Please Note: This material, or any other material used to inform employers of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA. The information in workbook is intended for classroom use only.
Understanding the big picture is critical to successfully managing a company’s safety and health management program (system). The primary emphasis of the workshop is to address the seven core elements of an effective safety and health system and those central issues that are critical to each element’s proper management.
This course will also introduce you to the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) and the Voluntary Protection Program (STAR)
To get the most out of this course, it’s important that everyone freely share their knowledge and experience with the class, so don’t hesitate.
1. Understand the basics of a safety management system.
2. Identify the seven core elements of an effective safety and health program.
3. Describe the key processes in each program element.
Strategic and tactical safety planning Suggesting, and recommending improvements
Leading and managing Participating in safety committees, teams, project
Educating and training Correcting hazards
I dentifying , measuring , and analyzing data Improving system weaknesses
Recognizing and rewarding performance Evaluating conditions, behaviors, systems, results
Outputs - Conditions, Behaviors, Results
Safe/Unsafe conditions Safe/Unsafe behaviors
Many/Few accidents High/Low costs/saving
High/Low morale, trust High/Low productivity
The Safety Management System What might be the result if a safety plan is poorly written or not effectively implemented? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Where do we look for clues that safety system design and/or implementation are flawed? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ “ Every system is designed perfectly to produce what it’s producing” Inputs Outputs Processes
What is T op M anagement C ommitment?
T_____________ M _______________ C ______________ Expression of leadership
What has management done to demonstrate commitment at your workplace? Time, money, communications = TMC
Indicate the consequence below that motivates your employer.
My company does safety primarily to…
1. Avoid Oregon OSHA penalties. ________
2. Reduce costs - increase profits ________
3. Keep employees safe ________
Class Ranking 1 2 3 Make a bar graph to show how the class ranked each statement. 12 10 8 6 4 2
1.Workers’ compensation premiums 2. Some medical expenses Direct - Insured Costs Indirect - Uninsured, hidden Costs - Out of pocket “ Just the tip of the iceberg” 1. Time lost from work by injured employee. 2. Lost time by fellow employees. 3. Loss of efficiency due to break-up of crew. 4. Lost time by supervisor. 5. Training costs for new/replacement workers. 6. Damage to tools and equipment. 7. Time damaged equipment is out of service. 8. Loss of production for remainder of the day. 9. Damage from accident: fire, water, chemical, explosives, etc. 10. Failure to fill orders/meet deadlines. 11. Overhead costs while work was disrupted. 12. Other miscellaneous costs (over 100 other items may impact the employer). 13. Others? ____________________________________________ What do accidents cost your company? Unknown Costs - 1. Human Tragedy 2. Morale 3. Reputation Oregon average to close a claim = $10,000 Oregon estimated average = $18,000 Average direct and indirect accident costs No lost time injury: $7,000 Lost time injury: $28,000 Fatality: $910,000 Using National Safety Council average costs for 1998, includes both direct and indirect costs, excludes property damage. Direct to Indirect Accident Cost Ratios Direct cost of claim Ratio of indirect to direct costs $0-2,999 4.5 $3,000 - 4,999 1.6 $5,000 - 9,999 1.2 $10,000 or more 1.1 Studies show that the ratio of indirect to direct costs can vary widely, from a high of 20:1 to a low of 1:1. Source: Business Roundtable, 1982. Unseen costs can sink the ship!
Event or Exposure CLAIMS AVERAGE Leading to Injury (Partial list) CLOSED COST($) Non-classifiable 1,012 11,036 Struck against stationary object 586 8,437 Struck against moving object 170 10,601 Struck by, other 593 13,943 Struck by falling object 919 13,961 Struck by flying object 291 10,202 Contact with electrical current 27 24,847 Caught in equipment or objects 1,216 14,544 Fall to lower level, all other 436 20,173 Fall down stair or step 297 9,682 Fall from floor, dock, ground level 123 15,006 Fall from ladder 399 17,772 Fall from roof 77 27,544 Fall from scaffold 60 17,612 Fall from non-moving vehicle 338 16,173 Fall to floor, walkway 1,861 11,040 Jump to lower level 183 11,993 Bodily reaction, other 2,547 9,917 Loss of balance 861 9,968 Overexertion, all other 1,267 12,490 Lifting objects 2,981 10,310 Pulling, pushing objects 1,171 11,803 Holding, carrying, wielding objects 1,284 11,939 Repetitive motion 2,510 11,777 Exposure to noise 133 10,461 Highway Collisions 539 16,426 Struck by Vehicle 183 18,092 Explosion 23 12,792 Assault or Violent Act by person 257 10,685 Notes: Table reflects estimated medical, timeloss, and partial permanent disability cost data for disabling claim closure activity. Costs exclude partial total disability and fatal indemnity, vocational assistance, medical-only claim costs, settlements, timeloss paid prior to claim denial and prior to settlement where claim was never closed, and compensation modified on appeal. Source: Research and Analysis Section, Information Management Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services 2001 Average Cost For Disabling Claims By Event or Exposure Total Claims = 25,305 Average Cost = $11,678
$ A F E T Y P A Y S ! OSHA Advisor @ www.osha.gov
Estimated Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses and Estimated Impact on a Company's Profitability
Report for Year: 1999
Employer: XYZ Inc
Prepared by: I. B. Safe, Safety Coordinator, on January 28, 2000
The injury or illness selected: Strain
Average Direct Cost: $5,945
Average Indirect Cost: $7,134
Estimated Total Cost: $13,079
The net profit margin for this company is 4 %
The ADDITIONAL sales necessary
- to cover Indirect Costs are: $178,350
- to cover Total Costs are: $ 326,975
The injury or illness selected: Laceration
Average Direct Cost: $1,101
Average Indirect Cost: $4,954
Estimated Total Cost: $6,055
The net profit margin for this company is 4%
The ADDITIONAL sales necessary
- to cover Indirect Costs are: $123,850
- to cover Total Costs are: $ 151,375
The injury or illness selected: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Average Direct Cost: $8,305
Average Indirect Cost: $9,966
Estimated Total Cost: $18,271
The net profit margin for this company is 4%
The ADDITIONAL sales necessary
- to cover Indirect Costs are: $249,150
- to cover Total Costs are: $ 456,775
The TOTAL ADDITIONAL SALES required by these 3 incidents is estimated to be between:
$ 551,350 and $935,125
The extent to which the employer ultimately pays the direct costs depends on the nature of the employer's workers‘ compensation insurance policy. The employer always pays the indirect costs.
