War of 1812 (11)


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War of 1812 (11)

  1. 1. President Madison’s War
  2. 2. Events leading to War <ul><li>US shipping was being harassed, and cargo was seized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France confiscated cargo from licensed ships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impressment of American sailors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many British sailors became naturalized US citizens and deserted British vessels and joined American crews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Navy kidnapped these sailors off American ships and had them rejoin the British Navy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Events Leading to War <ul><li>Economic Diplomacy Fails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Madison becomes Pres. <ul><li>Was Jefferson’s Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><li>Was author of 30 of the 81 the Federalist Papers (including No. 10 and No. 51) </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the most important contributor to the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Also the shortest President </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marching to War <ul><li>Non-Intercourse Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade trade with France and Britain; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was this successful? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War Hawks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Congressmen favored war, even though it would hurt the east (Clay, Calhoun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did the War Hawks want war? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. John C. Calhoun
  7. 7. Henry Clay
  8. 8. Benefits of War with Britain <ul><li>Allow reopening of trade </li></ul><ul><li>National Pride </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the impressment of sailors </li></ul><ul><li>CANADA!!! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Drawbacks to War <ul><li>Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war </li></ul><ul><li>Military was small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing Army was small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militia comprised most of our forces, and they did not like to fight outside of their state borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy was quite small - only 16 warships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain was a great Superpower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could crush us like a bug and we could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or the Louisiana Purchase </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Declaration of War <ul><li>June of 1812 Madison asked Congress for declaration of war </li></ul><ul><li>Vote was split along regional lines </li></ul><ul><li>War started with Invasion of Canada </li></ul>
  11. 11. Early Battles <ul><li>US Burns York (now Toronto) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US figured the Canadians would welcome the Americans and quickly join the US to expel Britain from North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not happen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the US control of Lake Erie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented shipping from leaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the war more unpopular in the Northeast </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. War at Sea <ul><li>Privateers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized over 1,300 British ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurt them economically </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. USS Constitution <ul><li>Greatest U.S. warship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Guns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Guerrière </li></ul>
  14. 15. Oldest commissioned ship in U.S. Navy
  15. 21. War in Europe <ul><li>April 1814 - Napoleon was defeated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England can concentrate on us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug., 1814 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British land troops south of Wash. D.C. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 23. Washington D.C. <ul><li>In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>They burn the Executive Mansion (White House) and the Capitol </li></ul><ul><li>Madison and Congress Barely escape </li></ul>
  17. 24. The Burnt House
  18. 25. Baltimore <ul><li>Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After bombarding Fort McHenry the British abandon the attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sept. 13, 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francis Scott Key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem </li></ul></ul>
  19. 27. Treaty of Ghent <ul><li>Treaty was Negotiated in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War ended in a stalemate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no party gained or lost any territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The issue of impressment was not addressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faded out on its own </li></ul></ul>
  20. 28. Battle of New Orleans <ul><li>Fought after the treaty was signed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But not ratified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why was New Orleans important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson is sent to defend the city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had just defeated the Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. Gen. Jackson
  22. 31. New Orleans <ul><li>British land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get within 7 miles of the city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rodriquez Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,100 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 untrained, unarmed men to fill gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton bales, wagons, etc. serve as fortifications </li></ul></ul>
  23. 34. New Orleans <ul><li>Jan. 1, 1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British open fire with cannon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan. 8 - British launch ground attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two tries were made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American victory </li></ul></ul>
  24. 36. Casualties <ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,100 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500 taken prisoner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 wounded </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. Results of the War <ul><li>Peace Treaty does little, but… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain never seizes our ships again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We never go after Canada again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson will become a war hero and a household name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run for President? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2nd War for Independence? </li></ul>
  26. 38. If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important? <ul><li>Gave the United States a National Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We were able to hold our own against the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started us thinking about continuing westward expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended bad feelings toward the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western Frontiersmen </li></ul>