Lean  Fundamentals  Rev  A
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Lean Fundamentals Rev A

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Lean  Fundamentals  Rev  A Lean Fundamentals Rev A Presentation Transcript

  • Lean Fundamentals WELCOME!1 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Agenda Introduction Lean Thinking Lean Line Design Conclusion2 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Agenda Introduction Lean Thinking Lean Line Design Conclusion3 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Influences That Trigger Change highly rapid growth in tighter configurable size & revenue quality products standards high cost of insufficient manufacturing vendor capabilities fluctuations in material demands shortages increased inconsistent long learning competition processes curves4 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Industry Phases Innovation Differentiation Cost Cost Drivers  Simpler Designs  Commonality  Manufacturable Models  Maintainability/Serviceability  Economies of Scale  Short Cycle Times  Supply Chain Management5 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Manufacturing Progression1995  Benchmarking  Training at JcIT Institute  Pilot conversions on modules6 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Manufacturing Progression 19961995 „Lean Teams‟ Formed  Division Conversions Began  Support Functions Re-design Began7 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Manufacturing Progression 1996 1995 1997 ULMI8 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Unified Lean Manufacturing Initiative  Establishment of Common Processes for: - Manufacturing - Product development - Product management  Improved Performance in: - Profitability - Quality - Cycle Time - Asset Management - Delivery9 Last revision May 8, 2001 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise1 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise1 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise1 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Going Up for a Strategic View...1 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • What It Means to be a Lean Enterprise? The WHOLE Business System Customers It Reaches Suppliers across Board of Directors Investors Products Processes It Consists Individuals of Teams Organizations Functions1 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • A LEAN enterprise focuses on... Eliminating non value-added activities throughout the enterprise Building an integrated product delivery process to meet changing needs of customers Supporting a fundamental change in management philosophy A LEAN enterprise practices LEAN thinking!1 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Characteristics of a Lean Enterprise All processes, systems and initiatives -including supplier partnerships- are aligned, to efficiently provide the right products to the right customers at the right time…. Processes are in place to Management of the business capture the knowledge of is based on metrics, and they customers (internal and are aligned at all levels external!) and their values to evaluate performance The entire product delivery process is flexible so the enterprise can respond quickly to changes1 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Agenda Introduction Lean Thinking Lean Line Design Conclusion1 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Thinking... ...a mentality that emphasizes doing those things, and only those things, that create or add value to what the customer is willing to pay for. If it doesn’t add value, it is WASTE!1 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Principles of Lean Thinking from Womack & Jones Lean Thinking  Specify the value of each product and service from the customer‟s perspective.  Identify every step in the value stream to highlight waste.  Make products flow without interruption by eliminating waste.  Produce only what is pulled by the customer.  Pursue perfection by continually improving.1 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Principle #1 Specify the value of each product or service from the customers‟ perspective.2 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • What is value? Value is the product or service which meets the customer‟s requirements at a price he is willing to pay when he requests it. Value is providing the right product for the right price at the right time.2 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Who‟s the Customer? Anyone, internal or external, who requires a product or service Final consumer Boss/management  Co-workers You will likely have multiple customers, and they change frequently!2 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Principle #2 Identify every step in the value stream to highlight waste.2 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Mapping out the Process 1. Identify all steps in the value stream, including an estimated duration. 2. Identify value add activities vs. waste: Value Added Necessary, but non-value added Non-value added 3. Indicate types of waste2 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • A Value Stream …consists of all activities and processes that are required to bring a specific product/service:  from concept to design and engineering  from raw materials to product launch  from order-taking to scheduling  from delivery to & support of the customer This means everybody, and everything that takes place to produce the product/service!2 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Disconnected Processes Most processes are full of  Lost orders, disconnects and bottlenecks  Delays, where the process crosses  Mistakes and departmental lines.  Other failures that cost time, money and customers!2 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Adding Value or Waste? Lean thinking distinguishes between those activities that are actually adding value to the product or service, and those activities that are not adding value. If it‟s not adding value, it is WASTE!2 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Waste Eliminating waste is the greatest potential source of improvement in corporate profit, performance, and customer service. For most production operations: - 60% add no value at all - 35% are “necessary” activities, but don‟t add value - only 5% of activities actually add value!2 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Flow  Waste disrupts the continuous flow to complete a product or process – Processes or machines that take too long – Inadequate training or staffing – Lack of information and direction – Bad quality or late arrival of materials  Inventory and queues are usually symptoms of another problem2 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Mapping out the Process 1. Identify all steps in the value stream, including an estimated duration. 2. Identify value add activities vs. waste: Value Added Necessary, but non-value added Non-value added 3. Indicate types of waste3 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Value Stream Mapping Tool Value Stream is all the actions (both value added and non value added) currently required to bring a product through the main flows essential to every product3 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Why Value Stream Mapping is an Essential Tool  Helps you to visualize the big picture, not just individual processes to improve the whole, not just optimizing the parts.  Helps you to see the sources of waste in your value stream  It forms the basis of a Lean Implementation Plan.  It shows the linkage between the information flow and the material flow.3 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Initial Value Stream Mapping Steps Product Family Current-State Drawing Future-State Drawing Work Plan & Implementation3 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Value Stream Improvement & Process Improvement  Follow the product from beginning to end  Draw visual representation of every process in the materials and information flows3 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 3 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 3 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Information for a process data box “The Big Four”:  Number of product variations  Cycle time (from 1 piece to the next)  Changeover time  Process Reliability  Number of operators  Scrap Rate  Production batch size  Working Time (minus breaks)  Pack Size3 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • A Fictional Value Stream Map - An example of Lean ToolsValue Stream Map Supplier XYZ " CURRENT STATE"Standard Product Family( 75% of Product) Production Control2/15/2000 FORECAST Issues Daily Priorities Purchase Orders Applied Placed as needed based upon: Materials * Gross inventory check for spot buys Suppliers * Bus-Route(contract) forecast- Trident- Reliant- Metal West- Others Daily OSPAs Ordered Plating OSP I Manufacturing Orders 2 -5 Da ys Shop Schedule 2 Primary & 2 Secondary Suppliers Dallas 2X Month Inspection 3X Week M,W ,F 1 I 2 D ays 95% First Pass Yield Inspection Sheer Turret Deburr Brakes Assy & Paint Ship / FGI I I I I I Hardware I I Packaging 1 3 11 7 6 6 7 30 Da ys P aint 5 Da ys 1 4+ D ay s 2 D a ys 14 D ays 1 Day Ra w S toc k .5 Da ys C /T = 1 Da y Day Shift Only Shifts: 2 + Weekend Shifts: 2 + W eekend Shifts: 2 + W eekend Hardware: 1 Shift Operation 2 shifts / 3 people Cle an Capacity at Turret 1 Person can operate C/T = 12 0 M in Setup: 10-120 Min Dedicated to Bus determines when to 2 machines Assembly: 3 -5 D ays 1 shifts / 3 people Route from 5:30am to Sheer 40-50% Productivity Hi-Flex Capability KAIZEN Noon C /T = 3 0 M in 98-99% Yield (buffers C /T = 6 0 M in Im plem e nt P h os pha te 40-50% Productivity KAIZEN used to make up for D ip C le an S ystem No