$AFETY PAYS is a tool developed by OSHA to assist employers in assessing the impact of occupational injuries and illnesses on their profitability. It uses a company's profit margin, the AVERAGE costs of an injury or illness, and an indirect cost multiplier to project the amount of sales a company would need to generate in order to cover those costs. Since AVERAGES are used, the actual costs may be higher or lower. Costs used here do not reflect the pain and suffering of injuries and illnesses. The cost of injury and illness data were provided to OSHA by Argonaut Insurance Company and based on 53,000 claims for 1992-94.
Proactive Vs. Reactive Approach to Safety & Health Management Reactive Approach - Goal: Reduce injury costs Proactive Approach - Goal: Prevent future injuries What programs are emphasized? What programs are emphasized? In organizations, clients for the services provided by staff people are called line managers. Line managers have to labor under the advice of staff groups, whether they like it or not. But any staff function, by definition, has no direct authority over anything but its own time, its own internal staff, and the nature of the service it offers. Peter Block, Flawless Consulting What's proactive? What's reactive? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
Six essential elements of an effective accountability system
1. Established formal standards of behavior and performance.
Programs, Policies, Plans, Processes, Procedures, Practices (the Six P's)
Before pointing the finger of blame, make sure management all obligations to the employee have been fulfilled. When is a supervisor justified in disciplining? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Accountabilities Managers and employees are responsible and accountable for key behaviors and performance. Supervisors and managers are accountable to the law and obligated to employees to fulfill their responsibilities. Employees are accountable to the employer and obligated to coworkers to fulfill their responsibilities. Employer Employee Why does the employer have more accountabilities than the employee? Is that fair? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ How are employees held accountable in your workplace? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Provide resources for a safety and healthful workplace Provide effective safety education and training Provide adequate supervision Provide positive and negative consequences Comply with company safety policies, rules Report injuries immediately Report hazards as soon as possible Comply with state and federal OSHA law What’s with that? Hint: Look at employer accountabilities
Group exercise: Discuss ways your employer uses (or could use) to increase involvement in the safety committee and other activities. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Choose one of the above ideas and discuss those methods and procedures that help ensure its success. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Employee Involvement
_________________________________________________________________ well organized so that each member has responsibility to monitor a certain program. For instance,
Involvement in the Safety Committee The safety committee has a definite role to play and important purposes to fulfill in helping ensure successful employee involvement. Your “purpose” may be thought of as what you intend to do . Your “role”describes who you are . If members of the safety committee do not clearly understand their purposes and role, their well-intended actions may actually hurt the very system they are trying to help succeed.
4. Hazard Identification & Control What is a "hazard?" ( Complete the sentence below.) An U C and it’s P ! that could cause an I to an E . P I (Extra Credit) or or Hazard analysis is smart business! What are the advantages of conducting hazard analysis vs. accident investigation? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
M_______________ E_______________ E_______________ P_______________ What are the four categories of hazards in the workplace?
Hazardous conditions or unsafe work practices: Which results in more accidents?
Any hazards or unsafe behaviors here? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Any hazards or unsafe behaviors here? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Any hazards or unsafe behaviors here? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________
Hierarchy of Hazard Control Strategies
1. Engineering Controls - Remove or reduce the hazard
Eliminates or reduces the severity of the hazard itself through initial design and redesign, enclosure, substitution, replacement and other engineering changes.
Major strengths: Eliminates the hazard itself. Does not rely solely on human behavior for effectiveness.
Major weakness: May not be feasible if controls present long-term financial hardship.
What control measures might work to correct these hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors? Engineering controls ______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Management controls _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ PPE _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
What are the odds that a serious injury will occur? 5. Incident/Accident Investigation Ponder this: Which one of the incidents will result in my injury or death? How does your perception of a particular hazard change with daily exposure to that hazard? __________________________________________________________________ What is an “accident?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Why do we “investigate” accidents? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ H.W. Heinrich's Pyramid (1931) Lost Work Day Case 730 First Aid Only 1 39 OSHA Recordable 292 Workers' Comp Proctor & Gamble's Port Ivory Study (1984)
When a serious accident occurs in the workplace, everyone will be too busy dealing with the emergency at hand to worry about putting together an investigation plan, so now... before the accident occurs... is the time to develop effective accident investigation procedures. They should include as a minimum procedures that:
1 . Write a clear policy statement.
2. Identify those authorized to notify outside agencies (fire, police, etc.)
3. Designate those responsible to investigate accidents.
4. Train all accident investigators.
5. Establish timetables for conducting the investigation and taking corrective action.
6. Identify those who will receive the report and take corrective action.
Weed out the causes of injuries and illnesses Fails to inspect No recognition plan Inadequate training plan No accountability policy No inspection policy No discipline procedures Outdated Procedures No orientation process Unguarded machine Horseplay Fails to train To much work Defective PPE Fails to report injury Inadequate training Create a hazard Fails to enforce Untrained worker Broken tools Ignore a hazard Lack of time Inadequate labeling procedures No recognition Cuts Burns Strains Chemical spill Conditions Behaviors Surface Causes of the Accident Root Causes of the Accident Direct Causes of Injury/Illness
The causes of Injury, Illness and Accidents
1. Direct Cause of Injury
The direct cause is always a harmful transfer of energy
Energy may take the form of:
Acoustic - excessive noise and vibration
Chemical - corrosive, toxic, flammable, or reactive substances
Electrical - low/high voltage, current
Kinetic - energy transferred from impact
Mechanical - associated with components that move
Potential - involves "stored energy" in objects that are under pressure
Radiant - ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
Thermal - excessive heat, extreme cold.
Safety engineer attempt to eliminate or reduce sources of harmful energy
Any way you look at it, system design is the key to effective safety. If design is flawed, yet perfectly implemented, the system fails. If design is perfect, yet implementation is flawed, the system fails as a result of design flaws in other related processes.
The six-step process Gather information Analyze the facts Implement Solutions Secure the scene Collect data about what happened Develop the sequence of events Determine the surface and root causes Develop corrective actions Write and submit the report Secure the accident scene Collect facts about what happened Develop the sequence of events Determine the causes Recommend improvements Write the report
Three phases of analysis
Injury Analysis. Analyze the injury event to identify the direct cause of injury .
Laceration to right forearm from contacting rotating saw blade. (mechanical energy)
Contusion from head impacting concrete floor. (kinetic energy)
Burn injury to right lower leg from contact by battery acid. (chemical energy)
Event Analysis. Analyze each event to identify potential surface causes for the accident. Look for a related specific hazardous conditions and employee behaviors that directly caused or contributed to the accident.
Unguarded saw blade. (condition)
Working at elevation without proper fall protection. (behavior)
Employee unaware of hazards associated with battery acid. (condition)
Weekly inspection of saws is not being regularly conducted. (behavior)
New employees are not trained on fall protection methods. (condition)
Supervisor is not administering corrective actions for unsafe behaviors. (behavior)
Systems Analysis. Analyze surface causes to identify related root causes : those underlying management system design and implementation weaknesses that contributed to the accident. Look for inadequate policies, programs, plans, processes, procedures and practices affecting general conditions and behaviors.
Inspection policy does not clearly specify responsibility by name or position. (design)
No fall protection training plan or process in place. (design)
Supervisors are not administering discipline when required. (implementation)
Safety is not being addressed during new employee orientation (implementation)
Why? Why? Why?
Education tells Why
Builds the philosophical foundation
Transfers general knowledge
Explains natural and system consequences
Training shows How
One form of education
Builds the specific knowledge base
Transfers initial skills
Experience improves skills
Increases insight, understanding
Further develops expert skills
Accountability sustains behaviors
Natural consequences - hurt or health
System consequences - discipline, recognition, reward
Give examples of effective safety training. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ How do you know safety training is effective? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ “ Safety training is worthless without accountability.” 6. Training
DOCUMENT TRAINING! Sample training certification for specific tasks
Trainee certification. I have received on-the-job training from the trainer listed below on those subjects below (or on other side of sheet):
List procedure(s), practice(s )____________________________________________________________________
List related policies, rules, accountabilities ________________________________________________________
This training has provided me adequate opportunity to practice to determine and correct skill deficiencies. I understand that performing these procedures/practices safely is a condition of employment. I fully intend to comply with all safety and operational requirements discussed. I understand that failure to comply with these requirements may result in progressive discipline (or corrective actions) up to and including termination.
Trainer certification. I have conducted on-the-job training on the subjects for the trainee(s) listed above. I have explained procedures/practices and policies, answered all questions, observed practice, and tested each trainee individually. I have determined that the trainee(s) listed above has/have adequate knowledge and skills to safety perform these procedures/practices.
