Online Reading Comprehension: Catching the New Literacies Wave Donald J. Leu, Ph.D New Literacies Research Lab Neag School of Education University of Connecticut firstname.lastname@example.org Virginia State Reading Association “We teach Virginia to read!”
Major Points The World is Flat: Global Economies Impact Local Reading Instruction The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning The Internet Requires New Reading Skills: The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension Teaching Online Reading Comprehension: Internet Reciprocal Teaching Two Roads to Reading Instruction: The Challenges of Change
I. The World Is Flat: Changes In A Global Economy Require Changes In Reading Instruction The “Ford” Model of Economic Management Command and control Wasted intellectual capital Highly inefficient Lower productivity Little innovation Lower levels of education required. Little need for higher level and creative thinking. Wasted intellectual capital
In a Flattened World: Opportunities Expand butCompetition Increases How do economic units increase productivity? Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity Define problems Locate information Critically evaluate information Synthesize and solve problems Communicate solutions These teams take full advantage of their intellectual capital to the extent their education system has prepared them for this.
Which tool have economic units used to increase productivity and compete? The Internet! Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005). Define problems Locate information Critically evaluate information Synthesize and solve problems Communicate solutions
Implications For Education? Online reading comprehension skills become central Higher level thinking. Effective online information and communication skills. Problem based learning. In short: fundamental change to reading.
I. The Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
A New Literacies Quiz: With Prizes How many individuals currently have access to the Internet and regularly read, write, and communicate online? 511 million 253 million 754 million Nearly 2 billion people 1.7 billion individuals; 1 out of 4 people in the world!
How many adolescents in Accra, Ghana report having gone online? 5% 66% 37% 51% 66% or 2/3 of adolescents! (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006)
In 2005, did adolescents in North America read more on the Internet or more with books and other printed material? On the Internet Offline in books, etc. The same for both. On the Internet! In 2005, students aged 8-18 spent 48minutes per day reading on the Internet and only 43minutes per day reading offline. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).
Which nation manufactures the most software in the world? The U.S. Indonesia India Ireland Ireland! (Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation, 2004)
Which nation provides all teachers with 5 weeks of paid, release-time, professional development at integrating the Internet into the K-12 curriculum? The U.S. Indonesia China Finland Finland!
Which nation, in North America, is implementing a plan to ensure Internet access to every home and every school to prepare its citizens for the 21st century? Canada Mexico The U.S. Mexico! Mexico is implementing its eMexico plan right now. See http://www.e-mexico.gob.mx/
Which nation provides Internet connections for all households at speeds 16 times faster than U.S. broadband for $22 per month? Taiwan Australia Japan The Ukraine Japan! (Bleha, 2005).
How many states, in the U.S., measure students ability to read search engine results on state reading assessments? 10 15 0 2 0! Not a single state.
How many states, in the U.S., permit the use of word processors on state writing assessments for any student who wishes to do so. 1 5 24 0 0!
How many states assess online reading comprehension in their state reading assessment? 0 2 5 8 0!
How did you do? The rubric 10-8 = New Literacy Leader Demand an immediate raise! 7-4 =New Literacy Expert Demand an immediate raise! 3-0 = New Literacy Learner Demand a trip to Finland and then an immediate raise!
III.The Internet Requires Additional Online Reading Comprehension Skills
Online and Offline Reading Comprehension May Not Be Isomorphic (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Blog Offline Reading = Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension Leu, D. Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J., Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., Lyver, S. (2005).
The New Literacies Of Online Reading Comprehension: Read to identify important questions; Read to locate information; Read to critically evaluate the usefulness of that information; Read to synthesize information to answer those questions; and Read to communicate the answers to others. (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004, p. 1570) The new literacies of online reading comprehension
Preliminary Taxonomy Of Online Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies See Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Henry, L.A., & Reinking, D. (2008).Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online reading comprehension. In Cathy Collins Block, Sherri Parris, & Peter Afflerbach (Eds.). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press. Available online at: http://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/pub_files/instruction.pdf The new literacies of online reading comprehension
Additional Research At the New Literacies Research Lab A study of an instructional model(Internet Reciprocal Teaching) we developed, designed to teach online reading comprehension skills and content learning in 1:1 laptop classrooms in secondary content areas. CT and SC. (IES, USDOE) Three phase, problem-based learning model Integrates online reading comprehension, higher level thinking skills, and content instruction.