Productivity Measure Deburr is a scrap) C/O = 45-60 Min C /T = 1 D a y Bottleneck Uptime is High - PMs Capacity: 1 job/hr scheduled on W /E (~10 planks/job) KAIZEN KAIZEN C /T = 12 0 M in In cre a se Ca pa city X 3 a t KAIZEN C /T = 1 05 M in S e tup R e duc tions paint booth, pow de r D e dica te d S taging pa in t, an d batch ove n Are a s Qty in WIP = Demand Per Day Production Lead 30 Days X 5 Days 1 14 Days 2 Days 14 Days 5 Days 2 Days Time 72 Days Processing Time 30 min 105 min 120 min 120 min 60 min 1 day 1 day 2days7hrs25min3 Total lead time revision May Last 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • A Fictional Value Stream Map -An example of Lean Tools Value Stream Map Supplier XYZ " FUTURE STATE" Standard Product Family ( 75% of Product) Production Control 2/25/2000 FORECAST Issues Daily Priorities Purchase Orders Daily Orders - EDI Pull Applied Orders are launched at Materials calculated re-order points for Raw Good Kanbans Daily Pull Orders Suppliers - Trident - Reliant - Metal West - Others Daily Manufacturing Orders OSP OSP Plating Based on Finished Goods Replenishment Triggers & I Spot Buy Orders 2-5 D ays 2 Primary & 2 Shop Schedule Secondary Suppliers As Ordered k S t oc w Ra 3X / Week Dallas Inspection 3X Week M,W,F 1 S ho p ord ers ar e Lo ad Le ve led b as ed on P r oduc t F am ily S ch edu lin g Ru le s 95% First Pass Yield Inspection Sheer Turret Deburr Brakes Assy & Paint Ship / Hardware Packaging? ?? D ay s 1 Day Shift Only .5 Da ys 3 Shifts: 2 + Weekend .5 D ay s 11 Shifts: 2 + Weekend .5 D ay s 7 Shifts: 2 + W eekend .5 Da ys Hardware: 6 2 shifts / 3 people .5 D a ys 6 C /T = 1 D ay .5 D ay s 7 1 Shift Operation Capacity at Turret 1 Person can operate C /T = 1 20 M in Setup: 10-120 Min Dedicated to Bus 30 D a ys Assembly: determines when to 2 machines Route from 5:30am to Finished Goods ? Ra w S toc k 40-50% Productivity 1 shifts / 3 people Sheer Hi-Flex Capability C /T = 6 0 M in Noon Inventory C /T = 3 0 M in 98-99% Yield (buffers No Productivity 40-50% Productivity used to make up for Orders are launched at Measure scrap) Inventory Sizing of Dallas provided gas C /T = 1 Da y calculated re-order points for C/O = 45-60 Min Uptime is High - PMs panel enclosures & gas panel piece Finished Good Kanbans Capacity: 1 job/hr scheduled on W /E parts (gas panel parts & spares ) (~10 planks/job) C /T = 1 05 M in C/T = 12 0 M in Production Lead Time 30 Days .5 Days .5 Days .5 Days .5 Days .5 Days .5 Days 33 Days Processing Time 30 min 105 min 120 min 120 min 60 min 1 day 1 day 2days7hrs25min3 Total lead time revision May Last 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Using Five Whys Problem Data gathering Problem clarification Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Root cause4 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements  Why measure?  What to measure?  Hierarchy of measurements  Leading and lagging indicators  Importance of adding a reference, benchmark, or standard  Location for measurements  Data and information  Data collection and processing4 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Why Measure?  You can manage if you can measure  Offers a baseline for continuous improvement  You will know if your efforts to improve are working  Customer requirements demand it  You can make decisions based on the information derived from the measurements  Lean conversion  Certification  Pricing  Etc.4 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • MeasurementsTo ensure they will be effective and useful, determine:  Which measures does the customer want?  Which measures do you need to improve performance? Cycle time Quality Cost Productivity  What information/results do you want to obtain? Remember: if the measure is not being used for decision making, ask “WHY ARE WE MEASURING THIS?” Caution: Measurements entail cost and effort!4 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements  Identify the critical operations to determine where to start for the most cost effective improvements  Create documented maps of the processes: Identify the inputs & outputs Set applicable standards for each critical step Show cause and effect relationships Disconnects will indicate missing or non value- adding measurements  Determine how the types and locations of the metrics are linked throughout the organization4 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements It all starts with a Hoshin Annual Operating Plan (AOP)... A specific, measurable objective to achieve breakthrough results.4 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • The Aim of Hoshin Planning is to ... Align people, activities, and performance metrics throughout all levels of the organization with strategic priorities so the Company can achieve its corporate mission….4 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements Hoshins/AOP Goals Quality Cost Cycle Time Failure Prevention Inventory Takt Throughput Internal/ External Operating Appraisal Expenses4 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Measure What? Hierarchy of Measurements Similar to Hoshin planning, define the hierarchy of measurements and show the cascading links between metrics at different levels of the company.Example: Level 1: Earnings / Profitability, Customer 3 Level Company satisfaction, On time delivery System Plant 1 Plant 2 Level 2: Plant based metrics: scrap rates, returns, schedule… Line 2 Line 2 Line 3 Line 1 Line 1 Level 3: Line based metrics: cycle time, yields, escapes...4 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Cascading Objective Process Corporation Hoshin Corporate Objectives Strategies Initiatives Level 1 Programs Business Unit Business Unit Business Objectives Unit Level 2 Strategies Division Division Division Objectives Strategies Level 34 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Measure What?  Have consistent definitions for whatever is being measured  Know the difference between proactive and reactive: - Lagging - downstream indicators for use in preventing defects upstream (reactive) - Leading - upstream indicators for use in predicting quality downstream (proactive)  Example: high reject rates (leading) can be an indication of poor profitability (lagging)5 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Measure What?  Measures have little meaning in isolation  Comparison with a reference will add relevance  In absence of a standard or benchmark, at least have a baseline to use for making comparisons TargetCycle Time Cycle Time Month Month 5 Last revision May 8, 2001 1 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Measure Where?  Most measurements are carried out too late; typically at the end of the process (lagging indicators)  Such measurements are usually easy and convenient to install, but might be of little help in preventing problems  Measuring as close as possible to the point of cause or occurrence is more pro-active (leading indicators)  Implementing closed loop feedback and real time controls on the operations can actually prevent non-conformances from occurring in the first place Measurements are often started on every operation in the business, even if they aren’t the right ones!5 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements- Data and Information  Data is not always the same as information  Information is that which can be used for decision making  Information for one stage can be data for the next Supplier End Applied Materials End ---Data set 1 Information Processing set 1 Processing Information ---Data set 2 Information set 3 ---Data set 3 set 2 Data set 4 Data set 55 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements-Data Collection and Processing  The metric is only as good as the integrity of the data collected  Statistical treatment of data can add more power to analysis & decision making  Presentation of information should be simple yet comprehensive, and it should be directly aimed at facilitating the decisions that are to be made  Information should be made available in a timely manner to those who need it  Cross check to see if the information is useful in the way it is intended to be5 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements - Summary  Start with what is important to the customer  Remember that measurements are often lagging indicators  Understand the process, the causes/effects, the inputs/outputs  Develop the hierarchy of measurements to address gaps and redundancies  Identify the critical points where measurements will make the biggest difference5 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Measurements - Summary  Use measurements as leading indicators for the most proactive approach, and understand how they are linked to lagging indicators.  Data integrity checks are important since it becomes the foundation for many decisions  Presentation of information (rather than data) should be simple, comprehensive, and timely5 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Mapping out the Process 1. Identify all steps in the value stream, including an estimated duration. 