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  • The cruelest irony of No Child Left Behind may be that the students who most need to be prepared at school for an online age of information are precisely those who are being prepared the least.\n
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TASA TASA Presentation Transcript

  • Reading and Learning in a 21st Century World:The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension Donald J. Leu, Ph.D. New Literacies Research Lab University of Connecticut On Slideshare for download at: http://www.slideshare.net/djleu/tasa-talkPortions of this material are based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Education under AwardNo. R305G050154 and No. R305A090608. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of the author and donot necessarily represent the position of the U.S. Department of Education.
  • The New Literacies Research` Team
  • Important Funding and SupportFrom:• Ray and Carole Neag• The Carnegie Corporation of New York• IES, U.S. Department of Education• The National Science Foundation• North Central Educational Research Lab• PBS• The Annenberg Foundation• William and Flora Hewlett Foundation• Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation• Australian Council of Educational Research• OECD• Schools and teachers around the world.
  • The Central Ideas
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?5. Misalignments in Reading Assessment, Public Policy, and Instruction.
  • The Central Ideas1. The Nature of Work and Reading are Changing.2. The Internet is This Generation’s Defining Text for Reading and Learning.3. Online Reading Comprehension is Not The Same as Offline Reading Comprehension.4. What Is Online Reading Comprehension?5. Misalignments in Reading Assessment, Public Policy, and Instruction.6. What Should We Do?
  • I. The Nature of Reading Is Changing The “General Motors” Model of Economic Management CEO1. Command and control2. Lower levels of education required. Upper Level Management3. Wasted intellectual capital Upper Middle Level Management4. Highly inefficient Wasted5. Lower productivity intellectual Middle Level Management6. Little innovation capital7. Little need for higher level and creative Line Supervisors thinking. Workers
  • In a Flattened World: OpportunitiesExpand but Competition IncreasesHow do economic units increase productivity? Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams Team Team Team Team Team Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity These teams take full advantage 1. Define problems of their intellectual capital to 2. Locate information the extent their education 3. Critically evaluate information system has prepared them for 4. Synthesize and solve problems this. 5. Communicate solutions
  • Which tool has been used byeconomic units to increaseproductivity and compete? The Internet Team Team Team Team Team 1. Define problems Recent productivity gains are due 2. Locate information to using the Internet to share 3. Critically evaluate information information, communicate, and 4. Synthesize and solve problems solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, 5. Communicate solutions & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).
  • Implications For Education? Problem based learning essential Effective online information and communication skills required. Internet literacies have become central. In short: fundamental change.
  • Two Classrooms
  • Grade 2: Morning Message of the Day
  • Grade 7, Language Arts: OnlineInternational Projects Yeah! I got some great ideas. Let me send them to Tomas and Ben in the Jose, Costa Rica U.S. We’re on it! Making a web page now.Hey! Let’s doGaryPaulson??? Ben and Tomas, Willimantic Monique, South Africa
  • II.The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
  • How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
  • How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
  • How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
  • How Many People Read andWrite With the Internet ?
  • Our Students Have Changed  Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spend more time reading online per day than reading offline: 48 minutes per day vs. 43 minutes per day. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).  In Accra, Ghana:  66% of 15-18 year olds report having gone online previously; (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006).
  • Public Policies:Nations Respond Japan has broadband in nearly every home that is 16 times faster than the broadband in US homes for $22 per month. (Bleha, 2005) This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • • Mexico is following e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connection (Ludlow, 2006). This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • • Finland provides every teacher with 5 weeks of release-time, professional development with integrating the Internet into classroom instruction.
  • International AssessmentInitiatives 2009 PISA International Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – Problem Solving in Technologically Rich Environments This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • What Is Online ReadingComprehension? Data From ThinkAloud Protocols A problem-based, meaning construction process that requires additional reading comprehension skills beyond those required for offline reading.  Define a problem  Locate  Evaluate Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman,  Synthesize Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004  Communicate Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009
  • An Example of Online Reading ComprehensionReading About Martin Luther King The new literacies of online reading comprehension
  • A Preliminary Model of Online Reading Comprehension
  • The New Literacies Of OnlineReading Comprehension:  Read to identify important questions;  Read to locate information;  Read to critically evaluate the usefulness of that information;  Read to synthesize information to answer those questions; and  Read to communicate the answers to others. (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004, p. 1570) The new literacies of online reading comprehension
  • III. Online and Offline ReadingComprehension May Not Be Isomorphic (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)Leu,Castek, Online ReadingHartman, Comprehension =Coiro, ORCA BlogHenry,Kulikowich, Offline Reading =Lyver, 2005 Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
  • Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension R2 Additional R2 Additional R2 Total R2 Offline Reading Domain Previous Online Online Reading Comprehension Knowledge Reading Comprehension Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579*Offline Reading Comp.=CT State Coiro, 2007Reading TestOnline Reading The new literacies of online reading comprehensionComprehension =ORCA Quia
  • The Struggling ReaderPhenomenon
  • Great! But What About The TEKS?
