if the IEP team meets and is impaired in processing linguistic decides that services should be provided in information through hearing, with or without a different location. It is not a change of amplification, that adversely affects the placement if the school moves the student students educational performance. from one general education classroom to another or from one resource room to Developmental Delay - When a student does another. not reach their developmental milestones when expected.These can be major or minorCognitive Development - Comprehending, delays. For a student aged 3- 8 years old, remembering, and making sense out of this includes a child whose disability ones experience. Cognition is the ability to adversely affects educational performance think and is often thought of in terms of in one or more of the following areas: intelligence. Physical development, cognitive development, communication development,Communication Development - The ability to social or emotional development or adaptive effectively use or understand age- development AND shows delays of at least appropriate language, including vocabulary, 2 standard deviations in one area, or at least grammar, and speech sounds. 1.5 standard deviations in 2 or more areas on standardized testing. For children andConsent - When a parent or guardian adults applying for Developmental Disability understands and agrees in writing to services from Washington state, it includes a evaluation, the provision of special diagnosis of mental retardation, cerebral education services, or to release educational palsy, epilepsy, autism or another records for their student. Granting consent is neurological condition closely related to voluntary and can be revoked at any time. mental retardation or that requires treatment The parent should be fully informed of all similar to that required for individuals with information relevant to the activity for which mental retardation which occurs before age consent is sought, in his or her native 18, can be expected to continue indefinitely, language, or other mode of communication and results in substantial limitations to an individual’s intellectual or adaptiveContinuum of Services – The range of functioning. services which must be available to the students of a school district so that they may Developmental Screening Tests – A tool be served in the least restrictive used to identify disabilities, sensory1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 31
  32. impairments (e.g., near-sightedness or students with disabilities is limited to and reduced hearing), or behavioral and subject to the requirements under IDEA. developmental disabilities. A screening is not the same as an assessment or Emotional/Behavioral Disability – When the evaluation. student exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of timeDisability – A physical, sensory, cognitive, or and to a marked degree that adversely affective impairment that causes the student affects a students educational performance: to need special education and related (A) An inability to learn that cannot be services. explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintainDue Process of Law – Ensures a person will satisfactory interpersonal relationships with be notified and have an opportunity to be peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types heard before any public entity can change of behavior or feelings under normal her/his rights. Due process procedures for circumstances. (D) A general pervasive special education situations are clearly mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A outlined in the IDEA. Section 504 plan due tendency to develop physical symptoms or process procedures are less clearly defined. fears associated with personal or school problems. An emotional/behavioral disabilityDue Process Hearing – An administrative includes a diagnosis of schizophrenia. hearing presided over by an administrative law judge, not only in special education. Extended School Day – A provision for There are special education hearings but special education students to receive there are also DSHS hearings, for example. instruction for a period longer than the standard school day.Dyslexia – A language-based disability that affects both oral and written language. Extended School Year (ESY) – Special education and related services provided to students qualified for special educationE outside of the normal school year to ensure the student continues her/his educationalEarly Intervention Services – Services that progress. meet the needs of infants and toddlers with disabilities. Typically refers to services from Extracurricular Activities - activities that birth to three years of age. students engage in that are outside the required or elective coursework needed forEmergency Expulsion – the removal of a graduation. These activities are voluntary, student when a superintendent or designee nonpaying, and usually involve students of has good and sufficient reason to believe the same age. Students often organize and that the students presence poses an direct these activities under paid faculty immediate and continuing danger to the supervision. Schools and IEP teams must student, to other students, or to school consider what supplementary aids and personnel, or an immediate and continuing services may be necessary to ensure that threat of substantial disruption of the every student has the ability to participate in educational process. The expulsion of the same nonacademic and extracurricular1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 32