2. Identify value add activities vs. waste: Value Added Necessary, but non-value added Non-value added 3. Indicate types of waste5 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Let‟s GO Take A Break!5 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 7 Wastes Overproduction Waiting Time Transportation Processing Inventory Motion Defects5 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Overproduction Producing More Than Needed Producing Faster Than Needed6 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Wait Time Waiting for signatures Watching machines or equipment run Keeping busy to avoid being idle Waiting for computers to process data Waiting for materials Waiting for someone w/ the right skill Waiting in traffic6 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Transportation Sending materials/product long distances Handling materials/paperwork multiple times Storing incoming material before it is used Returning unused materials Having multiple storage locations Routing documents to multiple signers6 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Processing Processes that don’t do the entire job, or that do it incorrectly Poorly maintained equipment that produces poor quality Doing things manually instead of automatically Doing more than would be necessary6 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Inventory Cost of materials Cost and management of obsolete materials Space & equipment Interest charges Defects, rework Paperwork & documents in queue Inventory accounting6 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Inventory Analogy Boat = Production System Water Level = Inventory Level Over Production Wait Time Process Defects Rocks = Hidden Problems (Uncovered as Inventory is Reduced)6 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Motion Searching for tools or supplies Walking to multiple areas to accomplish a task Things located in random locations or not according to frequency of use Picking something up multiple times6 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Defects Rework Scrap Lost work Time Sorting Warranty Costs Lost Customer Satisfaction Other intangibles (Typos?)6 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Principle #3 Make products flow without interruption by eliminating waste.6 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Tools & Techniques6 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5Ss: The Gateway to Quality7 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Benefits Gives the opportunity to provide creative input to how your workplace should be organized and laid out, and to how your work should be done Makes your workplace more a pleasant to work Makes your job more satisfying Removes many obstacles and frustrations in your work Helps you know what you are expected to do, and when and where you are expected to do it Makes it easier to communicate with everyone you work7 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5Ss: The Gateway to Quality Sort Set in order 5S Standardize Shine Sustain7 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sort & Discard-Implementation No Value & Easy Dispose Immediately To Dispose Of Unnecessary Retain Some Actively Look Items Value For Best Customer No Value But Work Out Less Costly Costly To Dispose Of Method For Disposal Necessary Items Implement Next S7 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sort & Discard BEFORE Sort & Discard AFTER Sort & Discard7 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Before Sort & Discard After7 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order To arrange necessary items in good order so that they are easily accessible for use There should be a home for everything and everything should be in its home 60 SECONDS RULE Everything should be able to be found & retrieved within 1 min.7 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Implementation Unnecessary Items Sort/Discard Place Near To The Frequently Used Point of Use Necessary Place A Bit Distant Sometimes Used Items To The Point Of Use Not Used But Must Place Separately Be Kept7 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools BENEFITS OF MOTION MAPPING Workstation 100 Workstation 200 Parts Integration Integration Workstation 100 Parts Workstation 200 Parts Integration Integration7 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools LABELING7 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools FLOOR TAPING8 Last revision May 8, 20010 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools Visual Management - You can see the work status of the line - there is no work present at these stations8 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools COLOR CODING8 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Standardize Taping and Post TAPE IDENTIFIER Used to tape Almost Everything: Carts, Tables, Tools, Shelves, Machines, Workstations, Incoming, Outgoing, and WIP Material Used to tape Waste: Trash Cans, Recycle Bins, Rework, DMR Used to Tape Walkways8 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools Part Replenishment carts are color coded by particular route.8 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Tools SILHOUETTES /CUTOUTS8 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Set in Order-Example Bin Labels Tool Cutouts Material Kanbans In Process Testing Kanban8 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Implementation Unnecessary Items Sort/Discard Necessary Items Set in order Shine/Inspect Instant Maintenance Defect or Irregularity Found Requested Maintenance8 Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools 1. DEFINE AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY Draw map of cleaning area 2. DISTRIBUTE RESPONSIBILITY Schedule cleaning to be done and people to do it Devote certain times exclusively to cleaning 3. DEFINE STANDARD Develop a cleaning/inspection checklist Establish a minimum requirement8 Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools 5 S Checklist Workcenter Name Comp. By Date Score Out Of Checking Score Cat No. Item Evaluation Criteria CHECKLISTS 1 Parts or Materials No unnecessary stock items or work in progress All machines & equipment 2 Machines & Equipment are in regular use Jigs, All jigs, fixtures and Seiri 3 Fixtures & tools are in regular Tools use 4 Visual All unnecessary items can Controls be identified at a glance Standards There are clear standards 5 for for eliminating excess Disposal 1 Storage Visual controls used to fix location of all items Labels within the workcenter 2 Quantity Clear indications of max & Indicators min stock quantities Seiton 3 Dividing Blue tape used to divide Lines workcenter Jigs, Jig and tool storage 4 Fixtures & organized for ease of Tools removal and return8 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5S Organizer and Implementation Schedule 5S Implementation Schedule Standardize/ Visual Area Lead Training Sort/Discard Arrange/Order Tape/Label Sustain Management Deburring Eli Button Completed Completed Completed Completed 4/30/01 5/8/01 Clean Room Frank Avalon 4/29/01 5/2/01 5/9/01 5/16/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Weld Room Tony Bologna 4/30/01 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Saw Area Adrian Castro 4/30/01 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Building 1 Office Areas Gary Grant 5/1/01 5/11/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Stock Room Lee Majors Completed Completed 5/1/01 5/9/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 Shipping/Receiving Eli Button Completed 4/30/01 5/3/01 5/11/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Flash Manufacturing Mike Winn 4/29/01 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Auto Clave Peter Gretzky 4/30/01 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 QA Don Juan Completed Completed 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Hardware Eli Button Completed Completed 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Horizontals Jorge Nakos Completed Completed 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Shipping/Receiving Adrian Castro Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Machine Shop Verticals Andy Warhol Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Lathes Sela Ward Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Screw Machines Jorge Nakos Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 EDM Adrian Castro Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Office Areas Jeff Wessley Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 Kanban Area Terry Bologna Completed 5/4/01 5/11/01 5/18/01 5/25/01 5/31/01 NOTE - All steps must be completed and signed off on by 5S Supervisor before moving to the next stepSTEP ONE - TRAINING All employees in the area need to be trained in the seven waste and 5s Section off ALL items to be discarded until upper management can find the best home for them. Question the need for EVERY Item large and small; staplers, tape guns, pallet jacks, desks, extra shelving, etc. Also make a list of tools or equipment that you do needSTEP TWO - SORT/DISCARD and do not have in your area.STEP THREE - ARRANGE/ORDER The overall area should have a obvious and smooth flow. Tools, equipment, and material should be located in a reasonable way.STEP FOUR - TAPE/LABEL Everything in the area needs to have a home. This includes, monitors, tape guns, toolboxes, carts, etc.STEP FIVE - STANDARDIZE/SUSTAIN Radar charts, 5s seven waste posters, before + after photos, boundary samples, Suggestion boxes, need to be postedSTEP SIX - VISUAL MANAGEMENT Kanban system developed for line items, Visual tracking boards in place for production, Visual Work Instructions, 9 KEY Completed Last revision May 8, 2001 Late 0 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools SHELVES SHELVES SHELVES SUBASSEMBLY SHELVES STATION 3 INTEGRATION SUBASSEMBLY STATION 2 STATION 3 MAPS SHELVES SHELVES SHELVES SHELVES SHELVES INTEGRATION STATION 1 SUBASSEMBLY STATION 39 Last revision May 8, 20011 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools 5 S Schedule 5S Date To Date Category Task Responsibility Complete Completed Seiri Sort/ SCHEDULE Discard Seiton Arrange/  Decide order and Order frequency: daily, Seiso Clean/ Inspect weekly, monthly Seiketsu Stand./ Improve Shitsuke Believe/ Discipline9 Last revision May 8, 20012 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5 S Schedule - another example REVISION 5 S Schedule DATE INITIALS REVISON DESCRIPTION AREA OWNER Task Description Owner Time (s) Daily 245 1 Visual Inspection 2 Empty metal Recycle Bin CO ING ATER L 3 Pull Incoming Materials M IA IN M Weekly 600 CNC 1 1 Sweep Area 3 Verify Tools & Equipment is Working 4 Check Safety Gaurds are in Place 5 Verify Eye Wash is Working 6 Check First Aid Cabinet CRANE 7 Internal 5 S Audit Tool Cart Monthly 300 ut oing aterials 1 Exernal 5 S Audit O G Total Time / month (seconds) 8200 M Total Time / month (minutes) 1379 Last revision May 8, 20013 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5 S Checklist - Example Area __________ Date __________ Area __________ Date __________ Ratings: 5=Exceptional 4=Above Average 3=Average 2=Needs Improvement 1=Unacceptable Ratings: 5=Exceptional 4=Above Average 3=Average 2=Needs Improvement 1=Unacceptable Element SCORE 5S Seiri (Sort/Sift) 1 No parts, boxes, or any other unnecessary items, including trash, on the floor. 