  • Great! But What About The TEKS?From The Texas English Language Arts Standards
  • Great! But What About The TEKS? From The Texas English Language Arts StandardsRESEARCH“Students are expected to know how to locatea range of relevant sources and evaluate,synthesize, and present ideas andinformation.”
  • IV. Misalignments in ReadingAssessment, Public Policy, andInstruction
  • State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures... This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...  ...students’ ability to read search engine results during state reading assessments. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • State Assessment Policies in ReadingNot a single state in the U.S.measures...  ...students’ ability to read search engine results during state reading assessments.  ...students’ ability to critically evaluate information that is found online to determine its reliability. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • Not a single state measures... ...students’ ability to compose clear and effective email messages in their state writing assessment. all students to use a word processor on their state writing assessment.* *See Russell & Plati, 1999; 2000; 2001. They report effect sizes of .57 – 1.25 for word processor use on MCAS. See also Russell & Tao, 2004 who report 19% more 4th grade students classified as “Needs Improvement” would move up to the “Proficient” performance level with word processors.
  • National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) Recently, NAEP made a deliberate decision to exclude online reading comprehension from the 2009 NAEP reading framework in the U.S. This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • Instruction: The Rich Get Richerand The Poor Get Poorer Neglecting research into online reading comprehension perpetuates public policies that help the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.  63% of children from households earning more than $75,000 annually reported that they used the Internet at school, but only 36% of children from households earning less than $15,000 annually (Lazarus, Wainer, and Lipper, 2005). Leu, McVerry, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, Castek, J., Hartman, D.K. (2009).
  • How We Define The Issue Determines Classroom Integration A technology issue A literacy issue  Technology standards are  Technology standards separated from subject area become integrated within standards subject area standards  Online learning is separated  Online learning is integrated from subject areas into each subject area;  Specialists are responsible  Every classroom teacher is responsible  Online information and communication skills are  Subject area assessments assessed separately from and online information skills subject area knowledge. are assessed together.
  • More Policy Misalignments:Common Core Standards Do NotRecognize the Changes To ReadingThe Good News: Higher Level Thinking Skills Receive Important Focus
  • The Bad News? The assumption is that all reading takes place offline. “Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.” No recognition of reading as problem based learning
  • Texas Policy Misalignments
  • Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS
  • Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS The Bad News  They are not in Reading; they are in Research.
  • Texas Policy Misalignments The Good News:  You have these skills in your ELA TEKS The Bad News  They are not in Reading; they are in Research. The Result  Not tested and not taught?
  • What Can WeConclude?
  • What Can WeConclude? The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • What Can WeConclude? The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading. Some states and nations place their students, and societies, at risk by continued inaction or poorly informed public policies.
  • V.The Latest Research From The New Literacies Research Lab
  •  The TICA Project, an IES-funded grant to study online reading comprehension instruction in 1-1 laptop classrooms. The new literacies of online reading comprehension
  • Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies See Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Henry, L.A., & Reinking, D. (2008). Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online reading comprehension. In Cathy Collins Block, Sherri Parris, & Peter Afflerbach (Eds.). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press. Available online at: http:// www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/pub_files/instruction.pdf The new literacies of online reading comprehension
  • A Model To Teach Online ReadingComprehension in 1-1 Classrooms:Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT)
  • IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies Explicit modeling by teacher Largely whole class instruction Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II
  • IRT: Phase IICollaborative modelingof online reading strategies Students presented with information problems to solve. Work in small groups to solve those problems. Exchange strategies as they do so. Debrief at the end of the lesson. Initially: Locate and Critical evaluation Later: Synthesis and Communicate.
  • A Phase II Task
  • IRT: Phase IIIInquiry Initially, within the class. Then, with others around the world.  Internet Morning Message of the Day  Student Online Collaborations
  • The Maine ProfessionalDevelopment Collaborative
  • The Summer Institute in New Literacies
  • THE ORCA PROJECT A project designed to develop valid, reliable, and practical assessments of online reading comprehension. CT, Maine, and NC. (IES, USDOE)  Three formats: Multiple Choice, Open Internet, Closed Simulated Internet
  • V. The Challenges of Change
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision National Funding for 1-1 computing
  • V. The Challenges of Change Better Standards Better Reading Assessments Far Greater Professional Development Better Instruction Exceptional Online Curricula Greater Research School Leadership and Vision National Funding for 1-1 computing Build Bridges With The Reading Communities Around Online Literacy
  • The Challenges Of Change
  • As Challenging As ChangeAppears, We Know This…The Leadership That YouProvide…
  • Determines The Future OurStudents Achieve! Thank you!