Explain why safe behavior is important - the natural and system consequences
Describe safety procedure/practice: general to specific
Demonstrate safety procedure/practice: one step at a time
Repeat steps if necessary and be patient
Ask worker to explain and perform procedure.
Correct any errors immediately: address performance, not person.
Practice until you and worker are confident.
Observe worker performing safety procedure/practice on the job.
Ask for, and give feedback: encourage questions.
Get commitment to use safe procedures.
Decrease observations over time as appropriate.
Evaluate the training: If you catch them doing it right…it’s been effective.
Last and first phase of planning cycle
Identify, analyze, evaluate all elements of the program
Identify - “Is it present?” Yes/No. Inspect.
Analyze - “What does the policy, plan, procedure look like?”
Evaluate - Rate effectiveness. “Is it effective?” Judgment call.
Use outside experts
Primary safety committee responsibility - evaluate the safety and health program
OAR 437- Division 1, Rule 0765(6) Hazard assessment and control.
(d)(A) The safety committee shall assist the employer in evaluating the employer's accident and illness prevention program, and shall make written recommendations to improve the program where applicable.
(f) Accountability. The safety committee shall evaluate the employer's accountability system and make recommendations to implement supervisor and employee accountability for safety and health.
Establish procedures for change - an action plan
Plan carefully - test it - study the results - adopt, abandon or revise
Measure activity and results
Supervisor, manager behaviors, performance
Employee behaviors, performance
Make effective recommendations
Use facts and figures, not subjective hunches
Contrast benefits of investment with high costs of inaction
7. Plan Evaluation
SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT PROGRAM EVALUATION (Choose one) 5=Fully Met 3=Mostly Met 1=Partially Met 0=Not Present ELEMENT 1 - MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT ____ 1. A written policy that sets a high priority for safety and health exists. ____ 2. A written safety and health goal and supporting objectives exist. ____ 3. The workplace safety and health policy is supported by management. ____ 4. Safety and health goals and objectives are supported by management. ____ 5. Management supports safety and health rules. ____ 6. Managers personally follow safety and health rules. ____ 7. Managers personally intervene in the safety behavior of others. ____ 8. Managers set a visible example of safety and health leadership. ____ 9. Managers participate in the safety and health training of employees. ELEMENT 2 - ACCOUNTABILITY ____ 10. Management insists on compliance as demonstrated by effective enforcement of safety and health policies and rules. ____ 11. Safety and health program tasks are each specifically assigned to a person or position for performance or coordination. ____ 12. Each assignment of safety and health responsibility is clearly communicated. ____ 13. Individuals with assigned safety and health responsibilities have the necessary knowledge, skills, and timely information to perform their duties. ____ 14. Individuals with assigned safety and health responsibilities have the authority to perform their duties. ____ 15. Individuals with assigned safety and health responsibilities have the resources to perform their duties. ____ 16. An accountability mechanism is included with each assignment of safety and health responsibility. ____ 17. Individuals are recognized and rewarded for meeting safety and health responsibilities. ____ 18. Individuals are disciplined for not meeting safety and health responsibilities. ____ 19. Supervisors know whether employees are meeting their safety and health responsibilities.
ELEMENT 3 - EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT ____ 20. There is a process designed to involve employees in safety and health issues. ____ 21. Employees are aware of the safety and health involvement process at the workplace. ____ 22. Employees believe the process that involves them in safety and health issues is effective. ____ 23. The workplace safety and health policy is effectively communicated to employees. ____ 24. The workplace safety and health policy is supported by employees. ____ 25. Safety and health goals and supporting objectives are effectively communicated to employees. ____ 26. Safety and health goals and objectives are supported by employees. ____ 27. Employees use the hazard reporting system. ____ 28. Injury/Illness data analyses are reported to employees. ____ 29. Hazard control procedures are communicated to potentially affected employees. ____ 30. Employees are aware of how to obtain competent emergency medical care. ELEMENT 4 – HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL ____ 31. A comprehensive baseline hazard survey has been conducted within the past five years. ____ 32. Effective job hazard analysis (JHA) is performed, as needed. ____ 33. Effective safety and health inspections are performed regularly. ____ 34. Effective surveillance of established hazard controls is conducted. ____ 35. An effective hazard reporting system exists. ____ 36. Change analysis is performed whenever a change in facilities, equipment, materials, or processes occurs. ____ 37. Expert hazard analysis is performed, as needed. ____ 38. Hazards are eliminated or controlled promptly. ____ 39. Hazard control procedures demonstrate a preference for engineering methods. ____ 40. Effective engineering controls are in place, as needed. ____ 41. Effective administrative controls are in place, as needed. ____ 42. Safety and health rules are written.