2 No unnecessary items on the line, on/under tables, in the area or overhead. 3 Aisles are totally clear. (No items can be left in the aisles) 4 Walls and overhead space are clear of all unnecessary signs, paper, pictures, etc. 5 No personal belongings in the area Seiton (Arrange/Organize) 1 Tools, parts, bins, racks, tables,sub-assys, finished goods, etc. are in their proper place. 2 Every item, including furniture, has an identified home. 3 Is every item in its identified home. 4 Parts, tools & equipment stored to ensure safety. 5 Min. / max., & FIFO rules are followed. 6 Kanban rules are followed. 7 Information boards are organized and current. 8 Cables, wires, etc. are neatly tied and securely attached. 9 All cabinets, drawers, racks, shelves, and storage locations are clearly labeled. Seiso (Clean) 1 Tables, tools, equipment, racks, parts, bins, floors, etc.,are clean. 2 Aisles and walls are clean. Seiketsu (Maintenance) 1 5S Instructions are posted. 2 5S Schedule is posted and all responsibilities are defined. 3 5S Radar Chart is posted, and is maintained. Shitsuke (Belief/Discipline) 1 No food, beverage, eating, or chewing tobacco on the line. 2 Trash cans are not full or over flowing. 3 People talking, playing loud music, or distracting others in the area. 4 Obvious that the people working in the area understand 5S. 5 Obvious that people working in the area believe in 5S. 6 Evidence of 5S competitiveness activities in the area. 7 People working in the area exhibit discipline & concentration on their work.9 Last revision May 8, 20014 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools -- Radar Chart Category Element Avg. Score Work Center: Clas 100 Week Ending: 07/01/99 s 1 Seri 1 1 2 1 5S Radar Chart 3 1 W orkCenter: Class 100 4 1 Date: 07/01/99 5 1 1 Seiton 2 2 Seri 2 1 5 3 3 4 4 3 5 3 3 6 1 7 1 2 8 1 Shitsuke Seiton 9 1 1 1 Seiso 3 3 0 2 3 1 Seiketsu 1 3 2 0 3 0 1 Shitsuke 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 2 Seiketsu Seiso 5 2 6 3 7 19 Last revision May 8, 20015 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shine/Inspect-Tools -- Thermometer9 Last revision May 8, 20016 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Standardize …...Not just when the boss is around MONDAY TUESDAY9 VIP TOUR THURSDAY Last revision May 8, 20017 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Standardize …….Not just at the beginning of the week MONDAY TUESDAY9 WEDNESDAY THURSDAY Last revision May 8, 20018 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Standardize ...But as a regular function of your daily activities WEEK 1 WEEK 59 Last revision May 8, 20019 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sustain PROMOTION AND RECOGNITION PROGRAM Organize 5 S Establish a 5 S Leadership Roles inter-departmental evaluation and competitions promotion plan to sustain activities Periodically award groups and individuals implementing good 5 S practices Conduct 5 S audits regularly Implementation Roles Look for innovative and exceptional 5 S performance and bring to the attention of supervisors1 Last revision May 8, 200100 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sustain Additional overhead task Overhead lights for signs ergonomic designating concerns. area. Parts off work surface and labeled. Ergonomic floor Material Designated mats for work Kanbans location for desk1 areas. equipment Last revision May 8, 200101 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Tools & Techniques1 Last revision May 8, 200102 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Controls Visual controls are intended to make things easy to understand at a glance1 Last revision May 8, 200103 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Controls 0060-04090 Qty 20 XYZ Line A, Op 30 50-46-23 Debit Memo Credit Memo Output Level (1/29 to date) Goal Output Shift DMR1 Last revision May 8, 200104 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Controls Yellow Bins: CES or low usage Parts Blue Bins: Regular Parts Red Bins: DMR Parts A Flow Rack1 Last revision May 8, 200105 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Controls  Builds trust between Management and Employees.  Creates a company culture where sharing is a key principle.  Employees control the production line with minimum confusion for “What needs to be done” and maximum understanding of “How it must be done."  Allows everyone to visually observe factory progress and expose inefficiencies.  Toyota: When you make problems visual, it takes less people to solve them.  “A picture is worth a thousand words.”1 Last revision May 8, 200106 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Controls Some Considerations of Visual Management  A few, not too many  Easy to see  Must get your attention  Must have an effect on you  Anyone can understand1 Last revision May 8, 200107 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Management: Display Boards Line Status Board Example Line #3 P5000 Robot Supervisor: John Glenn Lines Stops due to: (1/29 to date) Pareto Chart The Team: Defective part (1/29 to date) # of Line Stops Dave Thomas Part shortage Brian Roy Accident Pat Wilson Test fixture failure Part Test Fixture Accident Shortage Failure Greg Watkins Tool failure Defective Parts Tooling Failure Pete Wilson Quality Level (1/29 - 5/27) Output Level (1/29 to date) # of Shortages Goal Output Goal Week Shift1 Last revision May 8, 200108 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Management: Display Boards Line #: 3 P5000 Robot Skill Diversity Chart Operations Team Members A1 A2 A4 A5 A6 A7 Nancy Pham Mike Sanchez Jorge Nakos John Smith Eli Button Orientation Trainee Certified Master1 Last revision May 8, 200109 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Management - Sequencing board is present on the floor for workers to see.1 Last revision May 8, 200110 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Management: Schedule Board1 Last revision May 8, 200111 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Example: Andon System Line Status Communication1 Last revision May 8, 200112 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Example: Andon System Line Status Communication Alert Buttons Andon Unit Red: Work activity stopped due to a problem Yellow: Problem encountered, but no disruption of activity Andon: Japanese word for lantern1 Last revision May 8, 200113 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Andon System Data Collection  Visual Signal located at the cell – Light – Flag  Andon Metrics Sheet located at Cell can track: – Issues and reason codes – Corrective actions taken – Repeat issues (pareto of part shortages, root cause) – Amount of time andon light is on = workstation is down – # of times per month or quarter - root cause  Andon Escalation Procedure posted – Who to contact, escalate – Time based1 Last revision May 8, 200114 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Example- SDO Department Andon Training Modules Courses Skills/Experience Team Leads (Required) Management Leadership - KPI Development Pull Simulation (Assembly and Machining) Value Stream Mapping (Current & Future) Management & Leadership Essentials Resource Management & Delegation Project Management and Planning Line Design (Takt, Balance, etc..) Team Member Lead Certification Assessment Production Scheduling - RIL Managing Safety at Applied Managing for Performance Machine/Fab Pull System Kaizen Program/Office Kaizen "Blitz" Process Managers and the Law Management Tool Kit The Applied Manager Line Design Training Lean Fundamentals 7 Wastes Training Last Updated Plant Layout 5 S Program 5 S TrainingInitials 11/2 Chris Webber 11/2 Fred Durst 11/1 Marilyn Manson 11/7 Gene Simmons 11/2 Eli Button 4/1/01 12/13/00 2/1/01 3/1/01 11/2 Daniel Robbins 10/26 Max Wettlaufer 11/1 Peter Kattula 9/30 Jimmy King 11/2 10/26 UNDERSTAND: Familiar with Concept but little to no working knowledge OR AGU Course not completed IMPLEMENT: Provided Training 1 to 3 times or Performed Skill 1 to 3 times TEACH: Repeated Training or Experience of 3 or more times OR AGU Course (or Equivalent) Completed 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 1 5 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Andons for Project Management Completion Status 100% Planned Planned Andon 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Project LeadGap Closure Project Description (From Cert Matrix) Start Date End date StatusResize Kanban System Eli Button 3/1/01 7/31/01 GManagement Goals and Hoshin Marsha Brady 3/2/01 6/1/01Line Design and Capacity Peggy Sue 3/3/01 6/5/01Supplier Development Adrian Castro 3/1/01 6/5/01 GContinuious Improvement Mike Caratz 3/14/01 6/5/01Shipping and Receiving Process with 5S Mike Winn 3/23/01 6/5/01Corrective Action Process Peter Brady 3/21/01 6/12/01Employee Empowerment Eli Button 3/19/01 6/12/01Cleanroom 5S Enhancements Ricky Martin 3/20/01 6/12/01Training Program Development Joe Klein 3/21/01 6/19/01 GPoke Yoke and Statistical