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18th european conference on reading scira

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PDF of the slides used in my talk on 8-8-13. Note: The animations of the ORCA assessments did not translate well from Keynote.

PDF of the slides used in my talk on 8-8-13. Note: The animations of the ORCA assessments did not translate well from Keynote.

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  • 1. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Reading with a Lens to the Future as Well As a Lens to the Past Donald J. Leu Neag Endowed Chair in Literacy and Technology Neag School of Education University of Connecticut donald.leu@uconn.edu
  • 2. A Summer of Reflection
  • 3. What Have I Learned? “The more I know, the less I understand.” Don Henley, The Eagles
  • 4. We Live In Epochal Times n Rapid, Disruptive Changes To Literacy Are Happening All Around Us. n Never before has a generation lived through such a period of profound change to literacy, learning, and life
  • 5. Print Newspapers are Disappearing
  • 6. New Literacies Are Required by Everyone: AU Taxi Cab Drivers
  • 7. The Internet Is Now This Generation’s Defining Technology For Reading and Learning
  • 8. How Many People Read and Write With the Internet ?
  • 9. Why? One Reason: The Nature of Work Has Changed CEO Upper Level Management Upper Middle Level Management Middle Level Management Line Supervisors Workers The Lesson from General Motors 1. Command and control 2. Lower levels of education required. 3. Wasted intellectual capital 4. Highly inefficient 5. Lower productivity 6. Little innovation 7. Little need for higher level and creative thinking. Wasted intellectual capital
  • 10. In a Flattened World: Opportunities Expand but Both Competition and Cooperation Increase How do economic units increase productivity? Flatten The Organization into Problem Solving Teams Team Team TeamTeam Team 1. Define problems 2. Locate information 3. Critically evaluate information 4. Synthesize and solve problems 5. Communicate solutions These teams take full advantage of their intellectual capital to the extent their education system has prepared them for this. Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity
  • 11. Which tool has been used by economic units to increase productivity and compete? Team Team TeamTeam Team Online Research and Comprehension 1. Define problems 2. Locate information 3. Evaluate information 4. Synthesize and solve problems 5. Communicate solutions The Internet Recent productivity gains are due to using the Internet to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).
  • 12. With the Internet, Literacy Has Become Deictic. n Deixis: Words whose meanings rapidly change based on the extralinguistic context. A form of exophora. here there Itodayyesterday she literacy writingreading
  • 13. New Literacies: “Literacy is not just new today; it becomes new every day of our lives.”
  • 14. What Does It Mean That Literacy is Now Deictic? n For theory development? n For research? n For practice?
  • 15. PART I. LITERACY AS DEIXIS: IMPACT ON THEORY DEVELOPMENT A conundrum: How can we possibly develop adequate theory when the object that we seek to study is itself ephemeral, continuously being redefined by a changing context? This is an important theoretical challenge that our field has not previously faced. Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Henry, L. A. (2013). New literacies: A dual level theory of the changing nature of literacy, instruction, and assessment. In N. Unrau & D. Alvermann (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, Sixth Edition. International Reading Association: Newark, DE.
  • 16. A Dual Level Theory of New Literacies: Learning from One Another to Advance Theory and Research New Literacies new literacies of social practices and mindsets (Lankshear & Knobel; Street; and others) new discourses (Gee and others) new literacies of online research and comprehension (Castek;Coiro; Leu; and others) new semiotic contexts (Kress; Jewell; Lemke; and others) Multi-modal approaches (Hull and others) Upper Case New Literacies: Common patterns and principles lower case new literacies new literacies of young children (Marsh; and others) new tools (Brown and others) Out of school literacies (Alvermann and others) etc.
  • 17. New Literacies: Current Common Patterns 1.The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning within our global community. 2.The Internet and related technologies require new literacies to fully access their potential. 3.New literacies are deictic. 4.New social practices are a central element of new literacies.
  • 18. New Literacies: Current Common Patterns (cont.) 5.New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted, and, as a result, our understanding of them benefits from multiple points of view. 6.Critical literacies are central to new literacies. 7.New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies. 8.Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms.
