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Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)
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Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)

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  • 1. Articles of Confederation Our First Government, Our First Failure
  • 2.
    • Written in 1777
      • During the War for Independence
    • Replaces the Second Continental Congress
  • 3. Confederation
    • Definition
      • Association of Independent States with a Weak Central Government
      • States have more power than central government
      • Article II
        • Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
  • 4.
    • Union of the States – not the People
      • States will be represented equally
    • Why a Confederation?
      • Didn’t want a tyrannical national government all over again
  • 5. Structure
    • One Branch
      • Legislature
        • No President
        • No Court System
          • Expected States to enforce laws
    • One vote per state
      • Regardless of size
      • 2-7 delegates per state
  • 6. Congress
    • Legislative Powers
      • Make Law
      • How many States needed to pass?
        • 9 out of 13
        • Majority Rule?
          • Minority Rule
  • 7. Specific Powers
    • Articles gave the Congress the powers that the Second Continental Congress had already assumed:
      • Declare War/Conclude Peace
      • Send/Receive Ambassadors
      • Make Treaties
      • Borrow money
      • Coin Money
      • Establish Post Offices
      • Create Army/Navy
      • Fix standards of weights/
        • measures
      • Settle State Disputes???
  • 8. National Capitol
    • None
      • It rotated from state to state
  • 9. Changes
    • Amending the Articles:
      • How many states are needed?
        • All 13
        • Majority Rule?
    • Little (if any) change was possible
      • (Foreshadowing!!!)
  • 10. Problems
    • Video
    • Trade
      • Couldn’t Regulate Foreign Trade
    • State Disputes
      • Trade Wars
      • Legal/Jurisdictional Issues
      • Western Territories
    • Money
      • Different currencies – values
      • Debt from War of Independence
  • 11. Weaknesses
    • List. . .
      • Can’t Tax
      • Can’t Regulate Trade (tariffs)
      • Has no chief executive
      • Has no court system
        • No way to enforce their laws
      • Can’t stop the states from printing $$$
  • 12. Results
    • Many leaders began to believe this National Government was a failure
    • We needed a stronger central government to solve these national problems
  • 13.  
  • 14. Convention
    • James Madison Organized a Convention
      • Philadelphia, PA
      • Summer, 1787
    • George Washington was the key!
      • Legitimacy
  • 15. Convention
    • Washington attends
      • Chosen President of the Convention
    • Virginia Plan Introduced – Madison wrote it
      • “ Enlarge and Expand the Articles”
        • Actually, it Abolished the Articles
  • 16. Virginia Plan
    • 3 Branches
      • Legislature
        • Bi-Cameral Congress
        • Representation determined by state population – both houses
        • Union of the PEOPLE
      • Executive
        • President
      • Judicial
        • National Courts
  • 17. Small States
    • Very distrustful of the large states
    • Biggest concern:
      • Representation in Congress
      • Under the Articles of Confederation - Equal
  • 18. New Jersey Plan
    • William Patterson – “Plan B”
      • Retains a Confederacy
      • Representation in Congress
        • Equal
  • 19. Compromise
    • Compromises @ the the Convention
      • Federalism
        • Half-way between Unitary and Confederation
      • Slavery
        • 3/5 Compromise
        • Slave Trade – 20 years
      • Representation in Congress
        • Senate (Upper House) – Equal (2)
        • House of Rep (Lower House – by Population
    • Compromises were Vital
  • 20. Ratification
    • Constitution needed approval by the people of 9 States
    • Controversial
      • Federalists – wanted the new Constitution
      • Anti-Federalists – afraid of the new, more powerful national government
    • Compromise Again
      • Bill of Rights was promised
        • The rights the people have that the government cannot take away
  • 21. Ratification
    • June of 1788 – 9
    • May of 1790 – 13
    • Bill of Rights
      • Debated
      • Ratified in 1791