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Reading and Learning in a 21st           Century World:The New Literacies of Online Reading         Comprehension         ...
The New Literacies Research`            Team
Important Funding and SupportFrom:•   Ray and Carole Neag•   The Carnegie Corporation of New York•   IES, U.S. Department ...
The Central Ideas
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text   for R...
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text   for R...
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text   for R...
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text   for R...
The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text   for R...
I. The Nature of Reading Is Changing   The “General Motors” Model of Economic   Management                                ...
In a Flattened World: OpportunitiesExpand but Competition IncreasesHow do economic units increase productivity?     Flatte...
Which tool has been used byeconomic units to increaseproductivity and compete?                          The Internet      ...
Implications For Education?   Problem based learning essential   Effective online information and    communication skill...
Two Classrooms
Grade 2: Morning Message of          the Day
Grade 7, Language Arts: OnlineInternational Projects                                                           Yeah! I got...
II.The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?

Our Students Have Changed  Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spend more time   reading online per day than reading offline: ...
Public Policies:Nations Respond   Japan has broadband in nearly every    home that is 16 times faster than the    broadba...
•   Mexico is following e-Mexico, a policy    designed to provide every citizen and    every school with an Internet conne...
• Finland provides every teacher with 5 weeks of release-time, professional development with integrating the Internet into...
International AssessmentInitiatives   2009 PISA International Assessment of    Reading – Digital Literacies   Programme ...
What Is Online ReadingComprehension? Data From ThinkAloud Protocols   A problem-based, meaning construction    process th...
An Example of Online Reading      ComprehensionReading About Martin Luther          King              The new literacies o...
A Preliminary Model of Online Reading           Comprehension
The New Literacies Of OnlineReading Comprehension:       Read   to identify important questions;       Read to locate in...
III. Online and Offline ReadingComprehension May Not Be Isomorphic                          (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)Leu,Cast...
Additional Evidence:   Predicting Online Reading Comprehension        R2           Additional R2    Additional R2         ...
The Struggling ReaderPhenomenon
Great! But What About The         TEKS?
Great! But What About The         TEKS?From The Texas English Language        Arts Standards
Great! But What About The         TEKS? From The Texas English Language         Arts StandardsRESEARCH“Students are expect...
IV. Misalignments in ReadingAssessment, Public Policy, andInstruction
State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...                    This generation’s definin...
State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...      ...students’ ability to read search en...
State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...      ...students’ ability to read search en...
Not a single state measures...   ...students’ ability to compose clear and    effective email messages in their state    ...
National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP)                This generation’s defining technology for reading.
National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP)   Recently, NAEP made a deliberate    decision to exclude online readin...
Instruction: The Rich Get Richerand The Poor Get Poorer   Neglecting research into online reading    comprehension perpet...
How We Define The Issue Determines      Classroom Integration A technology issue                     A literacy issue    ...
More Policy Misalignments:Common Core Standards Do NotRecognize the Changes To ReadingThe Good News:  Higher Level Thinkin...
The Bad News?   The assumption is that all reading takes    place offline.   “Analyze the structure of texts, including ...
Texas Policy Misalignments
Texas Policy Misalignments   The Good News:       You have these skills in your ELA TEKS
Texas Policy Misalignments   The Good News:       You have these skills in your ELA TEKS   The Bad News       They are...
Texas Policy Misalignments   The Good News:       You have these skills in your ELA TEKS   The Bad News       They are...
What Can WeConclude?
What Can WeConclude?   The Internet is this generation’s    defining technology for reading.
What Can WeConclude? The Internet is this generation’s  defining technology for reading. Some states and nations place t...
V.The Latest Research From The New Literacies Research Lab
   The TICA Project, an IES-funded grant to    study online reading comprehension    instruction in 1-1 laptop classrooms...
Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online     Reading Comprehension Skills and                 Strategies   See    Leu, D. J., Coiro...
A Model To Teach Online ReadingComprehension in 1-1 Classrooms:Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT)
IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills   Teacher-led demonstrations of basic    Internet use skills and cooperative learnin...
IRT: Phase IICollaborative modelingof online reading strategies   Students presented with information    problems to solv...
A Phase II Task
IRT: Phase IIIInquiry Initially, within the class. Then, with others around the world.       Internet Morning Message o...
The Maine ProfessionalDevelopment Collaborative
The Summer Institute in New       Literacies
THE ORCA PROJECT   A project designed to develop valid, reliable, and    practical assessments of online reading    compr...
V. The Challenges of Change
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better In...
The Challenges Of Change
As Challenging As ChangeAppears, We Know This…The Leadership That YouProvide…
Determines The Future OurStudents Achieve!                      Thank you!