____ 43. Safe work practices are written. ____ 44. Personal protective equipment is effectively used as needed. ____ 45. Effective preventive and corrective maintenance is performed. ____ 46. Emergency equipment is well maintained. ____ 47. Engineered hazard controls are well maintained. ____ 48. Housekeeping is properly maintained. ____ 49. The organization is prepared for emergency situations. ____ 50. The organization has an effective plan for providing competent emergency medical care to employees and others present on the site. ____ 51. An early-return-to-work program is in place at the facility. ELEMENT 5 – INCIDENT / ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ____ 52. Incidents/Accidents are investigated for root causes. ____ 53. Investigations are conducted to improve systems. ____ 54. Investigators are trained in procedures. ____ 55. Serious accidents/fatality investigations are conducted by teams. ____ 56. Analysis involves all interested parties. ____ 57. Disciplinary actions are not automatic tied to incidents/accidents. ELEMENT 6 - TRAINING ____ 58. An organized safety an health training program exists. ____ 59. Employees receive safety and health training. ____ 60. Employee training covers hazards of the workplace. ____ 61. Employee safety and health training covers all OSHA-required subjects. ____ 62. Employee training covers the facility safety system. ____ 63. Appropriate safety and health training is provided to every employee. ____ 64. New employee orientation includes applicable safety and health information.
____ 65. Workplace safety and health policy is understood by employees. ____ 66. Safety and health goals and objectives are understood by employees. ____ 67. Employees periodically practice implementation of emergency plans. ____ 68. Employees are trained in the use of emergency equipment. ____ 69. Supervisors receive safety and health training. ____ 70. Supervisors receive all training required by OSHA standards. ____ 71. Supervisors are effectively trained on all applicable hazards. ____ 72. Supervisors are trained on all site-specific preventive measures and controls relevant to their needs and supervisory responsibilities. ____ 73. Supervisor training covers the supervisory aspects of their safety and health responsibilities. ____ 74. Safety and health training is provided to managers, as appropriate. ____ 75. Managers are aware of all relevant safety and health training mandated by OSHA. ____ 76. Managers understand the organization's safety and health system. ____ 77. Relevant safety and health aspects are integrated into all management training. ____ 78. Relevant safety and health aspects are integrated into all management training. ELEMENT 7 - PLAN EVALUATION ____ 79. Workplace injury/illness data are effectively analyzed. ____ 80. Safety and health training is regularly evaluated. ____ 81. Post-training knowledge and skills for safety and health are tested or evaluated. ____ 82. Hazard incidence data are effectively analyzed. ____ 83. Hazard controls are monitored to assure continued effectiveness. ____ 84. A review of in-place OSHA-mandated programs is conducted at least annually. ____ 85. A review of the overall safety and health management system is conducted at least annually.
Before you run, time to review
1. What is the criteria for management commitment?
2. T F Safety committees must evaluate accountability systems.
3. Effective safety committees perform the role of a ____________ not a ____________.
4. Engineering controls try to eliminate or reduce the ____________ itself. Management controls attempt to reduce ____________ to the hazard by controlling behavior.
5. The purpose of effective incident/accident analysis is to fix the _________________.
6. Education increases _________________ while training improves ________________ .
7. Match the process on the left with goal statement on the right.
____ Identification a. Determine what something looks like
____ Analysis b. Determine if something is effective
____ Evaluation c. Determine if something is present
Strategic Map for Change and Continuous Improvement for Safety and Health
The following strategic map describes major processes and milestones that need to be implemented to successfully implement a change process for safety and health. This strategy is intended to help you focus on the process rather than on individual tasks. It is common for most sites to have a tendency to focus on the accomplishment of tasks, i.e., to train everyone on a particular concern or topic or implement a new procedure for incident investigations. Sites that maintain their focus on the larger process are far more successful. They can see the "forest" from the "trees" and thus can make mid-course adjustments as needed. They never lose sight of their intended goals, and tend not to get distracted or allow obstacles to interfere with their mission. The process itself will take care of the task implementation and ensure that the appropriate resources are provided and priorities are set.
Process Implementation Strategy:
Obtain Top Management "Buy-in" - This is the very first step that needs to be accomplished. Top managers must be on board. If they are not, safety and health will compete against core business issues such as production and profitability, a battle that will almost always be lost. Management needs to understand the need for change and be willing to support it. Showing the costs to the organization in terms of dollars (direct and indirect costs of accidents) that are being lost, and the organizational costs (fear, lack of trust, feeling of being used, etc) can be compelling reasons for doing something different. Because losses due to accidents are bottom line costs to the organization, controlling these will more than pay for the needed changes. In addition, as you are successful you will eliminate organizational barriers such as fear and lack of trust – issues that typically get in the way of all of the organization's goals. A safety and health change process can very effectively drive change and bring an organization together due to the ability to get buy-in from all levels. This stems from the fact that most people place a high personal value on their own safety. They view the change efforts as things that are truly being done for them.
Continue Building "Buy-in" for the needed changes by building an alliance or partnership between management, your union (if one exists), and employees. A compelling reason for the change must be spelled out to everyone. People have to understand WHY they are being asked to change what they normally do and what it will look like when they are successful. This needs to be done upfront. If people get wind that something "is going down" and haven’t been formally told anything, they will tend to naturally resist and opt out. Identify key personnel to champion the change. These people must be visible and are the ones to articulate the reasons for the changes. The reasons need to be compelling and motivational. People frequently respond when they realize how many of their co-workers or subordinates are being injured and that they may be next. Management and supervisors also respond when they see the money being lost due to accidents and they realize that their actions toward safety truly influence and define the employee safety culture.