  33. activities as are available to non-disabled Goals – measurable annual benchmarks for peers. growth in academic and functional areas of instructionExit from Special Education – When a school district stops providing special education Graduation - students with disabilities have services. This may be as a result of lack of the right to participate in all high school continued eligibility or aging out of services graduation activities with their age peers at age 21. School districts are required to without forfeiting their right to Transition provide a “Prior Written Notice” to the parent Services from age 18-21 years of age. (or student over age 18) before special education services cease. Gross Motor – Functions which require large muscle movements. For example, walking or jumping.F Guardianship – When a court assignsFERPA – The Family Education Rights and someone else to handle various affairs for Privacy Act. A federal law that protects the an incapacitated individual, such as their privacy of student education records. It finances, health care decisions, or where to identifies parents rights and school live. responsibilities about education records.Fine Motor – Functions which require small H muscle movement for some activities, for example: writing or typing.Free and Appropriate Education (FAPE) – I The right of a student with a disability under IDEA or Section 504 to the education and IEP (Individualized Education Program) – A support services necessary to meet each of document that describes the education his or her identified needs at no cost to the services that a student qualified for special parent. education will receive. The IEP is specific to each student and tailored to his or herFunctional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) – individual educational needs. A problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior that uses IEP Team – The group of people, including techniques to identify what triggers the educators, parents, and others with behaviors, select appropriate interventions, knowledge of the student’s needs, which is and teach the student alternative behaviors. responsible for creating and reviewing the student’s IEP and determining where, what and how services will be delivered.G Inclusion –The practice of educating childrenGeneralization – when a student in the general education classroom, demonstrates skills and behaviors in including children with physical, mental, and multiple environments and under a variety of developmental disabilities. In order to meet conditions. the individual needs of the student, it is often1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 33
  34. necessary to provide additional supports in Job Coach – a person who provides the general education classroom. specialized employment training and support on-site for a person with a disability.Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE) – An evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner, who is not employed by the K school district at the publics expense.Individualized Education – The practice of giving lessons and assignments according L to each students needs and strengths. Also called Individualized Instruction. Learning Disability – A child can be, but not always, identified as having a learningIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act disability when she or he does not achieve of 2004 (IDEA) – A federal law that adequately for the child’s age or to meet guarantees a free and appropriate public state-approved grade-level standards when education (FAPE) for eligible children and provided with learning experiences and youth with disabilities. instruction appropriate for the child’s age or state-approved grade-level standards. MayInstructional Aide – A school employee who also be known as a Learning Disorder. is assigned to help teachers with the education of student. Also know as an Learning Disorder – A condition that Instructional Assistant, Paraeducator, or interferes with a students ability to learn. Paraprofessional. Another term for Learning Disability.Instructional Placement – Phrase used to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) – describe the situation in which a child Commonly refers to removing a student from spends at least half of his/her school day the general education environment as little receiving special education. See also as possible by providing specially designed Resource Placement. instruction and supplementary aids and services in the general education classroomInterim Alternative Educational Setting to the maximum extent appropriate for the (IAES) – A placement of up to 45 days for student. students with disabilities who a) bring weapons to school, b) bring drugs to school, c) inflict serious bodily injury at school, or d) M are determined to be dangerous by an administration law judge. The IAES must be Mainstream – The practice of placing students developed so that students can participate in with disabilities into regular classrooms with the general education curriculum and the supports defined in their IEP. The progress towards achieving the goals set out students usually also receive some in their IEP. assistance and instruction in separate classrooms, or resource rooms .J Manifestation Determination – A process conducted by a student’s IEP team to1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 34
  35. identify and address the relationship activities, special interest groups or clubs between a student’s disability and behaviors sponsored by schools, and referrals to that would normally be subject to expulsion agencies that provide assistance to or suspension. The IEP team must individuals with disabilities and employment determine that the behavior is a of students. Schools and IEP teams must manifestation of the child’s disability if: consider what supplementary aids and • The behavior in question was caused by services may be necessary to ensure that the child’s disability, or had a direct and every student has the ability to participate in substantial relationship to the child’s the same nonacademic and extracurricular disability or activities as are available to non-disabled • the behavior was the direct result of the peers. school’s failure to implement the child’s IEP. OMediation – A free, voluntary process where a trained, neutral mediator helps parents Objectives - Measurable steps toward the and/or advocates and school districts reach achievement of a goal. a mutually acceptable solution to disagreements over special education Occupational Therapy – A special education services and/or supports. related service which is usually focused on the development of a students fine motorMultidisciplinary Team - a team of teachers, skills and strategies for daily life. parents, specialists, and administrators who assess the individual needs of a student and Office of Civil Rights (OCR) – An office within make educational recommendations. the