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  • The cruelest irony of No Child Left Behind may be that the students who most need to be prepared at school for an online age of information are precisely those who are being prepared the least.\n
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  • Transcript of "TASA"

    1. 1. Reading and Learning in a 21st Century World:The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension Donald J. Leu, Ph.D. New Literacies Research Lab University of Connecticut On Slideshare for download at: http://www.slideshare.net/djleu/tasa-talkPortions of this material are based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Education under AwardNo. R305G050154 and No. R305A090608. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of the author and donot necessarily represent the position of the U.S. Department of Education.
    2. 2. The New Literacies Research` Team
    3. 3. Important Funding and SupportFrom:• Ray and Carole Neag• The Carnegie Corporation of New York• IES, U.S. Department of Education• The National Science Foundation• North Central Educational Research Lab• PBS• The Annenberg Foundation• William and Flora Hewlett Foundation• Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation• Australian Council of Educational Research• OECD• Schools and teachers around the world.
    4. 4. The Central Ideas
    5. 5. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.
    6. 6. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.
    7. 7. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.
    8. 8. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?
    9. 9. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?5. Misalignments in Reading Assessment, Public Policy, and Instruction.
    10. 10. The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?5. Misalignments in Reading Assessment, Public Policy, and Instruction.6. What Should We Do?
    11. 11. I. The Nature of Reading Is Changing The “General Motors” Model of Economic Management CEO1. Command and control2. Lower levels of education required. Upper Level Management3. Wasted intellectual capital Upper Middle Level Management4. Highly inefficient Wasted5. Lower productivity intellectual Middle Level Management6. Little innovation capital7. Little need for higher level and creative Line Supervisors thinking. Workers
    12. 12. In a Flattened World: OpportunitiesExpand but Competition IncreasesHow do economic units increase productivity? Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams Team Team Team Team Team Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity These teams take full advantage 1. Define problems of their intellectual capital to 2. Locate information the extent their education 3. Critically evaluate information system has prepared them for 4. Synthesize and solve problems this. 5. Communicate solutions
    13. 13. Which tool has been used byeconomic units to increaseproductivity and compete? The Internet Team Team Team Team Team 1. Define problems Recent productivity gains are due 2. Locate information to using the Internet to share 3. Critically evaluate information information, communicate, and 4. Synthesize and solve problems solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, 5. Communicate solutions & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).
    14. 14. Implications For Education? Problem based learning essential Effective online information and communication skills required. Internet literacies have become central. In short: fundamental change.
    15. 15. Two Classrooms
    16. 16. Grade 2: Morning Message of the Day
    17. 17. Grade 7, Language Arts: OnlineInternational Projects Yeah! I got some great ideas. Let me send them to Tomas and Ben in the Jose, Costa Rica U.S. We’re on it! Making a web page now.Hey! Let’s doGaryPaulson??? Ben and Tomas, Willimantic Monique, South Africa
    18. 18. II.The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
    19. 19. How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
    20. 20. How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
    21. 21. How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
    22. 22. How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
    23. 23.
    24. 24. Our Students Have Changed  Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spend more time reading online per day than reading offline: 48 minutes per day vs. 43 minutes per day. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).  In Accra, Ghana:  66% of 15-18 year olds report having gone online previously; (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006).
    25. 25. Public Policies:Nations Respond Japan has broadband in nearly every home that is 16 times faster than the broadband in US homes for $22 per month. (Bleha, 2005) This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    26. 26. • Mexico is following e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connection (Ludlow, 2006). This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    27. 27. • Finland provides every teacher with 5 weeks of release-time, professional development with integrating the Internet into classroom instruction.
    28. 28. International AssessmentInitiatives 2009 PISA International Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – Problem Solving in Technologically Rich Environments This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    29. 29. What Is Online ReadingComprehension? Data From ThinkAloud Protocols A problem-based, meaning construction process that requires additional reading comprehension skills beyond those required for offline reading.  Define a problem  Locate  Evaluate Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman,  Synthesize Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004  Communicate Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009
    30. 30. An Example of Online Reading ComprehensionReading About Martin Luther King The new literacies of online reading comprehension
    31. 31. A Preliminary Model of Online Reading Comprehension
    32. 32. The New Literacies Of OnlineReading Comprehension:  Read to identify important questions;  Read to locate information;  Read to critically evaluate the usefulness of that information;  Read to synthesize information to answer those questions; and  Read to communicate the answers to others. (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004, p. 1570) The new literacies of online reading comprehension
    33. 33. III. Online and Offline ReadingComprehension May Not Be Isomorphic (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)Leu,Castek, Online ReadingHartman, Comprehension =Coiro, ORCA BlogHenry,Kulikowich, Offline Reading =Lyver, 2005 Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
    34. 34. Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension R2 Additional R2 Additional R2 Total R2 Offline Reading Domain Previous Online Online Reading Comprehension Knowledge Reading Comprehension Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579*Offline Reading Comp.=CT State Coiro, 2007Reading TestOnline Reading The new literacies of online reading comprehensionComprehension =ORCA Quia
    35. 35. The Struggling ReaderPhenomenon
    36. 36. Great! But What About The TEKS?