Techniques Rich Windows 3/22/01 6/19/01 Overall Project Status and Progress towards Certification 3/1/01 3/1/01 6/1/01 ANDON LEGEND G On Target or Completed - No Major Problems Y Minor Delays (<2 wks) / Minor Project Hindrances R Major Delays (>2wks) / Major Project Hindrances1 Last revision May 8, 200116 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 5S Tool Display Work station is color coded and labeled. Tool cutouts are present and tools are color coded.1 You can visually see the Last revision May 8, 200117 tools that are missing. TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Visual Example: Kanban Signal to Build or Fill1 Last revision May 8, 200118 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Before - WHSE Ship and Receive1 Last revision May 8, 200119 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • After - Shipping and Receiving  Non value added items removed  Yellow tape indicates walk way  Shipping is in designated and appropriate area  Blue tape for designated cells and traffic flow  Cells clearly marked  Better traffic flow1 Last revision May 8, 200120 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Tools & Techniques1 Last revision May 8, 200121 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Error Proofing: Poka Yoke Poka Yoke is a method aimed at designing a product, process or service where mistakes are prevented, or at least easily detected and corrected.1 Last revision May 8, 200122 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Error Proofing: Poka Yoke  Poka Yoke is Japanese for Mistake Proofing.  Poka Yoke differs from traditional inspection techniques that are problem detection oriented rather than problem prevention.  The focus of Poka Yoke is on 100% inspection at the source rather than sample inspections at the end of a process or set of processes. – Inspection at the source allows a process to be stopped when a nonconformity is present.  The key to effective Poka Yoke is to target repetitive tasks and actions that require operator diligence, uncover the root cause of errors, and make it impossible to make a mistake.1 Last revision May 8, 200123 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Error Proofing: Poka Yoke A Few Everyday Examples  Auto shut-off irons so we cannot make the mistake of leaving the iron on all day.  Automatic sinks in public facilities so the water cannot be left on when someone walks away.  Automatic toilets in public facilities so …….(well, you know)  Coffee makers that stop brewing when the pot is removed.  Circuit Breakers that trip when they are overloaded  Overwrite protect tabs on disks1 Last revision May 8, 200124 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Error Proofing: Poka Yoke Example Visual cues. Often visual cues, in the form of templates, guides and color coding make it easier for the operator to complete the procedure without making a mistake. The Clippard Valve Polylines Template, for example, guides the operator to correctly attach polylines to the assembly.1 Last revision May 8, 200125 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Eliminating Waste in the Process  How could you use the tools to eliminate the waste you‟ve identified?  Suggest other ways to eliminate waste – automation? – reorganizing departments? – make different staffing decisions? – etc.1 Last revision May 8, 200126 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Principle #4 Produce only what is pulled by the customer.1 Last revision May 8, 200127 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Examples of customer pull signals Purchase Kanban Order Andon Phone Call Alarm!1 Last revision May 8, 200128 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Principle #5 Pursue perfection by continuously improving1 Last revision May 8, 200129 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen “Kai” + “Zen” (Change) (For the Good) = Continuous Improvement1 Last revision May 8, 200130 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Rules Results should be publicly displayed Understand the thought process Learn by taking action Exercise mutual respect. Work together Share the successes Keep an open mind to change Always maintain a positive attitude Involve everyone in the activity Zero blame! Fix the problem instead Each member has an equal vote Never leave in silent disagreement1 Last revision May 8, 200131 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Team  Upper Management support extremely critical to success  Usually 6 to 8 members  Include or consult with customers (both internal and external) of the process  Should have representation from different levels in the company  Always use an “extended” team member as a sanity check (Why?)1 Last revision May 8, 200132 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Time Line  Determine how much time it would take one (100% dedicated) person to complete the tasks  Use commitment % per team member to determine the length of the kaizen  Three major components of a kaizen – Cost – Time – Manpower1 Last revision May 8, 200133 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • SMART Goals Kaizen Team Goals must be: Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time bound1 Last revision May 8, 200134 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Process Identify Sustain Define Implement1 Last revision May 8, 200135 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Identify  Wastes  Takt time  Plant layout & material flow  Work sequence  Cycle times  Quality issues  Safety & Ergonomics Don’t forget to ask the 5 why’s1 Last revision May 8, 200136 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Define  Opportunities for improvement  Would plant layout changes eliminate waste?  Is there any waste at any operation which could be eliminated?  Optimum staffing level  Standard work sequences  Standard WIP  Quality checks  Safety considerations1 Last revision May 8, 200137 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Implement  Brainstorm for solutions  Institute Standardized Work methodologies  Get input and make improvements  Document the new standard operation  Train on new methods  Design & install visual management systems  Get management approval where needed1 Last revision May 8, 200138 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sustain  Adhere to the new process  Continue to improve  Visual controls  Retrain after each improvement  Management support & commitment  Follow up, Follow up, Follow up1 Last revision May 8, 200139 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sample Kaizen Project Summary Kaizen Description: Kaizen Start Date: Kaizen End Date: Preliminary Objectives: Location of Kaizen: Team Leader: Co-Leader: Team Members: Process Measures: Facilities Point of Contact: AMA T Ma rk Cow lin g ( 512-272- 6490) Facilitator s: Laura Wilkinson ( 512-272 -3875) Process Information: Current Situation and Issues:1 Last revision May 8, 200140 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sample Team Form Kaizen Benefits Project: Team Members 1 2 3 4 5 Key Strategies & Benefits Signatures ________________ ________________ ________________ Area Manager Kaizen Lead Plant Improvement Engineer1 Last revision May 8, 200141 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Card-Example1 Last revision May 8, 200142 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Techniques Used 7Wastes1 Last revision May 8, 200143 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Summary  Upper Management support determines the path for success  Conveys the intent of the kaizen and the deliverables at a glance  Displays the expected benefits obtained by conducting an analysis on ROI (return on investment)  Helps to determine whether it is feasible to continue with the kaizen1 Last revision May 8, 200144 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Event Selection  Identify the number of potential projects  Identify the kaizen type for each project  Determine return on investment (ROI) of each project to assist with prioritizing – cost and time investment for each project – potential savings after improvement1 Last revision May 8, 200145 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Event Selection Automate Routing Process Implement Visual Controls  Cost $ 10,000  Cost $300 – programmers – new envelopes – ($100/hr x 40 hrs) – training – training  Time to Implement - 3 months  Time to Implement - 3 weeks  Savings $ 500,000/year  Savings $ 48,000/year – labor – labor – materials – cycle time – defects – defects – cycle time (decreased from 116 to <6 hrs!)1 Last revision May 8, 200146 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Kaizen Event Selection  Choose the team  Write project summary & objectives “to develop a process to automatically route data for signature to multiple users” Is it S M A R T ?  Determine project timeline  Collect baseline data  Determine implementation strategy & tools  Present results  Audit1 Last revision May 8, 200147 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Case Study #1 - Waste Reduction for Shipping and Packaging Department - Old  Problems – Large quantities of packaging, took up very large amount of space – Roundtrip from packaging tables to packaging material storage, 100 ft min, up to 280 ft max – No staging for outgoing shipments – Little space for movement – Desk instead of workstation – Same door used for Receiving and Shipping – Shipping, Receiving were one department – 60 feet round trip between CPU/Label printer and Bay door – Large amount of time spent looking for tools; pallet jacks, carts, razors, etc.1 Last revision May 8, 200148 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Storage for All Packaging DMR Material Raw Materials1 Last revision May 8, 200149 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Shipping and Packaging Department - After  Advantages – Staging for outgoing parts – CPU station right next to where parts are shipped – Bay door dedicated for shipping – 70 square feet in space saved due to sort/discard – Less confusion on what is coming and what is going – Packaging tables standardized – 35 pallets worth of space saved on packaging reduction – $3300 in excess packaging – “In Location” for packaging1 Last revision May 8, 200150 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • 1 Last revision May 8, 200151 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Storage for All Packaging DMR Material Raw Materials1 Last revision May 8, 200152 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Case Study 2 - Reducing Waste and TPCT For Production Line  Beginning Details – TPCT = 15 days – Bay build set up – No Standardized or Detailed Work Instructions – Push Mentality – No OMS for training measures – Customer forecast - +25% ramp next quarter1 Last revision May 8, 200153 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Step SOE - Top Level Fabrication Activity Time 1 Outrigger Mounting 10 2 Hepa Filter Upper Left and Right Panel Assy 30 3 Plastic Angle Bracket Mounting 20 4 62.5" Robot Brackets Installation 2 5 Walking Beam Assy Installation 30 6 Horizontal Cable Tray 28 7 Vertical Cable Tray 26 8 Lower EBOX Mounting Brackets-Rear 27 9 Lower EBOX Mounting Brackets-Front 27 10 Bracket Installation for skins 33 11 Install EMO Cable Bracket 2 12 Hepa Filter Shroud Install 14 13 Process Drip Pan and Facility Drip Pan Installation, Leak Det. Bracket Installation 70 14 Lower EBOX install 25 15 LDM Brush 1&2, and SRD Install 26 16 Meg LDM Install 17 17 Pneumatic Harness Install and Routing 45 18 CDA Interconnect-Lower Controls 35 19 CBOX Prep Work 85 20 CBOX Mounting 20 21 Upper Cable Tray Installation (0021-79643) 30 22 Upper to Lower Cable Install 165 23 Lower EBOX/LDM Cable Routing 157 24 Facility Panel Subframe Installation 36 25 Megasonics, Brush 1 & 2, SRD LDM Facilitization 260 26 Facility Panel Installation and Facilitization 249 27 N2 Supply Manifold Install 25 28 Brush 2 Module Mounting 6 29 Brush #2 Module Pneumatic Interconnect 70 30 Brush #2 electrical interconnect 265 31 Brush 2 Bar A&B liquid interconnect from the LDMs 12 32 Brush 2 DI Interconnect 6 33 Drain Bracket Installation 25 34 Brush 1 Module Mounting 6 35 Brush 1 Electrical Interconnect 265 36 Brush #1 Pneumatic Interconnect 70 37 Brush 1 Bar A&B liquid interconnect from the LDMs 12 38 Brush 1 DI Interconnect 6 39 SRD Module Mounting 15 40 SRD Electrical Interconnect 165 41 SRD Pneumatic Interconnect 73 42 SRD DI Interconnect 38 43 Input Shuttle Install 55 44 Input Shuttle Electrical Interconnect 50 45 EMO Cable Routing 331 Last revision May 8, 200154 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Upper and Lower Level SOE‟s Cell 3 Brush 1 Module Mounting 25 Brush 1 Electrical Interconnect 265 Brush #1 Pneumatic Interconnect 70 Brush 1 Bar A&B liquid interconnect from the LDMs 12 Brush 1 DI Interconnect 6 SRD Module Mounting 15 SRD Electrical Interconnect 165 P/N Qty Sequence of Events from the Control Build Tools Time Cell 3 Brush 1 Module Mounting 1. Remove Nuts and washers from 4 mounting studs located on the main frame. 2.Remove outer two mounting bolts from the front and rear mounting brackets on the brush 1 module. 3. Place the mounting brackets on the mounting studs. 0010-77652 1 4. Place the brush 1 module on the mounting brackets. Insure wiring is not crimped . 5. Hand tighten nuts and washers on 4 mounting studs. 6. Hand tighten mounting bolts (4). 251 Last revision May 8, 200155 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Total Product Cycle Time- Product Sync Brush 1 SRD Electrical/ Electrical/ Facility Panel Pneumatic Pneumatic Prerouting Prerouting Brush 2 Output Shuttle Megasonic Lower Electronics Electrical/ Input Shuttle Electrical/ Electrical/ DI Manifold Pneumatic Pneumatic Boxes Pneumatic Liquid Prerouting Prerouting Prerouting Prerouting LDM Facilitization,Brush 2 Brush 1 module,SRD Megasonics Power Outrigger, lower E- module,electrical Megasonics Install,Robot Module mounting, Input Supply,Walking Beam boxes,LDM 1&2 interconnect Install,Arrange and order Shuttle, Output Station Covers,Transfer station Electrical cables 924 Min 954 Min Install install 945 Min 1015 Min 966 Min LDM Megasonic Lower System LDM Brush 1 Mega Harness 149 min Harness LDM SRD LDM Brush 2 Brush 1 Harness Brush 2 Harness TPCT =4950 Minutes Longest Path Back SRD Harness1 Last revision May 8, 200156 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Balancing the Line 550 500 Takt 468 468 468 468 450 468 400 477 472.5 507.5 483 462 350 OPCT (Min) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 OP 1 OP 2 OP 3 OP 4 OP 51 Last revision May 8, 200157 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Accomplishments  TPCT reduced from 15 days to 5 days (67%)  Created 5 standardized Work Cells  4 Mixed Model feeders for identified parallel work  Established Takt Time at 7.8 hrs  Implementation of 2 bin kanban system  FIFO material flow  Standardized and structured the manufacturing process (SOE)  Operational Method Sheets for training  Balanced the line1 Last revision May 8, 200158 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Let‟s GO Take A Break!1 Last revision May 8, 200159 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Agenda Introduction Lean Thinking Lean Line Design Conclusion1 Last revision May 8, 200160 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Traditional Production  Work order driven “push” system Characteristics  Batch production  Rework areas necessary to bring finished goods up to quality standards Results  Poor Delivery  Excess Inventory / Liabilities  Long/Inconsistent Cycle Times  Inflexible System  Customer Dissatisfaction  Long Lead Times  Poor Quality  Capacity Constrained  Excessive Resources  High Working Capital1 Last revision May 8, 200161 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Traditional vs. Lean  Materials are purchased for “just-  Materials are pulled on a just-in- in-case” usage time basis  Large-scale machines  Human-scale machines  Functional layout  Cell-type layout  Minimal skills  Multi-skilled workers  Long production runs  One-piece flow  Massive inventories  Low inventories at point-of-use  Development is isolated, with  High input from customers, little input from production or concurrent development of product customers and production process design1 Last revision May 8, 200162 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Traditional Production System PUSH SYSTEMAMAT Forecast Supplier Production and Finished Goods AMAT OP OP OP OP OP OP EDI Ship OP OP Work Pushes to Finished Goods Applied Next Operation Materials Production1 Last revision May 8, 200163 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Traditional Production System Pack & Saw Machine Weld Paint Push Push Push Push Ship COMMON PROBLEMS  Poor On Time Delivery  Excess Inventory / Liabilities  Poor Quality  Capacity Constrained  High/Inconsistent Cycle Times  Imbalanced Operations  Long Lead Times  Customer Dissatisfaction1 Last revision May 8, 200164 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Production System PULL SYSTEMAMAT Forecast Supplier Production and Finished Goods AMAT Finished Goods OP OP EDI OP OP OP OP PULL OP OP Applied Order Work is pulled as needed Point Materials by Next Operation Production 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 6 5 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Production System Pull Pull Pull Pull Pack & Saw Lean Machine Lean Weld Lean Paint Lean Ship TOOLS BENEFITS • Value Stream Mapping $ Improved OTD • Pull System $ Improved Throughput • 5S Program $ Improved Quality • Visual Management $ Reduced Inventory $ Greater Flexibility $ Shorter Lead Times1 Last revision May 8, 200166 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Production System  Production system which operates with much lower costs by focusing on: • Elimination of waste • Process re-engineering • Simple self managing systems  Crosses functional boundaries to rethink the entire production stream, including: • Scheduling and planning • Relationships with vendors • Material & product delivery processes • Layout & management of the processes1 Last revision May 8, 200167 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Enterprise Pull System Pull Pull Pull Suppliers Suppliers Production Customer & Quality Order Pull Suppliers Suppliers Pull Pull Pull Pull1 Last revision May 8, 200168 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Production Journey Customer Response & Speed Past to Market Fastest Delivery Lowest Cost Highest Quality COC Inventory Space Overhead In-Process & Customer Future Satisfaction World Class1 Last revision May 8, 200169 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Production Basics Establishing a Lean Flow Establishing Pull with Customers Continuously Improving1 Last revision May 8, 200170 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Waste Elimination Basic Production Elements + Line DesignReminder: Lean Principle #3Make products flow without interruption by eliminating waste1 Last revision May 8, 200171 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Other Basic Elements of a Pull Production System Ergonomics Total Productive Maintenance Set up reduction Tooling and Fixture Design Variability Reduction1 Last revision May 8, 200172 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Basic Elements Ergonomics  Safety – lifting practices and limits – no slippery surfaces – access/stack height of material  Work station design – tables and seating  Tools – hanging tools – ergonomic design – fixed storage locations  Parts presentation – gravity bins  Adequate lighting, ventilation and noise control  Motion economy1 Last revision May 8, 200173 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Basic Elements Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)  Routine maintenance – performance by the operator – simple repairs – daily thorough cleaning  Preventive maintenance – maintenance experts during reserved third shift  Calibration procedures – (stickers part of visual controls)  Life cycle management – monitoring with SPC – increasing life of equipment with good care1 Last revision May 8, 200174 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Basic Elements Setup Reduction  Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED)  External vs. internal setup  Dynamic vs. static  Quick disconnect fittings on test fixtures  Specialized tools to perform a specific job1 Last revision May 8, 200175 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Basic Elements Tooling and Fixture Design  Why special tools and fixtures? – safety – reduce the level of human effort required – improve quality  Sourcing – commercially available – modified commercially available – fully customized design1 Last revision May 8, 200176 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Basic Elements Variability Reduction  Process capability studies –how does the natural variation of the process output compare to specification limits?  Statistical process control –has the process shifted based on sample output?  Quality control charting techniques –facilitates investigation into causes so that actions can be taken to improve the process. –cause and effect (fish bone) diagram, Pareto charts, etc.1 Last revision May 8, 200177 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow World Class Lean Production Waste Elimination Basic Production System Elements + Line Design1 Last revision May 8, 200178 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Process Design Start Here Operations Balance Operational Method Sheets In-process Kanbans Flexible employees1 Materials Kanbans Last revision May 8, 200179 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Product Synchronization Product Synchronization: Grouping products on a production line according to similar processes. Sub 1 SP Test Assembly 3 Assembly 2 Assembly 4 Repair Assembly 1 Test Box Sub 2 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 8 0 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Product Synchronization Process Map: A matrix of information, process names across the top and product names along the side, that is used to see commonality among products being considered for the same mixed model production line. Process Map Sp Test A1 Sub1 A2 A3 Sub 2 A4 Rep Test Box Model A Model B Model C 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 8 1 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Process Types Assembly Test Post-test Box Assembly Sequential1 Last revision May 8, 200182 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Process Types Assembly 2 Post-test Assembly Assembly 1 Test Box Option1 Last revision May 8, 200183 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Process Types Sub-assembly Test Assembly Test Post-test Box Assembly Feeder1 Last revision May 8, 200184 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Process Types Spare Boxing Assembly Test Post-test Box Assembly Spur1 Last revision May 8, 200185 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Process Types Assembly 2 Repair Assembly 1 Test Box Rework1 Last revision May 8, 200186 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Example Product Synchronization: RF Match 41 min 20 min PVD/Etch/ Sub-Assy Tung/MxP 19.75 min Pre- PVD/Etch/ 16.75 min Test Tung/MxP 82.75 min Setup 157 min Shipping CVD Assembly Burn-In 21.5 min DMR (Rework) CVD Calibration TPCT = 338.75 min = (5.65 hours) Customer Returns1 Last revision May 8, 200187 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design SOE Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans1 Last revision May 8, 200188 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Sequence of Events (SOE) A document that contains:  A description of each step in the process.  Time required for each step.  Tools required for each step.  Quality requirements for each step.1 Last revision May 8, 200189 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Define the Work in the Process Sequence of Events (SOE) Product: Model B Seq. Task Time Type VA Quality 1.0 Unwrap face plate 32.0 SL Check for Scratches 2.0 Insert four screws, 44.0 RL • Window at upper left attaching to main unit 3.0 Test 51.0 RL Pass/Fail 4.0 Move to next Op. 12.0 ML Type Codes: SL= Setup Labor SM= Setup Machine Work that will RL= Req‟d Labor Is it Value Added in the ensure quality RM= Req‟d Machine eyes of the customer? ML= Move Labor MM= Move Machine1 Last revision May 8, 200190 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Upper and Lower Level SOE‟s Cell 3 Brush 1 Module Mounting 25 Brush 1 Electrical Interconnect 265 Brush #1 Pneumatic Interconnect 70 Brush 1 Bar A&B liquid interconnect from the LDMs 12 Brush 1 DI Interconnect 6 SRD Module Mounting 15 SRD Electrical Interconnect 165 P/N Qty Sequence of Events from the Control Build Tools Time Cell 3 Brush 1 Module Mounting 1. Remove Nuts and washers from 4 mounting studs located on the main frame. 2.Remove outer two mounting bolts from the front and rear mounting brackets on the brush 1 module. 3. Place the mounting brackets on the mounting studs. 0010-77652 1 4. Place the brush 1 module on the mounting brackets. Insure wiring is not crimped . 5. Hand tighten nuts and washers on 4 mounting studs. 6. Hand tighten mounting bolts (4). 251 Last revision May 8, 200191 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design TPCT Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans1 Last revision May 8, 200192 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Total Product Cycle Time (TPCT) The sum of work time along the longest path in the product synchronization 70 10 20 20 30 50 20 40 30 TPCT = 160 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 9 3 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Total Product Cycle Time- Product Sync Brush 1 SRD Electrical/ Electrical/ Facility Panel Pneumatic Pneumatic Prerouting Prerouting Brush 2 Output Shuttle Megasonic Lower Electronics Electrical/ Input Shuttle Electrical/ Electrical/ DI Manifold Pneumatic Pneumatic Boxes Pneumatic Liquid Prerouting Prerouting Prerouting Prerouting LDM Facilitization,Brush 2 Brush 1 module,SRD Megasonics Power Outrigger, lower E- module,electrical Megasonics Install,Robot Module mounting, Input Supply,Walking Beam boxes,LDM 1&2 interconnect Install,Arrange and order Shuttle, Output Station Covers,Transfer station Electrical cables 924 Min 954 Min Install install 945 Min 1015 Min 966 Min LDM Megasonic Lower System LDM Brush 1 Mega Harness 149 min Harness LDM SRD LDM Brush 2 Brush 1 Harness Brush 2 Harness TPCT =4950 Minutes Longest Path Back SRD Harness1 Last revision May 8, 200194 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Demand Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans1 Last revision May 8, 200195 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Dc = Demand at Capacity Demand at Capacity 120% Dc (Dc): The demand that will be used to design Dc the line. It represents Dr the line‟s capacity without overtime. 50% Dc Daily Rate(Dr): The average day‟s rate of Q1 Q2 Q3 production, usually less than Demand at Capacity. The actual Get Average Daily Rate daily demand is used to calculate staffing requirements. Planning Manufacturing Marketing 1 Last revision May 8, 2001 9 6 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Effective Work Hours per Person Breaks Vacation 8 hours total work Projects & Sick time? Paperwork Cleaning Delays Training ? hours for production1 Last revision May 8, 200197 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Takt Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans1 Last revision May 8, 200198 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Takt The speed or rhythm of the production line, expressed in time per unit. A statistic representing total work time divided by total demand for the line. (Hs) (# of Shifts) Formula for Takt = Dc (7.1 hrs. / shift) (60 min / hr) (1) = 1 min. 426 units / day Takt (7.1 hrs. / shift) (60 min / hr) (1) = 10 min. Takt 43 units / day Takt (7.1 hrs. / shift) (60 min / hr) (1) = 60 min. Takt Takt 7 units / day1 Last revision May 8, 200199 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Operations Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans2 Last revision May 8, 200100 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow OperationsPhysical places to work on the Lean line. Each operation represent a portion of the work in the process. Operation 1 Operation 2 Operation 3 Operation 4 Examples 60 min. of work / 10 min. Takt = 6 ops. 8 hrs. work / 6 hrs. Takt = 2 ops Last revision May 8, 2001201 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Placement of the Operations Builds quality 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 into the product Sequential whole whole Checks quality whole after the product whole is complete whole whole Parallel (Bay Build)2 Last revision May 8, 200102 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Balance Operations Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans2 Last revision May 8, 200103 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow BalanceOperational Cycle Time (OPCT) is the time each operation takes start to finish. The target for OPCT is Takt. Takt Takt Takt Takt Takt Balance is the relationship between Takt and OPCT. An imbalanced operation is one that has cycle time in excess of Takt. OPCT Takt SL