Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
As motivation (PLEASE COME TO CLASS!!)   You have a really good chance of success here and instead you are wasting it!!  Don't be a fool
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

As motivation (PLEASE COME TO CLASS!!) You have a really good chance of success here and instead you are wasting it!! Don't be a fool

420
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
420
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • The manager reviews options in light of aims, issues, priorities, timescale, etc., then decides the action and informs the team of the decision. The manager will probably have considered how the team will react, but the team plays no active part in making the decision. The team may well perceive that the manager has not considered the team's welfare at all. This is seen by the team as a purely task-based decision, which is generally a characteristic of X-Theory management style.
  • The manager makes the decision as in 1 above, and then explains reasons for the decision to the team, particularly the positive benefits that the team will enjoy from the decision. In so doing the manager is seen by the team to recognise the team's importance, and to have some concern for the team.
  • The manager presents the decision along with some of the background which led to the decision. The team is invited to ask questions and discuss with the manager the rationale behind the decision, which enables the team to understand and accept or agree with the decision more easily than in 1 and 2 above. This more participative and involving approach enables the team to appreciate the issues and reasons for the decision, and the implications of all the options. This will have a more motivational approach than 1 or 2 because of the higher level of team involvement and discussion.
  • The manager discusses and reviews the provisional decision with the team on the basis that the manager will take on board the views and then finally decide. This enables the team to have some real influence over the shape of the manager's final decision. This also acknowledges that the team has something to contribute to the decision-making process, which is more involving and therefore motivating than the previous level.
  • The manager presents the situation, and maybe some options, to the team. The team is encouraged and expected to offer ideas and additional options, and discuss implications of each possible course of action. The manager then decides which option to take. This level is one of high and specific involvement for the team, and is appropriate particularly when the team has more detailed knowledge or experience of the issues than the manager. Being high-involvement and high-influence for the team this level provides more motivation and freedom than any previous level.
  • At this level the manager has effectively delegated responsibility for the decision to the team, albeit within the manager's stated limits. The manager may or may not choose to be a part of the team which decides. While this level appears to gives a huge responsibility to the team, the manager can control the risk and outcomes to an extent, according to the constraints that he stipulates. This level is more motivational than any previous, and requires a mature team for any serious situation or problem. (Remember that the team must get the credit for all the positive outcomes from the decision, while the manager remains accountable for any resulting problems or disasters.)
    At this level the manager has effectively delegated responsibility for the decision to the team, albeit within the manager's stated limits. The manager may or may not choose to be a part of the team which decides. While this level appears to gives a huge responsibility to the team, the manager can control the risk and outcomes to an extent, according to the constraints that he stipulates. This level is more motivational than any previous, and requires a mature team for any serious situation or problem. (Remember that the team must get the credit for all the positive outcomes from the decision, while the manager remains accountable for any resulting problems or disasters.)
  • This is obviously an extreme level of freedom, whereby the team is effectively doing what the manager did in level 1. The team is given responsibility for identifying and analysing the situation or problem; the process for resolving it; developing and assessing options; evaluating implications, and then deciding on and implementing a course of action. The manager may or may not be part of the team, and if so then he/she has no more authority than anyone else in the team. (Again, the manager retains accountability for any resulting disasters, while the team must get the credit for all successes.) This level is potentially the most motivational of all, but also potentially the most disastrous. Not surprisingly the team must be mature and competent, and capable of acting at what is a genuinely strategic decision-making level.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Motivation Mr Ahern
    • 2. Objectives By the end of these two sessions you will be able to • Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals • Evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation • Approach with confidence the requirements of the unit assignment
    • 3. Why do businesses want motivated people? They work harder They do a better job They take less sick time They need less supervision ....
    • 4. So what are “motivating” factors? • What motivates you?
    • 5. Achievement Recognition Rewards Status Success/Winning Not winning! Good leadership Poor leadership! Praise Advancement Money/pay Approval Development Satisfaction Fear Threat/danger Security Survival Greed Power Peers/team-mates friends/family Personality Leadership
    • 6. Classification for Motivation • Economic Rewards – Pay, benefits, pension, security • Instrumental – concerning ‘other things’ • Intrinsic Satisfaction – Interest in job, personal development • Personal – concerning ‘oneself’ • Social Relationships – Friendship, affiliation, status, dependency • Relational – concerning ‘other people’
    • 7. Overview of Motivation Theories
    • 8. Theories from Human Relations approach • All build upon findings from Mayo and Hawthorne experiments • We will consider: - – Maslow – Herzberg – McGregor
    • 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 10. Maslow and the hierarchy of needs • Abraham Maslow argued that everyone has the same needs • All of these could be put into a hierarchy • Lower order needs are physiological - such as food and shelter • Once an employee has earned enough to satisfy these needs they are no longer motivated by them ....
