0
The Changing Nature of Literacy and Learning<br />Donald J. Leu<br />New Literacies Research Lab<br />University of Connec...
The New Literacies Research Team<br />
Important Funding and Support From:<br /><ul><li>Ray and Carole Neag
The Carnegie Corporation of New York
IES, U.S. Department of Education
The National Science Foundation
North Central Educational Research Lab
PBS
The Annenberg Foundation
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Australian Council of Educational Research
OECD
Schools and teachers around the world.</li></li></ul><li>The Big Ideas<br />The World is Flat: Changes in a global economy...
I. The World Is Flat: Changes In A Global Economy Require Changes In Education<br />The “General Motors” Model of Economic...
In a Flattened World:  Opportunities Expand butCompetition Increases<br />How do economic units increase productivity?<br ...
Which tool has been used by economic units to increase productivity and compete?<br />The Internet<br />Recent productivit...
Implications For Education?<br />Problem based learning essential<br />Effective online information and communication skil...
II. The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning<br />
<br />
The Workplace Has Changed<br />Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, ...
Our Students Have Changed<br />Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spend more time reading online per day than reading offline:...
The World Has Changed: Public Policies To Prepare Citizens for Work in an Information Economy<br />The lesson from Ireland...
<ul><li>Finland provides all teachers with 5 weeks of paid, release time professional development at integrating the Inter...
<ul><li>Mexico is following e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connect...
OECD Assessment Initiatives<br />2009 PISAInternational Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies<br />Programme for the ...
The U.S. situation.Not a single state in the U.S. measures...<br />...students’ ability to read search engine results duri...
Not a single state measures...<br />...students’ ability to compose clear and effective email messages in their state writ...
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)<br />Recently, NAEP made a deliberate decision to exclude online readin...
What Can We Conclude?<br />The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />Some states and nations...
III. The Internet Requires Additional Online Reading Comprehension and Learning Skills<br />
The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />“… the Internet…requires readers to have novel literacy skills, an...
Online and Offline Reading Comprehension May Not Be Isomorphic<br />(r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)<br />Online Reading<br />Compre...
This, and other, work has led to the TICA Project, an IES-funded grant to study online reading comprehension instruction i...
The TICA Project:<br />Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education<br />Goals:<br />Identi...
Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies<br />See <br />Leu, D. J.,  Coiro, J.,  Castek,...
The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension: <br />Read to identify important questions; <br />Read to locate infor...
A Preliminary Model<br />
An Example of Online Reading ComprehensionReading About Martin Luther King<br />The new literacies of online reading compr...
Other examples<br />Locating information<br />Critical evaluation of information<br />Why are these especially important d...
Locating information, Part I: “the .com strategy”<br />[13:38 … highlights address bar, types in www.savethepacificnorthwe...
Locating Information, Part II:the “click and look” strategy<br />In our entire population, of those who obtained a page of...
Critical evaluation<br />100% percent (42 out of 42), thought the site. Save the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus, was relia...
IV.Current Policies May Increase Online Reading Achievement Gaps<br />
The Hidden, Compound Reading Achievement Gap<br />Those who require our support the most with online reading comprehension...
A Second Problem for School Leaders:Defining the Problem Correctly<br />A technology issue<br />A literacy issue<br />Tech...
V. A Model To Teach Online Reading Comprehension in 1-1 Classrooms:  Internet Reciprocal Teaching<br />
IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills<br />Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning...
IRT: Phase IICollaborative modeling of online reading strategies<br />Students presented with information problems to solv...
A Phase II Task<br />
IRT: Phase IIIInquiry<br />Initially, within the class.<br />Then, with others around the world.<br />Internet Morning Mes...
Inquiry Projects (local or global)<br />Define the question.<br />Locate information<br />Evaluate information<br />Synthe...
Using ePals For Message of the Day Projects<br />
Classrooms from around the world are looking to partner with you<br />
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NYC Talk

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Talk given in NYC on June 10, 2010

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  1. 1. The Changing Nature of Literacy and Learning<br />Donald J. Leu<br />New Literacies Research Lab<br />University of Connecticut<br />donald.leu@uconn.edu<br />
  2. 2. The New Literacies Research Team<br />
  3. 3. Important Funding and Support From:<br /><ul><li>Ray and Carole Neag
  4. 4. The Carnegie Corporation of New York
  5. 5. IES, U.S. Department of Education
  6. 6. The National Science Foundation
  7. 7. North Central Educational Research Lab
  8. 8. PBS
  9. 9. The Annenberg Foundation
  10. 10. William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
  11. 11. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
  12. 12. Australian Council of Educational Research
  13. 13. OECD
  14. 14. Schools and teachers around the world.</li></li></ul><li>The Big Ideas<br />The World is Flat: Changes in a global economy require concomitant changes in education<br />The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for learning and reading.<br />Recent research: The Internet requires new literacies -- additional online reading comprehension skills.<br />Recent research: Internet Reciprocal Teaching: Teaching online reading comprehension in subject areas. <br />Current public policies may actually increase reading achievement gaps. <br />
  15. 15. I. The World Is Flat: Changes In A Global Economy Require Changes In Education<br />The “General Motors” Model of Economic Management <br />Command and control<br />Wasted intellectual capital<br />Highly inefficient<br />Lower productivity<br />Little innovation<br />Lower levels of education required.<br />Little need for higher level and creative thinking.<br />Wasted intellectual capital<br />
  16. 16. In a Flattened World: Opportunities Expand butCompetition Increases<br />How do economic units increase productivity?<br />Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams<br />Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity<br />Define problems<br />Locate information<br />Critically evaluate information<br />Synthesize and solve problems<br />Communicate solutions<br /> These teams take full advantage of their intellectual capital to the extent their education system has prepared them for this.<br />
  17. 17. Which tool has been used by economic units to increase productivity and compete?<br />The Internet<br />Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).<br />Define problems<br />Locate information<br />Critically evaluate information<br />Synthesize and solve problems<br />Communicate solutions<br />
  18. 18. Implications For Education?<br />Problem based learning essential<br />Effective online information and communication skills required.<br />Internet literacies have become central.<br />In short: fundamental change.<br />
  19. 19. II. The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. <br />
  22. 22. The Workplace Has Changed<br />Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  23. 23. Our Students Have Changed<br />Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spend more time reading online per day than reading offline: 48 minutes per day vs. 43 minutes per day. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).<br />In Accra, Ghana: <br />66% of 15-18 year olds report having gone online previously; (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006).<br />
  24. 24. The World Has Changed: Public Policies To Prepare Citizens for Work in an Information Economy<br />The lesson from Ireland about investing in human capital.<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  25. 25. <ul><li>Finland provides all teachers with 5 weeks of paid, release time professional development at integrating the Internet into the classroom, using a national training model (Svedlin, Personal Correspondence).</li></li></ul><li>Japan has broadband in nearly every home that is 16 times faster than the broadband in US homes for $22 per month. (Bleha, 2005)<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  26. 26. <ul><li>Mexico is following e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connection (Ludlow, 2006).</li></ul>This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  27. 27. OECD Assessment Initiatives<br />2009 PISAInternational Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies<br />Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – Problem Solving in Technologically Rich Evironments<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  28. 28. The U.S. situation.Not a single state in the U.S. measures...<br />...students’ ability to read search engine results during state reading assessments.<br /> ...students’ ability to critically evaluate information that is found online to determine its reliability.<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading. <br />
  29. 29. Not a single state measures...<br />...students’ ability to compose clear and effective email messages in their state writing assessment.<br />all students to use a word processor on their state writing assessment.* <br />*See Russell & Plati, 1999; 2000; 2001. They report <br />effect sizes of .57 – 1.25 for word processor use on MCAS. <br />See also Russell & Tao, 2004 who report 19% more 4th grade<br />students classified as “Needs Improvement” would move up to<br />the “Proficient” performance level with word processors.<br />
  30. 30. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)<br />Recently, NAEP made a deliberate decision to exclude online reading comprehension from the 2009 NAEP reading framework in the U.S.<br />This generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />
  31. 31. What Can We Conclude?<br />The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading.<br />Some states and nations place their students at risk by continued inaction or poorly informed public policies.<br />
  32. 32. III. The Internet Requires Additional Online Reading Comprehension and Learning Skills<br />
  33. 33. The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />“… the Internet…requires readers to have novel literacy skills, and little is known about how to analyze or teach those skills.” (RAND Reading Research Study Group, 2002. p. 4). <br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  34. 34. Online and Offline Reading Comprehension May Not Be Isomorphic<br />(r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)<br />Online Reading<br />Comprehension = <br />ORCA Blog<br />Offline Reading = <br />Connecticut <br />Mastery Test (CMT)<br />of Reading <br />Comprehension<br />Leu, D. Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J., <br />Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., Lyver, S. (2005).<br />
  35. 35. This, and other, work has led to the TICA Project, an IES-funded grant to study online reading comprehension instruction in 1-1 laptop classrooms.<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  36. 36. The TICA Project:<br />Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education<br />Goals:<br />Identify online reading comprehension skills and strategies through verbal protocol analysis of think alouds.<br />Develop pilot model of Internet Reciprocal Teaching<br />Conduct an initial experiment, randomization at the school and teacher level, of IRT at the 7th grade level in urban and rural poor districts (CT and SC).<br />
  37. 37. Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies<br />See <br />Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Henry, L.A., & Reinking, D. (2008).Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online reading comprehension. In Cathy Collins Block, Sherri Parris, & Peter Afflerbach (Eds.). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press. Available online at: http://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/pub_files/instruction.pdf<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  38. 38. The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension: <br />Read to identify important questions; <br />Read to locate information; <br />Read to critically evaluate the usefulness of that information;<br />Read to synthesize information to answer those questions; and<br />Read to communicate the answers to others. <br />(Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004, p. 1570)<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  39. 39. A Preliminary Model<br />
  40. 40. An Example of Online Reading ComprehensionReading About Martin Luther King<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Other examples<br />Locating information<br />Critical evaluation of information<br />Why are these especially important during online reading comprehension?<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Locating information, Part I: “the .com strategy”<br />[13:38 … highlights address bar, types in www.savethepacificnorthwesttreeoctopus.com …, presses enter and waits]…<br />[15:22 …types in www.savethenorthwesttreeoctopus.com (deletes pacific), presses enter and waits]<br />[16:01 … http://www.savethenorthwestoctopus.com (deletes tree) and waits]<br />S: I wonder why it’s not coming up. [long pause] [indecipherable] [long pause]<br />[17:10 … types in savethepacificnorthwestoctopus (adds pacific) …<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  48. 48. Locating Information, Part II:the “click and look” strategy<br />In our entire population, of those who obtained a page of search engine results, approximately 50% did not read them.<br />“Click and Look” strategies used<br />The new literacies of online reading comprehension<br />
  49. 49. Critical evaluation<br />100% percent (42 out of 42), thought the site. Save the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus, was reliable; <br />56% reported it to be “very reliable.” <br />Data from five students were missing.<br />
  50. 50. IV.Current Policies May Increase Online Reading Achievement Gaps<br />
  51. 51. The Hidden, Compound Reading Achievement Gap<br />Those who require our support the most with online reading comprehension, those without home access, actually receive our support the least in schools.<br />Current policies may increase achievement gaps<br />
  52. 52. A Second Problem for School Leaders:Defining the Problem Correctly<br />A technology issue<br />A literacy issue<br />Technology standards become integrated within subject area standards <br />Online learning is integrated into each subject area; <br />Every classroom teacher is responsible<br />Subject area assessments and online information skills are assessed together.<br />Technology standards are separated from subject area standards <br />Online learning is separated from subject areas<br />Specialists are responsible<br />Online information and communication skills are assessed separately from subject area knowledge. <br />
  53. 53. V. A Model To Teach Online Reading Comprehension in 1-1 Classrooms: Internet Reciprocal Teaching<br />
  54. 54. IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills<br />Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies<br />Explicit modeling by teacher<br />Largely whole class instruction<br />Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II<br />
  55. 55. IRT: Phase IICollaborative modeling of online reading strategies<br />Students presented with information problems to solve.<br />Work in small groups to solve those problems.<br />Exchange strategies as they do so.<br />Debrief at the end of the lesson.<br />Initially: locating and critically evaluating<br />Later: Synthesis and communicating.<br />
  56. 56. A Phase II Task<br />
  57. 57. IRT: Phase IIIInquiry<br />Initially, within the class.<br />Then, with others around the world.<br />Internet Morning Message of the Day<br />Student Online Collaborations<br />
  58. 58. Inquiry Projects (local or global)<br />Define the question.<br />Locate information<br />Evaluate information<br />Synthesize to answer the question<br />Communicate the learning experience.<br />
  59. 59. Using ePals For Message of the Day Projects<br />
  60. 60. Classrooms from around the world are looking to partner with you<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Classroom Match<br />
  63. 63. The Maine Professional Development Collaborative<br />
  64. 64. The Summer Institute in New Literacies<br />
  65. 65. The New Literacies Research Team: Three Areas Of Our Work<br />IRT (Internet Reciprocal Teaching): A research-based instructional model<br />ORCA (Online Reading Comprehension Assessment): Practical, valid, and reliable assessments for schools to use.<br />MPDM (Maine Professional Development Model) NLTI: Professional development models for IRT based on teachers as professionals<br />
  66. 66. The Challenges Of Change<br />
  67. 67. The Changes Ahead<br />Research <br />Instruction<br />Curriculum<br />Professional Development<br />Revisions to National Standards<br />Reading Assessments<br />School Leadership and Vision<br />National Funding for 1-1 computing<br />The Reading/Literacy Communities<br />
  68. 68. I Welcome Conversation:<br />The World is Flat: Changes in a global economy require concomitant changes in education<br />The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for learning and reading.<br />Recent research: The Internet requires new literacies -- additional online reading comprehension skills.<br />Recent research: Internet Reciprocal Teaching: Teaching online reading comprehension in subject areas. <br />Current public policies may actually increase reading achievement gaps. <br />
  69. 69. The Changing Nature of Literacy and Learning<br />Donald J. Leu<br />New Literacies Research Lab<br />University of Connecticut<br />donald.leu@uconn.edu<br />
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