Articles of Confederation Our First Government, Our First Failure
<ul><li>Written in 1777 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the War for Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replaces the Second C...
Confederation <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Independent States with a Weak Central Government </...
<ul><li>Union of the States – not the People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States will be represented equally </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Structure <ul><li>One Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No President </li></ul></ul>...
Congress <ul><li>Legislative Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many States needed to pa...
Specific Powers <ul><li>Articles gave the Congress the powers that the Second Continental Congress had already assumed: </...
National Capitol <ul><li>None </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It rotated from state to state </li></ul></ul>
Changes <ul><li>Amending the Articles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many states are needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al...
Problems <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t Regulate Foreign Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Weaknesses <ul><li>List. . .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t Regulate Trade (tariffs)  <...
Results <ul><li>Many leaders began to believe this National Government was a failure </li></ul><ul><li>We needed a stronge...
 
Convention <ul><li>James Madison Organized a Convention  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia, PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Convention <ul><li>Washington attends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen President of the Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virg...
Virginia Plan <ul><li>3 Branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Cameral Congress </li...
Small States <ul><li>Very distrustful of the large states </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest concern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represe...
New Jersey Plan <ul><li>William Patterson – “Plan B” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains a Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Compromise <ul><li>Compromises @ the the Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half-w...
Ratification <ul><li>Constitution needed approval by the people of 9 States </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul><ul>...
Ratification <ul><li>June of 1788 – 9 </li></ul><ul><li>May of 1790 – 13  </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><...
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Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)

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Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)

  1. 1. Articles of Confederation Our First Government, Our First Failure
  2. 2. <ul><li>Written in 1777 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the War for Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replaces the Second Continental Congress </li></ul>
  3. 3. Confederation <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Independent States with a Weak Central Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States have more power than central government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Union of the States – not the People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States will be represented equally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why a Confederation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t want a tyrannical national government all over again </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structure <ul><li>One Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Court System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected States to enforce laws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One vote per state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-7 delegates per state </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Congress <ul><li>Legislative Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many States needed to pass? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 out of 13 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority Rule? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minority Rule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Specific Powers <ul><li>Articles gave the Congress the powers that the Second Continental Congress had already assumed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare War/Conclude Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send/Receive Ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coin Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Post Offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Army/Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix standards of weights/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settle State Disputes??? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. National Capitol <ul><li>None </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It rotated from state to state </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Changes <ul><li>Amending the Articles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many states are needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All 13 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority Rule? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Little (if any) change was possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Foreshadowing!!!) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t Regulate Foreign Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal/Jurisdictional Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Territories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different currencies – values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt from War of Independence </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Weaknesses <ul><li>List. . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t Regulate Trade (tariffs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has no chief executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has no court system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No way to enforce their laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t stop the states from printing $$$ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Results <ul><li>Many leaders began to believe this National Government was a failure </li></ul><ul><li>We needed a stronger central government to solve these national problems </li></ul>
  13. 14. Convention <ul><li>James Madison Organized a Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia, PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer, 1787 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Washington was the key! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Convention <ul><li>Washington attends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen President of the Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan Introduced – Madison wrote it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Enlarge and Expand the Articles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actually, it Abolished the Articles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Virginia Plan <ul><li>3 Branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Cameral Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representation determined by state population – both houses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Union of the PEOPLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Courts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Small States <ul><li>Very distrustful of the large states </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest concern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Articles of Confederation - Equal </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. New Jersey Plan <ul><li>William Patterson – “Plan B” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains a Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Compromise <ul><li>Compromises @ the the Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half-way between Unitary and Confederation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3/5 Compromise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade – 20 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate (Upper House) – Equal (2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of Rep (Lower House – by Population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromises were Vital </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ratification <ul><li>Constitution needed approval by the people of 9 States </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists – wanted the new Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists – afraid of the new, more powerful national government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromise Again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights was promised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rights the people have that the government cannot take away </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Ratification <ul><li>June of 1788 – 9 </li></ul><ul><li>May of 1790 – 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified in 1791 </li></ul></ul>

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