U.S. Department of Education responsible for enforcing Section 504 protections and investigating civil rightsN complaints.Native Language – the language normally Other Health Impairment - Other health used by someone, or, in the case of a impairment means having limited strength, student, the language normally used by the vitality, or alertness, including a heightened parents of the student in their home or alertness to environmental stimuli, that learning environment. For an individual with results in limited alertness with respect to deafness or blindness, or for an individual the educational environment, that adversely with no written language, the mode of affect educational performance. communication is that normally used by the individual, such as sign language, Braille, or OSPI – Office of the Superintendent of Public oral communication. Instruction. In Washington, it is the state educational agency.Natural Supports – a system of supports that are available to all individuals as a natural Orientation and Mobility Services – related result of typical family and community living. services that teach a blind or visually impaired child navigation skills to knowNonacademic Services – may include where he is in space and how to plan to get counseling services, athletics, transportation, health services, recreational1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 35
  36. where he wants to go within the school should attend. In this case, the public setting and community. agency must keep a record of its attempts to arrange a mutually agreed on time andOrthopedic Impairment - Physical place. The school district must take impairments caused by a congenital whatever action is necessary to ensure that anomaly, impairments caused by disease the parent understands the proceedings of (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and the IEP team meeting, including arranging impairments from other causes (e.g., for an interpreter for parents with deafness cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or or whose native language is other than burns that cause contractures) that English. The school district must give the adversely affect a students educational parent a copy of the students IEP at no cost performance. to the parent. PECS – Picture Exchange CommunicationP System.Paraeducator – A school employee who is Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) – assigned to help a teacher with the A term used to describe a certain type of education of student(s). Also known as an disability on the autism spectrum. Instructional Aide, Instructional Assistant, or Paraprofessional. Physical development: Fine and/or gross motor skills requiring precise, coordinated,Parent Participation - A school district must use of small muscles and/or motor skills ensure that one or both of the parents of a used for body control such as standing, student eligible for special education are walking, balance, and climbing that present at each IEP team meeting or are adversely affect a students educational afforded the opportunity to participate, performance. including: (1) Notifying parents of the meeting early enough to ensure that they Physical Therapy – A treatment of physical will have an opportunity to attend; and (2) disabilities, under a doctors prescription, Scheduling the meeting at a mutually agreed that helps a student improve the use of on time and place indicating the purpose, bones, muscles, joints, and nerves in order time, and location of the meeting and who to better access education programs and will be in attendance. Parents must be services. informed about the participation of other individuals on the IEP team who have Placement – The how and where students knowledge or special expertise about the who have an IEP or Section 504 Plan student. Parents must also be included in receive the special education services or the development of a transition plan. If accommodations outlined in their plans. neither parent can attend an IEP team meeting, the school district must use other Positive Behavior Support - An approach to methods to ensure parent participation, changing student behavior that interferes including video or telephone conference with learning that is focused on scientifically- calls. A meeting may be conducted without a based, best evidence-based practices, data, parent in attendance if the school district is and positive outcomes for students. unable to convince the parents that they Generally, the goal of positive behavioral1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 36
  37. support is to increase a student’s integration Related Services – Various support services, and access to their peers and the for special education students. For example: educational environment, and to prevent transportation, social work, counseling. isolation, restraint or disciplinary actions for a student. Resolution Session – A meeting between the parents, school district, and IEP team thatPost-secondary Education – Instruction and occurs after a due process hearing request training that occurs after graduation from has been made in order to discuss the high school. complaint and try to solve the problem before the hearing occurs.Prior Written Notice – A written document that describes any changes to a student’s Response To Intervention (RTI) – Refers to eligibility, evaluation, placement, or services scientifically-based interventions a school that is provided to the parent BEFORE the district may use to determine if a child has a changes occur. This written notice must be learning disability. provided in the parent’s native language. The district must also provide this notice Resource Room – A special education when it refuses to make a change that is classroom where students can go for requested by the parent. additional help mastering academic skills. A student’s IEP designates the number of minutes a day and/or week a student willQ receive resource room support. SR Section 504 Plan – Section 504 of theReasonable Accommodation – Educational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 extended civil program adaptation or modifications that rights to people with disabilities. It allows for allow students with disabilities to more fully reasonable accommodations as necessary participate in school. for each student. Services, accommodations, and programReevaluation - Evaluation which occurs for a modifications for students who qualify under student who is already eligible for special Section 504 are outlined in a document education services to determine their called “504 Plan.” continued eligibility for services or if any changes to the educational program need to Social or emotional development - The occur. ability to develop and maintain functional interpersonal relationships and to exhibitReferral – The written request made to a age appropriate social and emotional school district to evaluate a student for behaviors. special education and/or Section 504 eligibility. Special Education – Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability who qualifies for special education. The services are provided1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 37