RL RM RL ML Op 1 Op 2 Op 3 Op 4 Op 52 Last revision May 8, 200104 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Five Ways to Achieve Balance #1 Eliminate Work Sequence of Events (SOE) Product: Model B Process: Assembly 2 Seq. Task Time Type VA Quality 1.0 Unwrap face plate 32.0 SL Check for Scratches 2.0 Insert four screws, 44.0 RL X Window at upper left attaching to main unit 3.0 Test 51.0 RL Pass/Fail 4.0 Move to next Op. 12.0 ML Eliminate as many non-value add tasks Low value add as Setup & tasks possible move2 Last revision May 8, 200105 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Five Ways to Achieve Balance #2 Move Work OPCT Takt SL RL RM RL ML Op 1 Op 2 Op 3 Op 4 Op 52 Last revision May 8, 200106 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Five Ways to Achieve Balance #3 Add People or Machines OPCT Takt SL RL RM RL ML Op 1 Op 2 Op 3 Op 4 Op 5 Takt Takt Takt Machine 1 Machine 22 Last revision May 8, 200107 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Five Ways to Achieve Balance #4 Move People (use “flexing”) OPCT Takt SL RL RM RL ML Op 1 Op 2 Op 3 Op 4 Op 52 Last revision May 8, 200108 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Five Ways to Achieve Balance #5 Rely on Overtime & Inventory OPCT Takt First Shift RL Op 5 Overtime / Second Shift2 Last revision May 8, 200109 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Operational Method Sheet (OMS) Operational Method Sheets are simple, graphic, color-coded work instructions used on the Lean Manufacturing line instead of engineering drawings and bills of material. APPLIED Information contained in this document is considered by EC# 12345 OP# 123 MATERIALS Applied Materials to be confidential and is not to be used in any manner without the consent of Applied Materials. P/N 0250-12345 TITLE: Smoke Sensor Assembly REV. A PG# 1 of 10 TQC WORK VERIFY RED indicates the TQC (Touch Quality Check.) A YELLOW indicates the TQC is the current WORK CONTENT to production employee be performed by the 6 verifying the previous work current production content done by another employee employee 1 3 2 Work to be 4 VERIFIED by the production employee that performed the work is coded BLUE 5 SEQ FIND PART # PART DESCRIPTION QTY TASK DESCRIPTION TQC/TOOLING 270 1 Check label orientation 275 2 Loosen screws System Controller Smoke Sensor Cable Strip wires from C/A & insert in matching slots 280 3 0150-20764 1 Assembly on Sensor 300 4 Tighten screws 400 5 Verify wires are securely in place 410 6 Replace top of Sensor & secure with wire clip2 Last revision May 8, 200110 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Operations Flexible Employees Balance IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans2 Last revision May 8, 200111 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Employee Certification Line #: 3 P5000 Robot Skill Diversity Chart Operations Team Members A1 A2 A4 A5 A6 A7 Orientation Dave Thomas Trainee Brian Roy Certified Pat Wilson Master Greg Watkins Pete Wilson2 Last revision May 8, 200112 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Flexible Employees Flexing is the movement of employees who are trained and certified in different parts of the process. At a minimum, employees should be trained “one-up” and “one-down.” Dc Q1 Q2 Q3 On most days, the number of operations will not equal the number of employees on the line2 Last revision May 8, 200113 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Line Design Operations Balance Material Kanbans IPKB Flexible Employees Material Kanbans2 Last revision May 8, 200114 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull with Customers  A „pull signal‟ acts as a request for someone to: • Produce • Replenish  The signal -which is really a customer demand- can provide information on: • When • How many • What kind Reminder: Lean Principle #4 Produce only what is pulled by the customer2 Last revision May 8, 200115 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull Kanban: Communication Signal In-Process Kanbans = Signal for Work2 Last revision May 8, 200116 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull In-Process Kanbans Add Queue Time You are here 3 minute process When will you be finished?2 Last revision May 8, 200117 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull In-Process Kanbans Represent Inventory Money spent ahead of time Space needed to store product Rework, obsolescence, damage possible2 Last revision May 8, 200118 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull Things to Know About Kanbans  A full kanban does NOT need a new limit  A kanban should NOT always be full, it is a signal to build.  Kanbans can and will cause a line stopper. ? ? ? ? When the kanban is full you can... •Flex •Housekeeping •DMR •Scrap tickets •Training2 Last revision May 8, 200119 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull Material Pull Raw & In-Process Material (RIP) - All parts that are kept in the resupply area or on the production line. Stores Transaction Resupply: A designated Resupply area within RIP used to replenish the line, or to hold those parts Backflush that are not kept Scrap on the line. RIP Area2 Last revision May 8, 200120 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull Material Replenishment Stores Part No. Qty. Usage Supply Resupply RIP Area2 Last revision May 8, 200121 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing Pull Non-Replenish Materials Kanban Card Stores Planning Part No. Qty. Usage Supply Unique Parts Resupply Common Parts RIP Area2 Last revision May 8, 200122 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Lean Process Design Start Here Operations Balance Operational Method Sheets In-process Kanbans Flexible employees2 Materials Kanbans Last revision May 8, 200123 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Continuous Improvement The Lean Production Basics and Lean Line Design will always need to be revisited, as there will always be room for improvement! Reminder: Lean Principle #5 Pursue perfection by continuously improving2 Last revision May 8, 200124 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • BREAK TIME (15 MINUTES) NEXT STEP  LEGO ASSEMBLY WORKSHOP2 Last revision May 8, 200125 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY Workshop Objectives (Team effort): 1. Create a Product Synchronization diagram 2. Conduct a Time Study and Develop SOE‟s 3. Calculate Total Product Cycle Time (TPCT) 4. Calculate TAKT Time 5. Balance the assembly flow line 6 Create a line layout diagram and indicate staffing at each operation (station). 7. Share your results2 Last revision May 8, 200126 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY Given: 1. Lego Model 2. Operation Method Sheets (OMS‟s) 3. Demand at Capacity (Dc) 4. Operation Constraints 5. Line design formulas2 Last revision May 8, 200127 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: PRODUCT SYNCHRONIZATION DIAGRAM1. Draw a circle to represent each job step (reference OMS‟s provided) and write down a brief description.2. Connect the circles (job steps) in sequence using an arrow to represent the process flow Step 1 2 3 4 TPCT = _______2 Last revision May 8, 200128 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: Sequence of Events 1. List each task (reference the Product Synch), determine the time for each task (job step) through time study work. Seq. Task Time Type VA Quality2 Last revision May 8, 200129 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: CALCULATE TAKT TIME CALCULATE NUMBER OF STATIONS (OPERATIONS) (Hs) (# of Shifts) Formula for Takt = = Dc = Hours Given: Dc = 852 Lego Assy‟s per day = Seconds Hs = 7.1 Hrs./shift # of shifts = 1 Convert answer to seconds and plot line on graph 2 Last revision May 8, 2001 3 0 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: CALCULATE NUMBER OF STATIONS (OPERATIONS) (TPCT)/Operators per Station Formula for Number = Stations of Stations = TAKT Time Note: Use the same time units for TPCT and TAKT Time in the formula. This is only a guideline, you still need to balance the line by grouping job steps to achieve a station time equal to or below the desired TAKT Time. 2 Last revision May 8, 2001 3 1 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: LINE BALANCING 1. Draw a horizontal line on the chart representing the TAKT time for the line. 2. Draw a bar for each job step identified on the SOE‟s, indicating the total time for each bar on the chart below. 3. Draw a circle around a group of job step bars that will be grouped into a station (operation). 4. For job step bars that exceed the TAKT Time line, indicate how that particular job step time will be reduced (ex. adding operators, process redesign, job step work breakdown, etc.)2 Last revision May 8, 200132 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: LINE BALANCINGTimeScale Job Task Descriptions 2 Last revision May 8, 2001 3 3 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Establishing a Lean Flow - Workshop LEGO ASSEMBLY: LINE LAYOUT • Use a square to represent one station TAKT Time = ____________ • Use arrows to show assembly flow TPCT = ____________ • Show material and operator placement # Stations = ____________ • Make suggestions for line improvements # Operators = ___________ Capacity = ____________2 Last revision May 8, 200134 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Wrap Up  Where Do We Go From Here?  Course evaluations2 Last revision May 8, 200135 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™
  • Where to go from here… Design for Manufacturability Concurrent Engineering Poka-yoke Project Management Materials Kaizen Workshop Lean Production Basics Program Management Lean Systems Thinking Line Design Lean Fundamentals2 Last revision May 8, 200136 TH E I N FO R M A T ION AG E S TA RT S H ERE ™