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Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)
 

Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11)

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    Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11) Articles of confederation and constitutional convention (11) Presentation Transcript

    • Articles of Confederation Our First Government, Our First Failure
      • Written in 1777
        • During the War for Independence
      • Replaces the Second Continental Congress
    • Confederation
      • Definition
        • Association of Independent States with a Weak Central Government
        • States have more power than central government
        • Article II
          • Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
      • Union of the States – not the People
        • States will be represented equally
      • Why a Confederation?
        • Didn’t want a tyrannical national government all over again
    • Structure
      • One Branch
        • Legislature
          • No President
          • No Court System
            • Expected States to enforce laws
      • One vote per state
        • Regardless of size
        • 2-7 delegates per state
    • Congress
      • Legislative Powers
        • Make Law
        • How many States needed to pass?
          • 9 out of 13
          • Majority Rule?
            • Minority Rule
    • Specific Powers
      • Articles gave the Congress the powers that the Second Continental Congress had already assumed:
        • Declare War/Conclude Peace
        • Send/Receive Ambassadors
        • Make Treaties
        • Borrow money
        • Coin Money
        • Establish Post Offices
        • Create Army/Navy
        • Fix standards of weights/
          • measures
        • Settle State Disputes???
    • National Capitol
      • None
        • It rotated from state to state
    • Changes
      • Amending the Articles:
        • How many states are needed?
          • All 13
          • Majority Rule?
      • Little (if any) change was possible
        • (Foreshadowing!!!)
    • Problems
      • Video
      • Trade
        • Couldn’t Regulate Foreign Trade
      • State Disputes
        • Trade Wars
        • Legal/Jurisdictional Issues
        • Western Territories
      • Money
        • Different currencies – values
        • Debt from War of Independence
    • Weaknesses
      • List. . .
        • Can’t Tax
        • Can’t Regulate Trade (tariffs)
        • Has no chief executive
        • Has no court system
          • No way to enforce their laws
        • Can’t stop the states from printing $$$
    • Results
      • Many leaders began to believe this National Government was a failure
      • We needed a stronger central government to solve these national problems
    •  
    • Convention
      • James Madison Organized a Convention
        • Philadelphia, PA
        • Summer, 1787
      • George Washington was the key!
        • Legitimacy
    • Convention
      • Washington attends
        • Chosen President of the Convention
      • Virginia Plan Introduced – Madison wrote it
        • “ Enlarge and Expand the Articles”
          • Actually, it Abolished the Articles
    • Virginia Plan
      • 3 Branches
        • Legislature
          • Bi-Cameral Congress
          • Representation determined by state population – both houses
          • Union of the PEOPLE
        • Executive
          • President
        • Judicial
          • National Courts
    • Small States
      • Very distrustful of the large states
      • Biggest concern:
        • Representation in Congress
        • Under the Articles of Confederation - Equal
    • New Jersey Plan
      • William Patterson – “Plan B”
        • Retains a Confederacy
        • Representation in Congress
          • Equal
    • Compromise
      • Compromises @ the the Convention
        • Federalism
          • Half-way between Unitary and Confederation
        • Slavery
          • 3/5 Compromise
          • Slave Trade – 20 years
        • Representation in Congress
          • Senate (Upper House) – Equal (2)
          • House of Rep (Lower House – by Population
      • Compromises were Vital
    • Ratification
      • Constitution needed approval by the people of 9 States
      • Controversial
        • Federalists – wanted the new Constitution
        • Anti-Federalists – afraid of the new, more powerful national government
      • Compromise Again
        • Bill of Rights was promised
          • The rights the people have that the government cannot take away
    • Ratification
      • June of 1788 – 9
      • May of 1790 – 13
      • Bill of Rights
        • Debated
        • Ratified in 1791