    • 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological needs • Oxygen, food, water, sleep etc.. • Safety needs • Security, free from danger and attack • Love needs (social needs) • Affection, friendship, social belonging, love • Esteem needs (Ego needs) • Self-respect, respect, status, appreciation • Self-actualisation needs • Realisation of one’s full potential
    • 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 13. What was Maslow’s influence? • Had a huge impact on management training and the growth of “personnel management” (human resources management) ; still very influential • Task – consider how businesses can respond to this theory (see handout) • Two other major writers followed – F. Herzberg and D. McGregor
    • 14. Herzberg – motivating factors and hygiene factors • F Herzberg conducted research in the 1950s into “job satisfaction” • Discovered through experiments the major factors that stood out as “strong determinants” of job satisfaction and motivation, and the other, separate factors that can cause demotivation but DO NOT motivate people
    • 15. What did Herzberg conclude? • The motivators concerned the job itself • The demotivators were factors surrounding the job • These demotivators were called “hygiene factors” • “Care to fulfil hygiene factors prevents job dissatisfaction”
    • 16. Douglas McGregor • Theory X • Theory Y • Exercise
    • 17. Motivation in Practice
    • 18. Financial or Non Financial Rewards? • Taylor's scientific management approach leads us to believe that money is an important motivator. • McGregor says that if workers are viewed through theory X then they will be motivated by money and fear • Mayo and the Human Relations approach as well as McGregor's theory Y leads us to believe that non financial rewards can also motivate. • What do you think?? All of these insights have something to offer – how do they relate to your own experience and what we have covered so far?
    • 19. Use of financial rewards for motivation Main Types are: • Piece Rate work • Hourly pay • PRP • Fringe Benefits
    • 20. Piece Rate Work • The simplest and perhaps the most efficient way of motivating workers from a “scientific management” perspective • Workers are paid for the amount they produce • Thus the firm aims to ensure that they get the maximum output from each employee because if the employee doesn’t work they do not earn money
    • 21. What sort of firm could this apply to? • Could it work with lower level employees such as production operatives who would be classed as theory X - i.e. they only go to work for money? • Would it work with workers who are likely to be better qualified and are motivated by other things?
    • 22. Hourly Pay • Paid for the number of hours worked • Allows for overtime and double time etc • May be favoured by theory X style leaders? • Theory Y would favour an annual salary and non – financial approaches to motivation ..... • Think about “your own organisation” – is hourly pay used in some parts and salary in other parts? Why?
    • 23. Performance Related Pay • A similar thing to piece rate? • Staff paid a bonus related to either how well the business has done or how well a particular department has done – or their own individual performance.... • Should workers get a share of the profits? • Can it help to build a good team spirit throughout the business?
    • 24. Fringe Benefits • These are more generally associated with higher level employees such as managers etc • Can include all manner of things such as pension schemes, cars, etc .. • Other examples? • Would they motivate you?
    • 25. Non Financial Rewards • Recognition, “symbols” ... • These rewards can again be associated with all levels of work • They are however designed more to suit the higher levels of Maslow`s hierarchy i.e. love and belonging, self esteem and self actualisation.
    • 26. Examples of non financial rewards • Job enrichment • Job Rotation • Training / secondments / placements • Multiskilling • Assistance in achieving a satisfactory work life balance • Team Working
    • 27. Team Working • Can we give teams more power to decide how work is distributed and to solve their own problems? • Links with “empowerment” ...
    • 28. Task • Working in pairs / small groups discuss some of the questions and issues you have with the motivation of individuals or groups. • What theories of motivation do you find particularly relevant or helpful – and are there any where you need further explanation? • Prepare at least one question or contribution to be discussed by the whole group.
    • 29. Key Points to Note • Individuals are not all motivated by the same things –there is not a “one-size- fits-all” answer to motivating staff • Removal of dissatisfaction doesn’t lead to positive motivation • Work content and self esteem considerations are usually more significant than physical context
    • 30. Summing up • People’s behaviour is determined by what motivates them. • Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. • Managers must encourage staff to direct their efforts towards the successful attainment of the goals and objectives of the organisation. • Individuals have varying needs and expectations – what works with some people might not work with others.
    • 31. So ... • How do good managers / leaders find out the needs and expectations of team members, and aim to satisfy them? • Links between good leadership and management, and motivated staff…
    • 32. At the end of today’s class.. • You can analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals Tomorrow – • We will evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation, and relate all this to the requirements of the unit assignment
    • 33. Objectives - recap By the end of these two sessions you will be able to • Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals • Evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation • Approach with confidence the requirements of the unit assignment
    • 34. Quick revision • Taylor • Mayo • Maslow • McGregor • Herzberg
    • 35. 1. “TELLS” • The Manager decides and announces the decision.
    • 36. 2. “SELLS” • The manager decides and then 'sells' the decision to the group.
    • 37. 3. “PRESENTS” • The manager presents the decision with background ideas and invites questions.
    • 38. 4. “INVOLVES” • The manager suggests a provisional decision and invites discussion about it.
    • 39. 5. “CONSULTS” • The manager presents the situation or problem, gets suggestions, then decides.
    • 40. 6. “ENABLES” • The manager explains the situation, defines the parameters and asks the team to decide.
    • 41. 7. “EMPOWERS” • The manager allows the team to identify the problem, develop the options, and decide on the action, within the manager's received limits.