Characteristics Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
Nucleus enclosed by
No No Yes
No No Yes
Cell wall with
Yes No No
Yes No Yes
No Yes No
Some fix nitrogen No Yes No
Operons Yes Yes No
The Monera Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms. Unicellular
means that they only have one cell. Moneran cells are far simpler
and more basic than the cells of other lifeforms. These cells have
no nucleus, and are also missing many of the organelles, or parts,
commonly found in other cells. For this reason, monerans are
thought to be very distantly related to other lifeforms
• The Protista Kingdom consists of unicellular lifeforms (lifeforms
with only one cell) who have a nucleus. The primary difference
between protists and monera is that protists are more complex,
having a nucleus.
• Many protists appear to be both plant and animal. Like plants,
they are green, and can create their own food. However, like
animals, they have moving body parts and are able to move around
their environments. You can see why scientists no longer classify
living things into two kingdoms. Into which would you put these
The Fungi Kingdom is made up of a variety of different fungi. For many
years, it was believed that fungi were plants. Today we know that fungi are
different from plants in some very important ways.
First, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. They must rely on
other food sources to support them. There are also differences in the basic
makeup and chemistry of their cells.
One common type of fungus is the mushrooms you find on your pizza.
Other fungi include microscopic fungus, truffles, and more.
The Plantae Kingdom is made up of all the plants that you see each day.
Most plants are multi-cellular, meaning that they consist of many cells.
Different types of plants include trees, grass, flowers, and some types of
Plants use the light from the Sun to produce their own food. This allows
them to grow almost anywhere, as long as there is enough water.
Plants get their green color from the chlorophyll which is found inside of
their cells. Plants use chlorophyll to collect energy from the light of the Sun.
They then use this energy to create food. In this process, they create the
food we eat and the oxygen we need to breathe. Plants are very important
to the life of almost every other living thing.
Like many other lifeforms, animals are multi-cellular. These cells come
together, forming tissues, organs and organ systems, that help sustain the
life of the animal. From elephants to snails, animals come in many shapes
and sizes, and can be found all over the world.
Animals cannot make their own food. They must rely on other living
things, such as plants, fungi, and other animals to sustain them. Without
other food sources, animals could not survive.
There are more species of animals than in all the other kingdoms
combined. From worms, to blue whales, to bald eagles, animals have
evolved to fit a wide variety of niches.
How are organism placed into
• Cell type, complex or simple
•Their ability to make food
•The number of cells in their body
You are probably quite familiar with the members of this kingdom as it
contains all the plants that you have come to know - flowering
plants,mosses, and ferns. Plants are all multicellular and consist of
In addition plants are autotrophs,organisms that make their own food.
With over 250,000 species, the plant kingdom is the second largest
kingdom. Plant species range from the tiny green mosses to giant trees.
Without plants, life on Earth would
not exist! Plants feed almost all the
heterotrophs (organisms that eat
other organisms) on Earth. Wow!
The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1
million known species
All animals consist of many complex cells. They are
Members of the animal kingdom are found in the most
diverse environments in the world.
•In 1983, scientists tool samples from a spot deep in the Pacific Ocean where hot
gases and molten rock boiled into the ocean form the Earth’s interior. To their
surprise they discovered unicellular (one cell) organisms in the samples. These
organisms are today classified in the kingdom, Archaebacteria.
•Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling waterand
thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments.
• Finding Archaebacteria: The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA,
were among the first places Archaebacteria were discovered. The biologists
pictured above are immersing microscope slides in the boiling pool onto which
some archaebacteria might be captured for study.
Like archaebacteria, eubacteria are complex and single celled. Most
bacteria are in theEUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found
everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with.
Eubacteria are classified in their own kingdom because their chemical
makeup is different.
Most eubacteria are helpful. Some produce vitamins and foods like
yogurt. However, these eubacteria, Streptococci pictured above, can give
you strep throat!
Mushrooms, mold and mildew are all examples of organisms in the
Most fungi are multicellular and consists of many complex cells.
Fungi are organisms that biologists once confused with
plants, however, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own
food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying
in the soil
Slime molds and algae are protists.
Sometimes they are called the odds and ends kingdom because
its members are so different from one another. Protists include
all microscopic organisms that
are not bacteria, notanimals, not plants and not fungi.
Most protists are unicellular. You may be wondering why those
protists are not classified in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria
It is because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells.