Trial of rizal

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  • 1. Trial of Rizal Joshua De Guzman
  • 2. I will discuss the following:  Arguments on Rizal  Defense of Rizal  Sentenced to Rizal
  • 3. Preliminary Investigation  November 20, 1896  Rizal appeared to Colonel Francisco Olive.  Rizal was questioned by Col. Olive but he was not permitted to confront witnesses who testified against him.
  • 4. Preliminary Investigation  Two kinds of evidence presented against Rizal:  Documentary  Testimonial
  • 5. Documentary Evidences 1. A letter from Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce dated Oct. 16, 1888, Madrid. 2. A letter of Rizal to his family dated Aug. 20, 1890, Madrid. 3. A letter from M.H. Del Pilar to Deodato Arellano dated Jan 7, 1889, Madrid 4. A poem entitled “Kundiman” allegedly written by Rizal.
  • 6. Kundiman Tunay ngayong umid yaring dila't puso Sinta'y umiilag, tuwa'y lumalayo, Bayan palibhasa'y lupig at sumuko Sa kapabayaan ng nagturong puno. Datapuwa't muling sisikat ang araw, Pilit maliligtas ang inaping bayan, Magbabalik mandin at muling iiral Ang ngalang Tagalog sa sandaigdigan. Ibubuhos namin ang dugo't babaha Matubos nga lamang ang sa amang lupa Habang di ninilang panahong tadhana, Sinta'y tatahimik, iidlip ang nasa.
  • 7. Documentary Evidences 5. A letter of Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person, Sept. 18, 1891. 6. A Masonic document dated Feb. 9, 1892. 7. A letter signed “Dimasalang” to Ten Luz (Juan Zulueta) dated May 24, 1892, H.K. 8. A letter signed Dimasalang to unidentified committee dated June 1, 1892, Hong Kong.
  • 8. Documentary Evidence 9. An anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of the Hong Kong Telegraph. 10. A letter of Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated Sept. 3, 1892. 11. A letter of Rizal Segundo, dated Sept. 17, 1893. 12. A letter to M.H. Del Pilar to Juan A. Tenluz
  • 9. Documentary Evidence 13. A transcript of the speech of Pinkian (Emilio Jacinto) in a meeting of the Katipunan on July 23, 1893. 14. Transcript of a speech Tik-Tol (Jose Turiano Santiago) during the same Katipunan meeting. 15. A poem by Laon Laan (Rizal) entitled A Talisay.
  • 10. Testimonial Evidences 1. Martin Constantino 2. Aguedo del Rosario 3. Jose Reyes 4. Moises Salvador 5. Jose Dizon 6. Pio Valenzuela 7. Ambrosio Savador 8. Francisco Quison 9. Timoteo Paez 10. Deodato Arellano 11. Pedro Serrano Laktaw 12. Antonio Salazar 13. Domingo Franco
  • 11. Peña’s Recommendations:  Rizal must be immediately sent to trial  He must be held in prison under necessary security  His properties must be issued with order of attachment, and as indemnity, Rizal had to pay one million pesos  Instead of a civilian lawyer, only an army officer is allowed to defend Rizal.
  • 12. Rizal’s Defender  Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade  1st Lieutenant of the Artillery, brother of Jose Taviel de Andrade, the bodyguard of Rizal.
  • 13. Rizal’s Arraignment  December 11, 1896  Charged with the crime of rebellion, and the formation of illegal associations.  Rizal replied that:  He does not question the jurisdiction of the court  He has nothing to amend except that during his exile in Dapitan in 1892, he had not dealt in political matters;  He has nothing to admit on the charges against him  He had nothing to admit on the declarations of the witnesses, he had not met nor knew, against him.
  • 14. On December 13, 1896…
  • 15. While in Detention  Rizal released a manifesto that he denounces the revolution and condemned Katipunan for using his name without his permission.
  • 16. Actual Trial  December 26, 1896  @Hall of Banners of the Cuartel de España  He was accused of 3 crimes: rebellion, sedition, illegal associations.  Penalty: Life imprisonment-death for rebellion and sedition, correctional imprisonment and a fine of 325 to 3250 pesetas for illegal association.
  • 17. Defense of Rizal  As testified by Pio Valenzuela, Rizal was against rebellion  He had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan comprising revolutionary elements  Without his knowledge, his name was used by the Katipunan; if he really was guilty, he could have escaped while he was in Singapore  If he was guilty, he should have left the country while in exile; he shouldn't have built a home, bought a parcel of land or established a hospital in Dapitan.  If he was really the leader of the revolution, the revolutionists should have consulted him.  He did not deny that he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga Filipina, but to make things clear, the organization was a civic association, not a revolutionary society.
  • 18. Defense of Rizal  After the first meeting of La Liga, the association banished because of his exile in Dapitan, thus, did not last long.  If the La Liga was reorganized nine months later, he had no idea about it  If the La Liga had a revolutionary purpose, then Katipunan should not have been organized.  If the Spanish authorities found his letters having bitter atmosphere, it was because in 1890 his family was being persecuted resulting to their dispossession of properties and deportation of all his brothers- in-law.  He lived an exemplary life in Dapitan – the politico-military commanders and missionary priests in the province could attest to that.  If according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo Ongjunco's house had inspired the revolution, then he want to confront these persons. If he really was for the revolution, then why did the Katipunan sent an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitan? It is so because all his friends were aware that he never advocated violence.
  • 19. December 28, 1896  Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00 o’clock in the morning of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field