biology.. kingdoms


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biology.. kingdoms

  1. 1. Characteristics Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Nucleus enclosed by membrane No No Yes Organelles enclosed by membrane No No Yes Cell wall with peptidoglycan Yes No No Some conduct photosynthesis Yes No Yes Some are methanogens No Yes No Some fix nitrogen No Yes No Operons Yes Yes No
  2. 2. The Monera Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms. Unicellular means that they only have one cell. Moneran cells are far simpler and more basic than the cells of other lifeforms. These cells have no nucleus, and are also missing many of the organelles, or parts, commonly found in other cells. For this reason, monerans are thought to be very distantly related to other lifeforms
  3. 3. • The Protista Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms (lifeforms with only one cell) who have a nucleus. The primary difference between protists and monera is that protists are more complex, having a nucleus. • Many protists appear to be both plant and animal. Like plants, they are green, and can create their own food. However, like animals, they have moving body parts and are able to move around their environments. You can see why scientists no longer classify living things into two kingdoms. Into which would you put these unique organisms?
  4. 4. The Fungi Kingdom is made up of a variety of different fungi. For many years, it was believed that fungi were plants. Today we know that fungi are different from plants in some very important ways. First, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. They must rely on other food sources to support them. There are also differences in the basic makeup and chemistry of their cells. One common type of fungus is the mushrooms you find on your pizza. Other fungi include microscopic fungus, truffles, and more.
  5. 5. The Plantae Kingdom is made up of all the plants that you see each day. Most plants are multi-cellular, meaning that they consist of many cells. Different types of plants include trees, grass, flowers, and some types of algae. Plants use the light from the Sun to produce their own food. This allows them to grow almost anywhere, as long as there is enough water. Plants get their green color from the chlorophyll which is found inside of their cells. Plants use chlorophyll to collect energy from the light of the Sun. They then use this energy to create food. In this process, they create the food we eat and the oxygen we need to breathe. Plants are very important to the life of almost every other living thing.
  6. 6. Like many other lifeforms, animals are multi-cellular. These cells come together, forming tissues, organs and organ systems, that help sustain the life of the animal. From elephants to snails, animals come in many shapes and sizes, and can be found all over the world. Animals cannot make their own food. They must rely on other living things, such as plants, fungi, and other animals to sustain them. Without other food sources, animals could not survive. There are more species of animals than in all the other kingdoms combined. From worms, to blue whales, to bald eagles, animals have evolved to fit a wide variety of niches.
  7. 7. How are organism placed into their kingdoms? • Cell type, complex or simple •Their ability to make food •The number of cells in their body
  8. 8. You are probably quite familiar with the members of this kingdom as it contains all the plants that you have come to know - flowering plants,mosses, and ferns. Plants are all multicellular and consist of complex cells. In addition plants are autotrophs,organisms that make their own food. With over 250,000 species, the plant kingdom is the second largest kingdom. Plant species range from the tiny green mosses to giant trees.
  9. 9. Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs (organisms that eat other organisms) on Earth. Wow!
  10. 10. The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1 million known species All animals consist of many complex cells. They are also heterotrophs. Members of the animal kingdom are found in the most diverse environments in the world.
  11. 11. •In 1983, scientists tool samples from a spot deep in the Pacific Ocean where hot gases and molten rock boiled into the ocean form the Earth’s interior. To their surprise they discovered unicellular (one cell) organisms in the samples. These organisms are today classified in the kingdom, Archaebacteria. •Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling waterand thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments. • Finding Archaebacteria: The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA, were among the first places Archaebacteria were discovered. The biologists pictured above are immersing microscope slides in the boiling pool onto which some archaebacteria might be captured for study.
  12. 12. Like archaebacteria, eubacteria are complex and single celled. Most bacteria are in theEUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with. Eubacteria are classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. Most eubacteria are helpful. Some produce vitamins and foods like yogurt. However, these eubacteria, Streptococci pictured above, can give you strep throat!
  13. 13. Mushrooms, mold and mildew are all examples of organisms in the kingdom fungi. Most fungi are multicellular and consists of many complex cells. Fungi are organisms that biologists once confused with plants, however, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil
  14. 14. Slime molds and algae are protists. Sometimes they are called the odds and ends kingdom because its members are so different from one another. Protists include all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, notanimals, not plants and not fungi. Most protists are unicellular. You may be wondering why those protists are not classified in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. It is because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells.