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Presentation by Don Leu at the Autumn Symposia

Presentation by Don Leu at the Autumn Symposia
Finnish Reading Association
October 23-24, 2009

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  • 5 Minutes or Less!
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  • The cruelest irony of No Child Left Behind may be that the students who most need to be prepared at school for an online age of information are precisely those who are being prepared the least.
  • The work we have to do in the years ahead is not going to be easy. Click picture While our work is not easy, it is probably the most important work any of us can do to improve educational opportunities. Reading comprehension is central to learning, literacy, and life. The Internet has made it even more important than before that we provide our schools with the research evidence they need in this area to build upon their important work in the past for our children.

Leu Finland Pp Final2 Leu Finland Pp Final2 Presentation Transcript

    • The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension: How The World Of Reading Is Changing And How Our Educational Systems Might Respond
    Donald J. Leu New Literacies Research Lab University of Connecticut Syyssymposium Tekstitaidot ja uudet teknologiat 23.–24.10.2009, University of Jyväskylä, Agora
  • Important Funding and Support From:
    • Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education
    • Ray and Carole Neag
    • The Carnegie Corporation of New York
    • The National Science Foundation
    • North Central Educational Research Lab
    • PBS
    • The Annenberg Foundation
    • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
    • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
    • Australian Council of Educational Research
    • OECD
    • Schools and teachers around the world.
  • The Big Idea : The Internet Is A Reading Comprehension and Learning Issue, Not A Technology Issue
    • Major Points
    • The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading and learning .
    • The Internet requires new literacies -- additional online reading comprehension skills. What are these skills?
    • A model for 1:1 laptop classrooms: Internet Reciprocal Teaching
    • 10 ideas about how classroom instruction in online reading comprehension.
    • Conversation
  • I. The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Context For Reading Comprehension, Literacy, And Learning
  • The Workplace Has Changed
    • Recent productivity gains around the world are, at least partially, due to Internet use in the workplace to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).
    This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • The World Has Changed: Nations Prepare Their Citizens for Work in an Information Economy
    • Ireland:
    • An investment in reading and technology. The Celtic Economic Tiger.
      • Japan:
      • Broadband in nearly every home that is 16 times faster than the broadband in US homes for $22 per month. (Bleha, 2005)
    This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • The World Has Changed: Nations Prepare Their Citizens for Work in an Information Economy
    • Mexico:
      • e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connection (Ludlow, 2006).
      • OECD Assessment Initiatives in Online Reading Comprehension:
      • 2009 PISA International Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies
      • Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – Problem Solving in Technologically Rich Environments
  • Our Students Have Changed
        • The Tipping Point Year: 2005
        • Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spent more time reading online per day than reading offline: 48 minutes per day vs. 43 minutes per day. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).
        • In Accra, Ghana:
          • 66% of 15-18 year olds report having gone online previously; (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006).
    This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • The U.S. ? Not a single state assessment measures the ability to...
    • … critically read online information to evaluate source reliability.
    • … read search engine results to select the best link for an information problem.
    • Nor, indeed, any aspect of reading online to solve information problems.
    This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
    • NAEP decided to exclude online reading comprehension from the 2009 NAEP reading framework.
    This generation’s defining technology for reading.
  • II. What Do We Know About Online Reading Comprehension?
    • We have many more questions than answers.
    • It often appears to be a problem solving task.
    • Online readers construct the texts they read, through the links they follow.
    • Reading comprehension is somewhat different online. How it differs is not fully understood.
  • Possible Starting Points To Our Understanding
  • A Dual Level Theory Of New Literacies (Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009).
    • New Literacies – Common elements of work in many new and expanding areas of research
    • new literacies – specific work in separate areas, e.g. the new literacies of online reading comprehension , the new literacies of social networking, the new literacies of online communication.
  • A Preliminary Model of Online Reading Comprehension (Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Coiro, 2007;Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005 Leu; Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004; Leu, Reinking, et. al, 2007)
    • Online reading comprehension typically includes:
    • Reading to identify important questions ;
    • Reading to locate information;
    • Reading to critically evaluate the information we find;
    • Reading to synthesize information to answer those questions;
    • Reading as we communicate with others .
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  • Valid And Reliable Assessments of Online Reading Comprehension (ORCAs) (Castek, 2008; Coiro, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu et al., 2005; Leu, Reinking, et. al, 2007). Issues: Practicality and Stability
  • Online and Offline Reading Comprehension May Not Be Isomorphic (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Leu, D. Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J., Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., Lyver, S. (2005). Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Blog Offline Reading = Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
  • Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension Coiro, 2007 The new literacies of online reading comprehension Offline Reading Comp.= CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Quia R 2 Offline Reading Comprehension Additional R 2 Domain Knowledge Additional R 2 Previous Online Reading Comprehension Total R 2 Online Reading Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579*
  • Challenged Readers
    • Some challenged readers read better online than high performing offline readers (Castek, et. al, in press; Coiro, 2007).
    • Why? (case study evidence)
      • Read online at home each day.
      • Excellent locating skills
      • Shorter units of text reduces fluency issues
      • Online readers choose texts; greater engagement
      • Web pages are graphic images, a strong suit
  • We Have a Preliminary Taxonomy of the Skills And Strategies Used During Online Reading Comprehension
    • A taxonomy of online reading comprehension skills is emerging from an analysis of think-aloud, verbal protocols by skilled online readers (Leu, Reinking, et al., 2007).
  • There may be a more limited contribution of prior knowledge during online reading.
    • Online readers often develop required domain knowledge during “just in time” reading (Coiro, 2007; Willoughby, Anderson, Wood, Mueller, & Ross, 2009).
    R 2 Offline Rdg. Comp. Additional R 2 Domain Knowledge Additional R 2 Previous Online Rdg. Comp. Total R 2 .351* .074 .154* .579*
  • Many Adolescents Are Not Proficient With Reading Online Information, Especially Locating And Critical Evaluation Skills.
    • Bennett, Maton, & Kervin, 2008
    • Leu, Reinking, et al., 2007
      • “ dot com” and “click and look” strategies to locate information.
    • 100% of the top 50/1100 online readers thought “ Save the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus ” was reliable or very reliable.
  • An Initial Instructional Model Shows Modest Effects With Improving Online Reading Comprehension In 1-1 Laptop Classrooms
    • Internet Reciprocal Teaching (Leu, Coiro, Castek, Hartman, Henry, & Reinking, 2008)
      • Three phases (Direct, Exchange, Online Collaborative Inquiry)
      • Problem based
      • Distributes Online Reading Comprehension Strategy Knowledge
  • A Model for Teaching Online Reading Comprehension: Internet Reciprocal Teaching
  • IRT: Phase I Teacher-led Basic Skills
    • Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies
    • Explicit modeling by teacher
    • Largely whole class instruction
    • Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II
  • IRT: Phase II Collaborative modeling of online reading strategies
    • Students presented with information problems to solve.
    • Work in small groups to solve those problems.
    • Exchange strategies as they do so.
    • Debrief at the end of the lesson.
    • Initially: locating and critically evaluating
    • Later: Synthesis and communicating.
  • A Phase II Task
    • Phase III consists of Independent, Online Inquiry.
      • Part A. Individuals and small groups in your classroom.
      • Part B. With students in other classrooms, around the world.
    • Inquiry Projects (local or global)
      • Define the question.
      • Locate information
      • Evaluate information
      • Synthesize to answer the question
      • Communicate the learning experience.
  • IV. What Do We Need To Know About Online Reading Comprehension?
    • Online Comprehension Process Issues
    • Instructional Issues
    • Teacher Preparation
    • Professional Development
    • Assessment
  • Process Issues In Online Reading Comprehension “…the acme of a psychologist’s achievements…”
    • We need better theories, more precisely defined constructs, better methodologies, and a critical mass of researchers to study the issue.
    • What is the complete set of online reading comprehension skills and strategies? What are the limits of continuous change as we study this issue?
    • How does online communication play a role in online reading comprehension?
  • Process Issues In Online Reading Comprehension “…the acme of a psychologist’s achievements…”
    • Which online reading comprehension skills best predict performance? Why?
    • How are online and offline reading comprehension both the same and different?
      • The Technology Continuum Hypothesis
      • The Bottleneck Skill Hypothesis
        • Locating Skills of Online Reading Comprehension
        • Critical Evaluation Skills of Online Reading Comprehension
      • The Problem-based Reading Hypothesis
  • Instructional Issues “Good instruction is the most powerful means of promoting the development of proficient comprehenders and preventing reading comprehension problems.” (RRSG, 2002, p. xvii)
    • How do 1-1 Internet classrooms alter the terrain of possibilities for online reading comprehension instruction?
    • How do we take advantage of students’ online literacy practices outside of school to foster the development of online reading comprehension and learning skills within school?
