The New Literacies of Online Research
and Comprehension: Reading with a
Lens to the Future as Well As a Lens to
the Past
D...
A Summer of Reflection
What Have I Learned?
“The more I know, the less I understand.”
Don Henley, The Eagles
We Live In Epochal Times
 Rapid, Disruptive Changes To Literacy Are
Happening All Around Us.
 Never before has a generat...
Print Newspapers are
Disappearing
New Literacies Are Required by
Everyone: AU Taxi Cab Drivers
The Internet Is Now This Generation’s
Defining Technology For Reading and
Learning
How Many People Read and
Write With the Internet ?
Why? One Reason: The Nature of
Work Has Changed
CEOCEO
Upper Level ManagementUpper Level Management
Upper Middle Level Man...
In a Flattened World: Opportunities
Expand but Both Competition and
Cooperation Increase
How do economic units increase pr...
Which tool has been used by
economic units to increase productivity
and compete?
TeamTeam TeamTeam TeamTeamTeamTeam TeamTe...
With the Internet, Literacy Has
Become Deictic.
 Deixis: Words whose meanings rapidly
change based on the extralinguistic...
our lives.”
Literacy is not just new today;
it becomes new every day of
our lives.”
What Does It Mean That Literacy is
Now Deictic?
 For theory development?
 For research?
 For practice?
PART I.
IMPACT ON THEORY DEVELOPMENT
IMPACT ON THEORY DEVELOPMENT
A conundrum: How can we possibly develop
adequate theory...
Literacies:
Learning from One Another to Advance Theory
and Research
Learning from One Another to Advance Theory
and Resea...
New Literacies:
Current Common Patterns
Current Common Patterns
1.The Internet is this generation’s defining
technology fo...
New Literacies:
Current Common Patterns (cont.)
Current Common Patterns (cont.)
5.New literacies are multiple, multimodal,...
COMPREHENSION
(Online Reading Comprehension)
(Online Reading Comprehension)
(Online Reading Comprehension)
 Defines how w...
Why Have Some of Us Selected
This Line of Research?
 Closely connected to learning
 Immediate classroom application
 Ap...
Results From Several Research
Projects
 Offline and online reading are not the same.
 The rich are getting richer and th...
Offline Comprehension and Online
Comprehension Are Not The Same
(r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)
Leu, Castek,
Hartman,
Coiro,
Henry,...
Additional Evidence:
Predicting Online Reading Comprehension
R2
Offline Reading
Comprehension
Additional R2
Domain Knowled...
Examples?
 Locate
 Key word entry
 Reading search results
 Evaluate
 Evaluating the reliability of a website
 Synthe...
In the U.S., The Rich Get
Richer and the Poor Get Poorer
in Offline Reading.OFFLINE READING COMPREHENSION: 90/10 Income Ac...
ORCA Project Study: Students
in Rich and Poor School
Districts
Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., O’Byrne, W. I.,
Zawilinski, L., McVe...
School District Differences
West Town East Town
Median Family Income $119,338 $58,981
% of Families Below Poverty
Line
2.1...
Existed in Offline Reading
(CT Mastery Test: Reading)
(CT Mastery Test: Reading)
★ t (237) = 14.34 p = .000
 eta squared ...
Comprehension Abilities...
ORCA-Closed
ORCA-Closed
✴ t (255) = 9.80, p = .000
 eta squared = .319 (large) West Town Mean...
Covariates: Offline Reading + Prior Topic
Knowledge
Covariates: Offline Reading + Prior Topic
Knowledge
★F (1,234) = 15.84...
PIs
Donald J. Leu, The University of Connecticut
Jonna Kulikowich, The Pennsylvania State University
Nell Sedransk, Nation...
Locate
Can the student locate the correct email message in an
inbox on the first click?
Can the student use appropriate ke...
Evaluate
Can the student identify the author of the website?
Can the student evaluate the author's level of
expertise?
Can...
Synthesize
Can students provide a summary of one important element from
the first website?
Can students use their own word...
Communicate: Email (Wiki)
Does the student include the correct email address in an email
message?
Does the student include...