  38. at no cost to the parent. The services can be Supplementary Aids and Services - Aids, provided in many different settings. services, and other supports that are provided in general education classes orSpecial Education Student – Any student other education-related settings that enable who has a disability that adversely affects students with disabilities to participate to the his or her academic performance. maximum extent appropriate with nondisabled students in the least restrictiveSpecially Designed Instruction – Instruction environment and in all programs and designed to address the specific needs of a activities offered to students. student who qualifies for special education services. It is based on the results of the Supported Employment – A progressive student’s individual evaluation. In order for approach to maximizing competitive instruction to be considered specially employment opportunities for people with designed, it must differ from the instruction disabilities. provided in the general education program, and cannot merely be accommodations or Surrogate Parent – A person designated by modifications. the school district to assume all parent educational rights when a parent orSpecific Learning Disabilities – A disorder of immediate relative caring for the child one or more psychological processes that cannot be identified, or when a child is a interfere with the ability to process language, ward of the state. written or spoken that may be noticed with difficulty in listening, speaking, writing, reading, spelling, or doing mathematical T calculations. Therapeutic Day Program – An instructionalSpeech/language impairment -A placement for students with significant communication disorder, such as stuttering, emotional disturbances in which treatment impaired articulation, a language for the emotional difficulty is incorporated impairment, or a voice impairment, that into the school program. adversely affects a students educational performance. Transition Services – A plan of activities designed to assist and prepare a student inSpeech Language Pathologist (SLP) – A special education to move from secondary professional who can help students who education to the workplace or to higher have language and speech disorders. This education. might include expressive and/or reception language as well as speech disorders. Transition Planning – Planning for adolescents post-school lives. It must beginStay Put – The right of a student with a by age 16 and it requires transition goals to disability to remain in his or her current be incorporated into the IEP process. placement until disputes have been resolved. When a parent or the school Transfer of Rights – Parent rights transfer to district files for a hearing, there may be a the student at the age of 18. Parents must stay put requirement until the dispute is be notified of the transfer of student rights in settled. writing and in their native language. Parents1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 38
  39. may remain involved in their student’s IEP team, and must be notified of IEP meetings W once a transfer of rights occurs. Washington Alternate Assessment SystemTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - An acquired (WAAS) – The system designed for and injury to the brain caused by an external administered to students with disabilities physical force, resulting in total or partial who, even with accommodation, would not functional disability or psychosocial be able to take the state assessment of impairment, or both, that adversely affects a student learning. students educational performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments X in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; Y psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or Z degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. Zero Reject – A core principle of the IDEA which establishes that no student with a disability, regardless of the nature orU severity of their disability, can be denied a free, appropriate, public education.Unilateral Private School Placement – when a parent places their child with a disability in a private school without the agreement of the school district and requests payment or reimbursement for the costs of the private school.Universal Design - a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products, services and systems that are usable by everyone, including people with disabilities.VVocational Rehabilitation Services – Employment training and services designed to assist a person with a disability who wants to work but has a substantial barrier to finding or keeping a job.1-877-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org 39
  40. The Office of the Education Ombudsman (OEO) is an agency within the Governor’s office that helps families and schoolsresolve disputes and problems that impact students’ ability to succeed in school. OEO supports student achievement, promotes school-familypartnerships, provides information about public education, and makes recommendations to public officials for improving the school system. If you are a parent, legal guardian, student, or educator, and need help resolving a problem or conflict, call us! We listen. We inform. We help solve problems. Toll-free 1-866-297-2597 www.waparentslearn.org

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