    • How can we best adapt and evaluate effective instructional models from offline reading comprehension?
  • Teacher Preparation Issues “…teaching is so complex that the current teacher education programs cannot adequately prepare novice teachers to engage in practice that reflects the existing knowledge base about reading.” (RRSG, 2002, p. 9)
    • How do we support professors/instructors to include effective practices in online reading comprehension when some are not “newly literate” themselves?
    • Which online strategies can be most effective in rapidly disseminating effective instructional practices in online reading comprehension?
  • Professional Development Issues “…students’ reading achievement will not improve unless teachers use that knowledge to improve their instruction.” (RRSG, 2002, p. xviii)
    • What should we teach teachers?
      • Instructional models vs. skills and strategies?
      • Insights to foster continual learning in a changing context?
    • How should we best conduct PD?
      • Literacy coaches, peer coaches, online coaches, communities of learners?
    • Should we use test beds like Maine to evaluate scalable models of professional development in reading comprehension within 1-1 Internet classrooms?
  • Assessment Issues “All of the research recommended by the RRSG depends on having better instruments for assessing reading comprehension.” (RRSG, 2002, p. xix)
    • What are the most valid, reliable, and practical ways to assess online reading comprehension?
    • How can we develop more sensitive assessment instruments that take less time to administer?
    • How can assessments keep up with the deictic nature of our online reading contexts?
  • V. Two Important Policy Issues “How do national, state, and local policies and practices facilitate or impede the efforts of teachers to implement effective comprehension instruction?” (RRSG, 2002, p. 47)
    • Neglecting research into online reading comprehension perpetuates public policies that help the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
      • 63% of children from households earning more than $75,000 annually reported that they used the Internet at school, but only 36% of children from households earning less than $15,000 annually (Lazarus, Wainer, and Lipper, 2005).
  • A Second Policy Issue: How Do We Define Internet Use In Schools
    • A literacy issue
    • Technology standards are separated from subject area standards
    • Online learning is separated from subject areas
    • Specialists are responsible
    • Online information and communication skills are assessed separately from subject area knowledge.
    • Technology standards become integrated within subject area standards
    • Online learning is integrated into each subject area;
    • Every classroom teacher is responsible
    • Subject area assessments and online information skills are assessed together.
    • A technology issue
  • What Can We Do Now? 10 Ideas for the Classroom.
  • 1. Use Internet Workshop as An Instructional Model Videos
  • 2. Use ePals (free, student safe email)
  • 3. Include the reading comprehension skills of locating information
  • 4. “Borrow” good ideas
      • Google:
            • 4 th grade classroom home page
            • 1 st grade classroom home page
      • Get connected to online resources.
  • 5. Use Starfall.com for early reading development (for English)
  • 4. Use Read Write Think at All Levels (for English)
  • 5. Teach critical evaluation
  • 6. Help the last become first
  • 7. Explore the use of a Ning (ning.com)
  • 8. Try Out Ideas from Internet Reciprocal Teaching
    • Phase I: Teacher-led Instruction in Basic Online Skills
    • Phase II: Problem-based Learning of New Literacies Skills
    • Phase III: Internet Inquiry
  • 9. Use Internet Project
    • Internet Morning Message of the Day Project
  • 10. Use Blogs in the Classroom
    • Mary Castle’s first grade blog
      • http://michellesmelser.blogspot.com/
    • Mr. Thompson’s second grade classroom blog
      • http://gcs.infostreamblogs.org/tthompson
    • Mary Kreul’s 4 th grade class
      • http://mskreul.edublogs.org/
    • Mr. Monson’s Grade 5 Blog
      • http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=59644
    • TAS Grade 3 ESL
      • http://grade3esl.blogspot.com/2008/08/welcome-to-20082009-school-year.html
  • Keep a patient heart and help others on their journeys.
  • Expanding our Understanding of Reading Comprehension Will Not Be Easy
  • As Challenging As Change Appears, We Know This… The Leadership That You Provide…
  • Determines The Future Our Students Achieve!
  • This Powerpoint is Available at Slideshare
  • For Additional Information, visit:
    • The New Literacies Research Team at the University of Connecticut
    • http://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/
    • The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension: How The World Of Reading Is Changing And How Our Educational Systems Might Respond
    Donald J. Leu New Literacies Research Lab University of Connecticut Syyssymposium Tekstitaidot ja uudet teknologiat 23.–24.10.2009, University of Jyväskylä, Agora