36
Reading to
Locate
Information
Reading to
Locate
Information
Online
Reading to Synthesize
Information Online
Reading to Critically Evaluate
Information Online
41
Reading and Writing to
Communicate Information Online:
Email Task
State 1 State 2
(laptops)
TOTAL
Locate (8) 4.52 4.64 4.58
Evaluate (8) 3.61* 3.32 3.47
Synthesize (8) 6.07 5.86 5.97
Commu...
43
Adjusted Total Mean Scores
When Covariates of SES and
Prior Knowledge Controlled
43
State 1 State 2
(laptops)
Adjusted ...
44
Most Recently
 Current work is showing unidimensional
scaling for ORCA-Multiple Choice but
Multidimensional scaling fo...
45
• Collaborative online reading can lead to
important learning gains.
• Individual readers concentrated on
gathering fac...
46
III. INSTRUCTION
 A particular problem in some nations:
 We often think about our curriculum ONLY with a
lens to our ...
47
 A Lens to the Future
1. “Read closely to determine what the text
says explicitly and to make logical inferences
from ...
48
 A Lens to the Future
 Web site reliability
 Who is the author
 Is the author an
expert? How do you
know?
 What is...
What Can We Do To Enrich Our
Reading Programs and Prepare
Students For Their Future?
Two Classrooms
Grades 2-3: Internet Morning Message
of the Day
http://www.epals.com/find-classroom.php
Grade 7: Online International
Projects
Hey! Gary
Paulson???
O yeah! I got some grat
idea. Let me send them
to Tomas and Be...
53
Internet Reciprocal Teaching
(IRT)
A Three-Phase Model
 Phase I: Teacher-led and Student-led
Instruction in Cool Tools for Information Use
 Phase II: Probl...
IRT: Phase III
Inquiry
 Initially, within the class.
 Then, with others around the world.
 Internet Morning Message of ...
Help the last become first with new
literacies.
QuickTime™ and a
Sorenson Video 3 decompressor
are needed to see this pict...
Some Thoughts to Review
1. Literacy as deixis means that new
literacies appear every day.
2. In a deictic world of reading...
Some Thoughts to Review
(cont.)
4. We have looked at several instructional ideas in
online research and comprehension: Int...
Change Is Never Easy.
How does it look on a bad day?
But, On These Most Difficult
Days, Keep This Thought In Mind:
The Leadership That You
Provide With New
Literacies…
Determines The Future That Our
Students Achieve!
Thank you!
The New Literacies of Online Research
and Comprehension: Reading with a
Lens to the Future as Well As a Lens to
the Past
D...
18th european conference on reading   scira
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18th european conference on reading scira

  1. 1. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Reading with a Lens to the Future as Well As a Lens to the Past Donald J. Leu Neag Endowed Chair in Literacy and Technology Neag School of Education University of Connecticut donald.leu@uconn.edu PDF available: http://www.slideshare.net/djleu/18th-european-conference-on-reading-scira- 25034268
  2. 2. A Summer of Reflection
  3. 3. What Have I Learned? “The more I know, the less I understand.” Don Henley, The Eagles
  4. 4. We Live In Epochal Times  Rapid, Disruptive Changes To Literacy Are Happening All Around Us.  Never before has a generation lived through such a period of profound change to literacy, learning, and life
  5. 5. Print Newspapers are Disappearing
  6. 6. New Literacies Are Required by Everyone: AU Taxi Cab Drivers
  7. 7. The Internet Is Now This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
  8. 8. How Many People Read and Write With the Internet ?
  9. 9. Why? One Reason: The Nature of Work Has Changed CEOCEO Upper Level ManagementUpper Level Management Upper Middle Level ManagementUpper Middle Level Management Middle Level ManagementMiddle Level Management Line SupervisorsLine Supervisors WorkersWorkers The Lesson from General Motors 1. Command and control 2. Lower levels of education required. 3. Wasted intellectual capital 4. Highly inefficient 5. Lower productivity 6. Little innovation 7. Little need for higher level and creative thinking. Wasted intellectual capital
  10. 10. In a Flattened World: Opportunities Expand but Both Competition and Cooperation Increase How do economic units increase productivity? Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams TeamTeam TeamTeam TeamTeamTeamTeam TeamTeam 1. Define problems 2. Locate information 3. Critically evaluate information 4. Synthesize and solve problems 5. Communicate solutions These teams take full advantage of their intellectual capital to the extent their education system has prepared them for this. Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity
  11. 11. Which tool has been used by economic units to increase productivity and compete? TeamTeam TeamTeam TeamTeamTeamTeam TeamTeam Online Research and Comprehension •Define problems 1.Locate information 2.Evaluate information 3.Synthesize and solve problems 4.Communicate solutions The Internet Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).