Additional Research At the New Literacies Research Lab A study designed to develop valid, reliable, and practical assessments of online reading comprehension. CT, Maine, and NC. (IES, USDOE) Three formats: Multiple Choice, Open Internet, Closed Simulated Internet Working with ISAAC, Branford, Bristol right now in the development phase.
Additional Research At the New Literacies Research Lab A study of a whole school professional development model for teaching Internet Reciprocal Teaching in secondary content classrooms, in 1:1 classrooms. Maine. (IES, USDOE, funding pending. Data-based, iterative cycle of development, based on learning outcomes and teacher insights. We plan a statewide model of implementation.
Additional Research At the New Literacies Research Lab A partnership with Mass DESE to develop a statewide, summer institute model for professional development in the new Literacies of online reading comprehension, 4-12. Collaboration with colleagues at NCSU, URI, Berkeley, and UConn. Prepare teacher leaders to continue as leaders for subsequent summers.
IV. A Model To Teach Online Reading Comprehension in 1-1 Classrooms: Internet Reciprocal Teaching
IRT: Phase ITeacher-led Basic Skills Teacher-led demonstrations of basic Internet use skills and cooperative learning strategies Explicit modeling by teacher Largely whole class instruction Mini-lessons as transition to Phase II
IRT: Phase IICollaborative modeling of online reading strategies Students presented with information problems to solve. Work in small groups to solve those problems. Exchange strategies as they do so. Debrief at the end of the lesson. Initially: locating and critically evaluating Later: Synthesis and communicating.
One Problem for School Leaders: The Hidden Reading Achievement Gap in Reading Those who require our support the most with online reading comprehension, those without home access, actually receive the least support in schools. Current policies may increase achievement gaps
A Second Problem for School Leaders:Defining the Problem Correctly A literacy issue A technology issue Technology standards become integrated within subject area standards Online learning is integrated into each subject area; Every classroom teacher is responsible Subject area assessments and online information skills are assessed together. Technology standards are separated from subject area standards Online learning is separated from subject areas Specialists are responsible Online information and communication skills are assessed separately from subject area knowledge.
V. Two Roads To Reading: Which Shall We Take? Same old, same old in a world of continuous change. Innovate, compete, and prepare students for a top-tier economy in an online age of information and communication
What Will Be Required? A focus on higher-order thinking skills Increase in problem-based learning experiences Higher expectations Integration of online reading comprehension throughout the entire curriculum New assessments Large investments in professional development: teachers and school leaders. Changes in teacher education.
The Changes Ahead Instruction Curriculum Higher expectations Engagement New Learning Standards Professional Development Reading Assessments that include online reading comprehension School Leadership and Vision 1-1 computing Redefining Online Technology Around Literacy and Learning
As challenging as change appears, we know this…
The leadership that you provide today, determines…
V.Fifteen Easy Steps To Integrate The Internet Into Your K-12 Classroom Literacy Program
The Big Idea :The Internet Is A Reading Comprehension Issue, Not A Technology Issue Major Points The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for reading and learning. The Internet requires new literacies -- additional online reading comprehension skills. Internet Reciprocal Teaching: Teaching online reading comprehension. Current state policies may actually increase reading achievement gaps. Ten easy steps to integrate the Internet into your K-12 classroom.
12. Try Out Ideas from Internet Reciprocal Teaching Phase I: Teacher-led Instruction in Basic Online Skills Phase II: Problem-based Learning of New Literacies Skills Phase III: Internet Inquiry
13. Use Internet Project Internet Morning Message of the Day Project
14. Use Blogs Mary Castle’s first grade blog http://michellesmelser.blogspot.com/ Mr. Thompson’s second grade classroom blog http://gcs.infostreamblogs.org/tthompson Mary Kreul’s 4th grade class http://mskreul.edublogs.org/ Mr. Monson’s Grade 5 Blog http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=59644 TAS Grade 3 ESL http://grade3esl.blogspot.com/2008/08/welcome-to-20082009-school-year.html
15. Keep a patient heart and help others on their journeys.