Build Trust - Trusting is a critical part of accepting change and management needs to know that this is the bigger picture, outside of all the details. Trust will occur as different levels within the organization work together and begin to see success.
Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking - In order to get where you want to go, it is essential to know where you are starting from. You can use a variety of self-audit mechanisms to compare your site processes with other recognized models of excellence such as Star VPP sites. Visiting other sites to gain first hand information is also invaluable. You can use perception surveys to measure the strengths and weaknesses of your site safety culture. These surveys can give you data from various viewpoints within the organization. For instance, you can measure differences in employees' and managers' perceptions on various issues. This is an excellent way to determine whether alignment issues exist and, if so, what they are. At this stage, it is important to look at issues that surface as symptoms of larger system failures. For example, ask what major system failed to detect the unguarded machine, or why the system failed to notice that incident investigations are not being performed on time, or if workers are being blamed for the failures. Your greatest level of success will come when these larger system failures are recognized and addressed.
Initial Training of management-supervisory staff, union leadership (if present), and safety and health committee members, and a representative number of hourly employees. This may include both safety and health training and any needed management, team building, hazard recognition, or communication training. This provides you with a core group of people to draw upon as resources and also gets key personnel on board with needed changes.
Establish a Steering Committee made up of management, employees, union (if present), and safety staff. This group's purpose is to facilitate, support, and direct the change processes. This will provide overall guidance and direction and avoid duplication of efforts. To be effective, the group must have the authority to get things done.
Develop Site Safety Vision , key policies, goals, measures, and strategic and operational plans. These policies provide guidance and serve as a check-in that can be used to ask yourself if the decision you’re about to make supports or detracts from your intended safety and health improvement process.
Align the Organization by establishing a shared vision of safety and health goals and objectives versus production. Upper management must be willing to support by providing resources (time) and holding managers and supervisors accountable for doing the same. The entire management and supervisory staff needs to set the example and lead the change. It's more about leadership than management.
Define Specific Roles and responsibilities for safety and health at all levels of the organization. Safety and health must be viewed as everyone's responsibility. Clearly spell out how the organization deals with competing pressures and priorities, i.e., production versus safety and health.
Develop a System of Accountability for all levels of the organization. Everyone must play by the same rules and be held accountable for their areas of responsibility. The sign of a strong culture is when the individuals hold themselves accountable.
Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and feedback system. Drive the system with upstream activity measures that encourage positive change. Examples include: the number of hazards reported or corrected, numbers of inspections, number of equipment checks, Job Safety Analysis (JSA), prestart-up reviews conducted, etc. While it is always nice to know what the bottom line performance is, i.e., accident rates, overemphasis on rates and using them to drive the system typically only drives accident reporting under the table. It is all too easy to manipulate accident rates, which will only result in risk issues remaining unresolved and a probability for future, more serious events to occur.
Develop Policies for Recognition , rewards, incentives, and ceremonies. Reward employees for doing the right things and encourage participation in the upstream activities. Continually re-evaluate these policies to ensure their effectiveness and to ensure that they do not become entitlement programs.
Awareness Training and Kick-off for all employees. It's not enough for a part of the organization to be involved and know about the change effort. The entire site needs to know and be involved in some manner. A kick-off celebration can be used to announce "It’s a new day," and seek buy-in for any new procedures and programs.
Implement Process Changes via involvement of management, union (if one is present) and employees using a "Plan To Act" process such as Total Quality Management (TQM).
Continually Measure performance, Communicate Results and Celebrate Successes . Publicizing results is very important to sustaining efforts and keeping everyone motivated. Everyone needs to be updated throughout the process. Progress reports during normal shift meetings (allowing time for comments back to the steering committee) opens communications, but also allows for input. Everyone needs to have a voice, otherwise, they will be reluctant to buy-in. A system can be as simple as using current meetings, a bulletin board, or a comment box.
On-going Support - Reinforcement, feedback, reassessment, mid-course corrections, and on-going training is vital to sustaining continuous improvement
What is management leadership in safety and health?
Management demonstrates leadership by providing the resources, motivation, priorities, and accountability for ensuring the safety and health of its workforce. This leadership involves setting up systems to ensure continuous improvement and maintaining a health and safety focus while attending to production concerns. Enlightened managers understand the value in creating and fostering a strong safety culture within their organization. Safety should become elevated so that it is a value of the organization as opposed to something that must be done or accomplished. Integrating safety and health concerns into the everyday management of the organization, just like production, quality control, and marketing allows for a proactive approach to accident prevention and demonstrates the importance of working safety into the entire organization.
Why is management leadership in safety and health a good idea for business?
You can increase worker protection, cut business costs, enhance productivity, and improve employee morale. Worksites participating in OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP) have reported OSHA-verified lost workday cases at rates 60-80% lower than their industry averages. For every $1 saved on medical or insurance compensation costs (direct costs), an additional $5-$50 more are saved on indirect costs, such as repair to equipment or materials, retraining new workers, or production delays. During three years in the VPP, a Ford plant noted a 13% increase in productivity, and a 16% decrease in scrapped product that had to be reworked. Bottom line, safety does pay off! Losses prevented go straight to the bottom line profit of an organization. With today's competitive markets and narrow profit margins, loss control should be every manager's concern.