    37. 37. Great! But What About The TEKS?From The Texas English Language Arts Standards
    38. 38. Great! But What About The TEKS? From The Texas English Language Arts StandardsRESEARCH“Students are expected to know how to locatea range of relevant sources and evaluate,synthesize, and present ideas andinformation.”
    39. 39. IV. Misalignments in ReadingAssessment, Public Policy, andInstruction
    40. 40. State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures... This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    41. 41. State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...  ...students’ ability to read search engine results during state reading assessments. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    42. 42. State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...  ...students’ ability to read search engine results during state reading assessments.  ...students’ ability to critically evaluate information that is found online to determine its reliability. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    43. 43. Not a single state measures... ...students’ ability to compose clear and effective email messages in their state writing assessment. all students to use a word processor on their state writing assessment.* *See Russell & Plati, 1999; 2000; 2001. They report effect sizes of .57 – 1.25 for word processor use on MCAS. See also Russell & Tao, 2004 who report 19% more 4th grade students classified as “Needs Improvement” would move up to the “Proficient” performance level with word processors.
    44. 44. National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    45. 45. National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) Recently, NAEP made a deliberate decision to exclude online reading comprehension from the 2009 NAEP reading framework in the U.S. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
    46. 46. Instruction: The Rich Get Richerand The Poor Get Poorer Neglecting research into online reading comprehension perpetuates public policies that help the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.  63% of children from households earning more than $75,000 annually reported that they used the Internet at school, but only 36% of children from households earning less than $15,000 annually (Lazarus, Wainer, and Lipper, 2005). Leu, McVerry, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, Castek, J., Hartman, D.K. (2009).
    47. 47. How We Define The Issue Determines Classroom Integration A technology issue A literacy issue  Technology standards are  Technology standards separated from subject area become integrated within standards subject area standards  Online learning is separated  Online learning is integrated from subject areas into each subject area;  Specialists are responsible  Every classroom teacher is responsible  Online information and communication skills are  Subject area assessments assessed separately from and online information skills subject area knowledge. are assessed together.
    48. 48. More Policy Misalignments:Common Core Standards Do NotRecognize the Changes To ReadingThe Good News: Higher Level Thinking Skills Receive Important Focus
    49. 49. The Bad News? The assumption is that all reading takes place offline. “Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.” No recognition of reading as problem based learning
    50. 50. Texas Policy Misalignments
    51. 51. Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS
    52. 52. Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS The Bad News  They are not in Reading; they are in Research.
    53. 53. Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS The Bad News  They are not in Reading; they are in Research. The Result  Not tested and not taught?
    54. 54. What Can WeConclude?
    55. 55. What Can WeConclude? The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading.
    56. 56. What Can WeConclude? The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading. Some states and nations place their students, and societies, at risk by continued inaction or poorly informed public policies.
    57. 57. V.The Latest Research From The New Literacies Research Lab
    58. 58.  The TICA Project, an IES-funded grant to study online reading comprehension instruction in 1-1 laptop classrooms. The new literacies of online reading comprehension
    59. 59. Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies See Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Henry, L.A., & Reinking, D. (2008). Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online reading comprehension. In Cathy Collins Block, Sherri Parris, & Peter Afflerbach (Eds.). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press. Available online at: http:// www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/pub_files/instruction.pdf The new literacies of online reading comprehension
    60. 60. A Model To Teach Online ReadingComprehension in 1-1 Classrooms:Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT)
    61. 61. IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies Explicit modeling by teacher Largely whole class instruction Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II
    62. 62. IRT: Phase IICollaborative modelingof online reading strategies Students presented with information problems to solve. Work in small groups to solve those problems. Exchange strategies as they do so. Debrief at the end of the lesson. Initially: Locate and Critical evaluation Later: Synthesis and Communicate.
    63. 63. A Phase II Task
    64. 64. IRT: Phase IIIInquiry Initially, within the class. Then, with others around the world.  Internet Morning Message of the Day  Student Online Collaborations
    65. 65. The Maine ProfessionalDevelopment Collaborative
    66. 66. The Summer Institute in New Literacies
    67. 67. THE ORCA PROJECT A project designed to develop valid, reliable, and practical assessments of online reading comprehension. CT, Maine, and NC. (IES, USDOE)  Three formats: Multiple Choice, Open Internet, Closed Simulated Internet
    68. 68. V. The Challenges of Change
    69. 69. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards
    70. 70. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments
    71. 71. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development
    72. 72. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction
    73. 73. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula
    74. 74. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research
    75. 75. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision
    76. 76. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision National Funding for 1-1 computing
    77. 77. V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision National Funding for 1-1 computing Build Bridges With The Reading Communities Around Online Literacy
    78. 78. The Challenges Of Change
    79. 79. As Challenging As ChangeAppears, We Know This…The Leadership That YouProvide…
    80. 80. Determines The Future OurStudents Achieve! Thank you!
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