Photograms and darkroom procedure

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Photograms and darkroom procedure

  1. 1. Photograms and Darkroom Procedure
  2. 2. What is a Photogram? <ul><li>A photogram is a type of contact print, made without the use of a camera or negative. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Silver Gelatin Paper <ul><li>Silver salts (silver bromide or silver chloride) are suspended in gelatin and coated on resin-coated paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver salts are sensitive to light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once exposed to light a latent image forms (though not visible to the naked eye) </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed paper is processed in a developer (acid) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver halide is reduced to metallic silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The image is now visible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The developing process is stopped with a neutralizer (neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium or ammonium thiosulphate (fixer) removes undeveloped silver salts from the paper (base) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is no longer sensitive to light after this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is used to rinse away the chemicals, which will deteriorate the paper over time. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A photogram is created by placing objects on light sensitive material and then exposing it to light. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Henry Fox Talbot experimented with making botanical images by placing botanical specimens and lace on top of light sensitive material in a printing frame, exposing this to light, and then washing out the unexposed light sensitive material. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In the 1920 ’s photograms became popular with artists such as Man Ray and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. </li></ul>
  7. 11. What Kinds of Things Can be Used to Create a Photogram? <ul><li>Two-dimensional objects that block some or all of the light like cut paper, drawings, writing, transparencies can be used along with three-dimensional objects. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Step 1 <ul><li>Place your Zentagle face down on top of the photo paper (make sure the emulsion faces up) </li></ul><ul><li>Place glass over the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Expose with white light from an enlarger, overhead light, flexible desk lamp, or pen light. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Process the papers as normal. </li></ul>
  9. 13. Step 2 <ul><li>Place your Zentagle photogram face down on top of the photo paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Place glass over the papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Expose with white light from an enlarger, overhead light, flexible desk lamp, or pen light. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Process the papers as normal. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Processing Photographic Paper
  11. 15. Step 1: Developer (Dektol) <ul><li>Place paper in the developer tray </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged </li></ul><ul><li>Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Process for 60seconds </li></ul>
  12. 16. Step 2: Stop Bath <ul><li>Carefully remove the paper from the developer using tongs </li></ul><ul><li>Allow it to drip for 7 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the paper in the stop bath tray </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged </li></ul><ul><li>Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Process for 30seconds </li></ul>
  13. 17. Step 3: Fixer <ul><li>Carefully remove the paper from the stop bath using tongs </li></ul><ul><li>Allow it to drip for 7 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the paper in the fixer tray </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged </li></ul><ul><li>Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Process for 3 minutes </li></ul>
  14. 18. Step 4: Water Rinse <ul><li>Carefully remove the paper from the fixer using tongs </li></ul><ul><li>Allow it to drip for 7 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the paper in the water bath </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged </li></ul><ul><li>Allow running water to rinse the print for at least 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Dry print </li></ul>
  15. 19. Finishing the Project <ul><li>Mount all 4 photograms to create a radial Zentangle </li></ul>

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