Management actions include:
Establishing a safety and health policy.
Establishing goals & objectives.
Providing visible top management leadership & involvement.
Ensuring employee involvement.
Ensuring assignment of responsibility.
Providing adequate authority and responsibility.
Ensuring accountability for management, supervisors, and rank & file employees.
Providing a program evaluation.
Safety and health policy
By developing a clear statement of management policy, you help everyone involved with the worksite understand the importance of safety and health protection in relation to other organizational values (e.g., production vs. safety and health). A safety and health policy provides an overall direction or vision while setting a frame-work from which specific goals and objectives can be developed.
Goals and objectives
You should make your general safety and health policy specific by establishing clear goals and objectives. Make objectives realistic and attainable, aiming at specific areas of performance that can be measured or verified. Some examples are: "Have weekly inspections and correct hazards found within 24 hours", or "Train all employees about hazards of their jobs, and specific safe behaviors (use of Job Safety Analysis sheets) before beginning work."
Visible top management leadership
Values, goals, etc., of top management in an organization tend to get emulated and accomplished. If employees see the emphasis that top management puts on safety and health, they are more likely to emphasize it in their own activities. Besides following set safety rules themselves, managers can also become visible by participating in plant-wide safety and health inspections, personally stopping activities or conditions that are hazardous until the hazards can be corrected, assigning specific responsibilities, participating in or helping to provide training, and tracking safety and health performance.
Assignment of responsibility
Everyone in the workplace should have some responsibility for safety and health. Clear assignment helps avoid overlaps or gaps in accomplishing activities. Safety and health is not the sole responsibility of the safety and health professional. Rather, it is everyone's responsibility, while the safety and health professional is a resource.
Provision of authority
Any realistic assignment of responsibility must be accompanied by the needed authority and by having adequate resources. This includes appropriately trained and equipped personnel as well as sufficient operational and capitol funding.
Accountability is crucial to helping managers, supervisors, and employees understand that they are responsible for their own performance. Reward progress and enforce negative consequences when appropriate. Supervisors are motivated to do their best when management measures their performance - "what gets measured is what gets done." Take care to ensure that measures accurately depict accomplishments and do not encourage negative behaviors such as not reporting accidents or near misses. Accountability can be established in safety through a variety of methods:
Charge backs - Charge accident costs back to the department or job, or prorate insurance premiums.
Safety goals - Set safety goals for management and supervision (e.g., accident rates, accident costs, and loss ratios).
Safety activities - Conduct safety activities to achieve goals (e.g., hazard hunts, training sessions, safety fairs, etc., activities that are typically developed from needs identified based on accident history and safety program deficiencies).
Once your safety and health program is up and running, you will want to assure its quality, just like any other aspect of your company's operation. Each program goal and objective should be evaluated in addition to each of the program elements, e.g., management leadership, employee involvement, worksite analysis (accident reporting, investigations, surveys, pre-use analysis, hazard analysis, etc.), hazard prevention and control, and training. The evaluation should not only identify accomplishments and the strong points of the safety and health program but also identify weaknesses and areas where improvements can be made. Be honest and identify the true weaknesses. The audit can then become a blueprint for improvements and a starting point for the next year's goals and objectives.
The best worker safety and health protection occurs when everyone at the worksite shares responsibility for protection. Basic principles of excellence have shown that wise employers use employees' unique knowledge to help find problems and resolve them. In addition, no one else has as much at stake to avoid accidents as the employees who are likely to be injured. The more that employees are involved in a variety of safety-related activities, the more that they will appreciate the potential hazards that exist at the worksite, the more likely that they will avoid unsafe behaviors, and the more likely that the overall safety culture of the organization will strengthen. Without employees' involvement and cooperation, accidents are difficult to prevent.
What are the advantages of getting employees involved?
Employees are the ones in contact with potential hazards and will have a vested interest.
Group decisions have the advantage of the group's wider field of experience.
Research shows that employees are more likely to support and use programs in which they have had input; employee buy-in for the needed changes is more likely.
Employees who are encouraged to offer their ideas and whose contributions are taken seriously are more satisfied and productive.
The more that employees are involved in the various facets of the program, the more they will learn about safety, what is causing injuries at their site, and how they can avoid be injured. The more they know and understand, the greater their awareness will be and the stronger the safety culture of the organization will become.
How can employees get involved?
Participate on joint labor-management committees and other advisory groups.
Conduct site inspections.
Analyze routine hazards in each step of a job or process, and prepare safe work practices.
Participate in developing and revising safety rules.
Participate as trainers for current and new hires.
Participate in accident/near miss incident investigations.
Participate in decision making throughout the company's operations.
Participate in pre-use and change analysis.
Participate as safety observers and safety coaches.
Report hazards and be involved in finding solutions to correct the problems.