  12. 12. With the Internet, Literacy Has Become Deictic.  Deixis: Words whose meanings rapidly change based on the extralinguistic context. A form of exophora. here there Itodayyesterday she literacy writingreading
  13. 13. our lives.” Literacy is not just new today; it becomes new every day of our lives.”
  14. 14. What Does It Mean That Literacy is Now Deictic?  For theory development?  For research?  For practice?
  15. 15. PART I. IMPACT ON THEORY DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON THEORY DEVELOPMENT A conundrum: How can we possibly develop adequate theory when the object that we seek to study is itself ephemeral, continuously being redefined by a changing context? This is an important theoretical challenge that our field has not previously faced. Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Henry, L. A. (2013). New literacies: A dual level theory of the changing nature of literacy, instruction, and assessment. In N. Unrau & D. Alvermann (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, Sixth Edition. International Reading Association: Newark, DE.
  16. 16. Literacies: Learning from One Another to Advance Theory and Research Learning from One Another to Advance Theory and Research New LiteraciesNew Literacies new literacies of social practices and mindsets (Lankshear & Knobel; Street; and others) new literacies of social practices and mindsets (Lankshear & Knobel; Street; and others) new discourses (Gee and others) new discourses (Gee and others) new literacies of online research and comprehension (Castek;Coiro; Leu; and others) new literacies of online research and comprehension (Castek;Coiro; Leu; and others) new semiotic contexts (Kress; Jewitt; Lemke; and others) new semiotic contexts (Kress; Jewitt; Lemke; and others) Multi-modal approaches (Hull and others) Multi-modal approaches (Hull and others) Upper Case New Literacies: Common patterns and principles lower case new literacieslower case new literacies new literacies of young children (Marsh; and others) new literacies of young children (Marsh; and others) new tools (Brown and others) new tools (Brown and others) Out of school literacies (Alvermann and others) Out of school literacies (Alvermann and others) etc.etc.
  17. 17. New Literacies: Current Common Patterns Current Common Patterns 1.The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning within our global community. 2.The Internet and related technologies require new literacies to fully access their potential. 3.New literacies are deictic. 4.New social practices are a central element of new literacies.
  18. 18. New Literacies: Current Common Patterns (cont.) Current Common Patterns (cont.) 5.New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted, and, as a result, our understanding of them benefits from multiple points of view. 6.Critical literacies are central to new literacies. 7.New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies. 8.Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms.
  19. 19. COMPREHENSION (Online Reading Comprehension) (Online Reading Comprehension) (Online Reading Comprehension)  Defines how we read online when we conduct informal and formal research to learn new knowledge.  Identify the problem/question  Locate  Evaluate  Synthesize  Communicate Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005; Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek, & Henry, 2013 Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005; Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek, & Henry, 2013
  20. 20. Why Have Some of Us Selected This Line of Research?  Closely connected to learning  Immediate classroom application  Appears to be increasingly important to one’s success in life  High frequency of use  Our students appear to lack many of these skills
  21. 21. Results From Several Research Projects  Offline and online reading are not the same.  The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer with both offline and online reading in the U.S., a concern possibly found in other nations.  The ORCA Project: New performance based assessments of online research and comprehension.  Collaborative reading online appears to lead to deeper thinking and learning compared to
  22. 22. Offline Comprehension and Online Comprehension Are Not The Same (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, Lyver, 2005 Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, Lyver, 2005 Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Blog Offline Reading = Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
  23. 23. Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension R2 Offline Reading Comprehension Additional R2 Domain Knowledge Additional R2 Previous Online Reading Comprehension Total R2 Online Reading Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579* Coiro, 2011 The new literacies of online reading comprehension Offline Reading Comp.= CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Quia
  24. 24. Examples?  Locate  Key word entry  Reading search results  Evaluate  Evaluating the reliability of a website  Synthesis  Synthesizing from multiple sites  Communicate 
  25. 25. In the U.S., The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Poorer in Offline Reading.OFFLINE READING COMPREHENSION: 90/10 Income Achievement & Black- White Gaps in Reading, 1943-2001 Cohorts *Adapted from: Reardon, S.F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In R. Murnane & G. Duncan (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press. AverageDifferenceinS.D.UnitsonNationalAssessments Reardon, S.F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In R. Murnane & G. Duncan (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.
  26. 26. ORCA Project Study: Students in Rich and Poor School Districts Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., O’Byrne, W. I., Zawilinski, L., McVerry, J. G., Cacopardo, H., Kennedy, C., & Forzani, E. (2011). Online reading comprehension assessment (ORCA): A preliminary study of online reading comprehension ability in rich and poor school districts. Paper presented at the meeting of the Literacy Research Association. Jacksonville, FL.
  27. 27. School District Differences West Town East Town Median Family Income $119,338 $58,981 % of Families Below Poverty Line 2.1% 11.8% % of Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunches 4% 67%
  28. 28. Existed in Offline Reading (CT Mastery Test: Reading) (CT Mastery Test: Reading) ★ t (237) = 14.34 p = .000  eta squared = .466 (large)  West Town (Rich) Mean = 282.6 (SD = 41.54)  East Town (Poor) Mean = 215.1 (SD = 31.07) 282.6 215.1
  29. 29. Comprehension Abilities... ORCA-Closed ORCA-Closed ✴ t (255) = 9.80, p = .000  eta squared = .319 (large) West Town Mean = 15.00 (SD=5.69)  East Town Mean = 7.65 (SD=4.39) 15.00 7.65
  30. 30. Covariates: Offline Reading + Prior Topic Knowledge Covariates: Offline Reading + Prior Topic Knowledge ★F (1,234) = 15.84, p = .001  partial eta squared = .063  (large)  West Town (rich) adjusted mean = 12.96  East Town (poor) adjusted mean = 10.27 12.96 9.27
  31. 31. PIs Donald J. Leu, The University of Connecticut Jonna Kulikowich, The Pennsylvania State University Nell Sedransk, National Institute of Statistical Sciences Julie Coiro, University of Rhode Island Graduate Research Assistants Elena Forzani, Clint Kennedy, and Cheryl Burlingame, The University of Connecticut Scientific Advisory Board P. David Pearson, The University of California, Berkeley Irwin Kirsch, Educational Testing Service Rand Spiro, Michigan State University Elizabeth Stage, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley Glenn Kleimann, Friday Institute, NCSU
  32. 32. Locate Can the student locate the correct email message in an inbox on the first click? Can the student use appropriate keywords in a search engine? Can the student locate the best site for a task from a set of search engine results on the first click? Can the student locate and communicate the correct website addresses from two different search tasks.
  33. 33. Evaluate Can the student identify the author of the website? Can the student evaluate the author's level of expertise? Can the student identify the author's point of view? Can the student evaluate the reliability of a website?
  34. 34. Synthesize Can students provide a summary of one important element from the first website? Can students use their own words to integrate one detail from each of the first two websites? Can students use their own words to integrate one detail from each of the second two websites? Can students use their own words to develop an argument after reading all four websites?
  35. 35. Communicate: Email (Wiki) Does the student include the correct email address in an email message? Does the student include an appropriate subject line in an email message? Does the student include an appropriate greeting in an email message to an important, unfamiliar person? Does the student compose and send a well-structured, short report of their research in an email with sources and appropriate argument structure, containing at least one relevant claim and at least two pieces of evidence.