Can all employees explain every existing and potential hazard to which they are exposed? Do they know how to protect themselves and their coworkers from these hazards? Can they explain precisely what they must do in the event of a fire or other emergency?
Training can help employees develop the knowledge and skills they need to understand workplace hazards. OSHA considers safety and health training vital to every workplace.
Before training begins, be sure that your company policy clearly states the company's commitment to health and safety and to the training program. This commitment must include paid work time for training and training in the language that the worker understands. Involve both management and employees in developing and delivering the programs.
Identifying training needs
New employees need to be trained not only to do the job, but also to recognize, understand, and avoid potential hazards to themselves and others in their immediate work area and elsewhere in the workplace. Contract workers also need training to recognize your workplace's hazards or potential hazards. Experienced workers will need training if new equipment is installed or process changes. Employees needing to wear personal protective equipment and persons working in high risk situations will need special training.
Periodic safety and health training
Some worksites need complex work practices to control hazards. Some worksites experience fairly frequent occupational injuries and illnesses. At such sites, it is especially important that employees receive periodic safety and health training to refresh their memories and to teach new methods of control. New training also may be necessary when OSHA or industry standards require it or new standards are issued.
One-on-one training is possibly the most effective training method. The supervisor periodically spends some time watching an individual employee work. Then the supervisor meets with the employee to discuss safe work practices, bestow credit for safe work, and provide additional instruction to counteract any observed unsafe practices. One-on-one training is most effective when applied to all employees under supervision and not just those with whom there appears to be a problem. Positive feedback given for safe work practices is a very powerful tool. It helps workers establish new safe behavior patterns and recognizes and thereby reinforces the desired behavior.
Evaluations can help determine whether the training you have provided has achieved its goal of improving your employees' safety performance. Some ways you can evaluate your training program:
Before training begins, determine what areas need improvement by observing workers and soliciting their opinions. When training ends, test for improvement. Ask employees to explain their jobs' hazards, protective measures, and new skills and knowledge.
Keep track of employee attendance at training.
At the end of training, ask participants to rate the course and the trainer.
Compare pre-and post-training injury and accident rates, near misses, and percent of safe behavior exhibited.
SOME COMMON TYPES OF SPECIALIZED TRAINING
Safety and Health Training for Managers - Training managers in their responsibilities is necessary to ensure their continuing support and understanding. It is their responsibility to communicate the program's goal and objectives to their employees, as well as assign safety and health responsibilities, and hold subordinates accountable.
Safety and Health Training for Supervisors - Supervisors may need additional training in hazard detection, accident investigation, their role in ensuring maintenance of controls, emergency handling, and use of personal protective equipment.
Job Orientation - The format and extent of orientation training will depend on the complexity of hazards and the work practices needed to control them. An orientation may consist of a quick review of site safety and health rules, hazard communication training, and a run-through of job tasks. Larger workplaces with more complex hazards and work practices to control them, may wish to start with a clear description of hazards, followed by a discussion of how to protect oneself. Employees may have on-the-job training and may shadow an experienced employee for a period of time.
Sources of assistance
You can often get additional help in developing training programs and identifying training resources from:
Your insurance carrier, your corporate staff, or your PPE supplier;
Local safety councils or industry associations;
OSHA-funded Consultation Projects for small business; and
Introduction to the seven elements of effective Safety and Health Management OR-OSHA 100 0201-02 Presented by The Public Education Section Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA)
OR-OSHA Services Oregon OSHA offers a variety of safety and health services to employers and employees: Consultative Services (all field offices) Offers no-cost, confidential on-site safety, health, and ergonomic assistance to Oregon employers for help in recognizing and correcting safety and health problems in their workplaces. Our consultants can also introduce you to the Safety & Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) and Oregon’s Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). Standards and Technical Resources (Salem Central) Adopts, amends, and formally interprets occupational safety and health standards and provides technical assistance such as reviewing variances. Operates a resource center containing books, topical files, technical periodicals, pamphlets and brochures, more than 200 technical data bases, and an audiovisual lending library. Enforcement (all field offices) Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health rule violations and investigates workplace safety and health accidents, complaints, and referrals. Provides compliance assistance, specific abatement assistance to employers who have received citation, and offers pre-job conferences for construction employers. Public Education & Conferences (Portland, Salem Central, Eugene) Conducts no-cost statewide educational workshops in a wide variety of safety and health subjects. Co-sponsors statewide conferences including the biennial Governor’s Occupational Safety and Health Conference in Portland. Portland Field Office (503) 229-5910 Salem Field Office (503) 378-3274 Eugene Field Office (541) 686-7562 Medford Field Office (541) 776-6030 Bend Field Office (541) 388-6066 Pendleton Field Office (541) 276-9175 Salem Central Office: (800) 922-2689 or (503) 378-3272 Web Site: www.orosha.org OR-OSHA Mission Statement To advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon. Check out our series of five specific safety and health training program certificates!
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Date August 19, 2003 Michelle Cattanach Manager For the completion of 32 hours of training in occupational safety and health Your Name The Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Department of Consumer and Business Services presents this certificate to commend Safety Committee Member Training Series Award of Completion
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