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Reading to Locate Information
  38. 38. Reading to Locate Information Online
  39. 39. Reading to Synthesize Information Online
  40. 40. Reading to Critically Evaluate Information Online
  41. 41. 41 Reading and Writing to Communicate Information Online: Email Task
  42. 42. State 1 State 2 (laptops) TOTAL Locate (8) 4.52 4.64 4.58 Evaluate (8) 3.61* 3.32 3.47 Synthesize (8) 6.07 5.86 5.97 Communicate (8) 4.22 4.00 4.11 TOTAL (32) 18.42 17.81 18.13 Mean Scores of Representative State Samples of 13-year Olds (n = 1,129) *p < .05 t(1127) = 2.641, p=.008
  43. 43. 43 Adjusted Total Mean Scores When Covariates of SES and Prior Knowledge Controlled 43 State 1 State 2 (laptops) Adjusted Means 17.56 19.08* *p < .05 F (1, 1021) = 14.854, p = .000
  44. 44. 44 Most Recently  Current work is showing unidimensional scaling for ORCA-Multiple Choice but Multidimensional scaling for ORCA-Closed and ORCA-Open. 44
  45. 45. 45 • Collaborative online reading can lead to important learning gains. • Individual readers concentrated on gathering facts. • Collaborative readers explored ideas more deeply and shared different perspectives. Kiili, C., Laurinen, L., Marttunen, M., & Leu, D. J. (2012). Working on understanding 45
  46. 46. 46 III. INSTRUCTION  A particular problem in some nations:  We often think about our curriculum ONLY with a lens to our past, not a lens to the future.  A special problem for the U.S. with our new Common Core State Standards.  It may also apply to nations/schools who specify a reading/literacy curriculum. 46
  47. 47. 47  A Lens to the Future 1. “Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.”  A Lens to the Past  Narrative Text  Inferential Comprehension 47
  48. 48. 48  A Lens to the Future  Web site reliability  Who is the author  Is the author an expert? How do you know?  What is the author’s point of view? How do you know?  Is this site reliable? How do you know? 6. “Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.”  A Lens to the Past  Narrative text  What was the author’s point of view?  What was Jacob’s point of view?
  49. 49. What Can We Do To Enrich Our Reading Programs and Prepare Students For Their Future? Two Classrooms
  50. 50. Grades 2-3: Internet Morning Message of the Day http://www.epals.com/find-classroom.php
  51. 51. Grade 7: Online International Projects Hey! Gary Paulson??? O yeah! I got some grat idea. Let me send them to Tomas and Ben in the US We’re on it! Making a web page now. Monique, South Africa Ben and Tomas, Connecticut Jose, Costa Rica
  52. 52. 53 Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT)
  53. 53. A Three-Phase Model  Phase I: Teacher-led and Student-led Instruction in Cool Tools for Information Use  Phase II: Problem-based Learning of Online Research and Comprehension Skills  Phase III: Internet Inquiry
  54. 54. IRT: Phase III Inquiry  Initially, within the class.  Then, with others around the world.  Internet Morning Message of the Day  Student Online Collaborations
  55. 55. Help the last become first with new literacies. QuickTime™ and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  56. 56. Some Thoughts to Review 1. Literacy as deixis means that new literacies appear every day. 2. In a deictic world of reading and literacy, we need new approaches to theory development. Dual Level theory. 3. We reviewed one area of lower case new literacies research with important classroom implications: online research and comprehension.
  57. 57. Some Thoughts to Review (cont.) 4. We have looked at several instructional ideas in online research and comprehension: Internet Morning Message, IRT, and helping the last become first. 5. We have looked at online collaborative learning projects, an approach that may hold important potential for raising a new generation of globally aware and sensitive citizens. 6. I believe that Europe has special potential for leading our way forward with new literacies.
  58. 58. Change Is Never Easy. How does it look on a bad day?
  59. 59. But, On These Most Difficult Days, Keep This Thought In Mind: The Leadership That You Provide With New Literacies…
  60. 60. Determines The Future That Our Students Achieve! Thank you!
  61. 61. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Reading with a Lens to the Future as Well As a Lens to the Past Donald J. Leu Neag Endowed Chair in Literacy and Technology Neag School of Education University of Connecticut donald.leu@uconn.edu PDF available: http://www.slideshare.net/djleu/18th-european-conference-on-reading-scira- 25034268
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