  • 19. PART II: ONLINE RESEARCH AND COMPREHENSION (Online Reading Comprehension) n Defines how we read online when we conduct informal and formal research to learn new knowledge. n Identify the problem/question n Locate n Evaluate n Synthesize n Communicate Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005; Leu, O’Byrne, Zawilinski, McVerry, & Everett-Cacopardo, 2009; Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek, & Henry, 2013
  • 20. Why Have Some of Us Selected This Line of Research? n Closely connected to learning n Immediate classroom application n Appears to be increasingly important to one’s success in life n High frequency of use n Our students appear to lack many of these skills
  • 21. Results From Several Research Projects n Offline and online reading are not the same. n The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer with both offline and online reading in the U.S. n The ORCA Project: New performance based assessments of online research and comprehension. n Collaborative reading online appears to lead to deeper thinking and learning compared to individual reading.
  • 22. Offline Comprehension and Online Comprehension Are Not The Same (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, Lyver, 2005 Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Blog Offline Reading = Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
  • 23. Examples? n Locate n Key word entry n Reading search results n Evaluate n Evaluating the reliability of a website n Synthesis n Synthesizing from multiple sites n Communicate n Email, wikis, blogs, texting
  • 24. Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension R2 Offline Reading Comprehension Additional R2 Domain Knowledge Additional R2 Previous Online Reading Comprehension Total R2 Online Reading Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579* Coiro, 2011 The new literacies of online reading comprehension Offline Reading Comp.= CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Quia
  • 25. In the U.S., The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Poorer in Offline Reading. OFFLINE  READING  COMPREHENSION:  90/10  Income  Achievement  &  Black-­‐ White  Gaps   Average  Difference  in  S.D.  Units  on  NaNonal  Assessments Reardon, S.F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In R. Murnane & G. Duncan (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.
  • 26. ORCA Project Pre-pilot Study: Students in Rich and Poor School Districts
  • 27. School District Differences West Town DRG B East Town DRG H Median Family Income $119,338 $58,981 % of Families Below Poverty Line 2.1% 11.8% % of Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunches 4% 67%
  • 28. A Significant Achievement Gap Existed in Offline Reading (CT Mastery Test: Reading) ★ t (237) = 14.34 p = .000 n eta squared = .466 (large) 0 75.0 150.0 225.0 300.0 Means: CMT Reading West Town (Rich) East Town (Poor) n West Town (Rich) Mean = 282.6 (SD = 41.54) n East Town (Poor) Mean = 215.1 (SD = 31.07) 282.6 215.1
  • 29. A Significant Achievement Gap Existed in Online Research and Comprehension Abilities... ✴ t (255) = 9.80, p = .000 n eta squared = .319 (large) 0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 Means: ORCA-Closed West Town (Rich) East Town (Poor) n West Town Mean = 15.00 (SD=5.69) n East Town Mean = 7.65 (SD=4.39) 15.00 7.65
  • 30. ...Even When an ANCOVA Analysis Was Conducted Covariates: Offline Reading + Prior Topic Knowledge ★ F (1,234) = 15.84, p = .001 n partial eta squared = .063 n (large) 0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 ORCA-Closed:Adjusted Means West Town (Rich) East Town (Poor) n West Town (rich) adjusted mean = 12.96 n East Town (poor) adjusted mean = 10.27 12.96 9.27
  • 31. PIs Donald J. Leu, The University of Connecticut Jonna Kulikowich, The Pennsylvania State University Nell Sedransk, National Institute of Statistical Sciences Julie Coiro, University of Rhode Island Graduate Research Assistants Elena Forzani, Clint Kennedy, and Cheryl Burlingame, The University of Connecticut Scientific Advisory Board P. David Pearson, The University of California, Berkeley Irwin Kirsch, Educational Testing Service Rand Spiro, Michigan State University Elizabeth Stage, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley Glenn Kleimann, Friday Institute, NCSU
  • 32. Locate Can the student locate the correct email message in an inbox on the first click? Can the student use appropriate keywords in a search engine? Can the student locate the best site for a task from a set of search engine results on the first click? Can the student locate and communicate the correct website addresses from two different search tasks.
  • 33. Evaluate Can the student identify the author of the website? Can the student evaluate the author's level of expertise? Can the student identify the author's point of view? Can the student evaluate the reliability of a website?
  • 34. Synthesize Can students provide a summary of one important element from the first website? Can students use their own words to integrate one detail from each of the first two websites? Can students use their own words to integrate one detail from each of the second two websites? Can students use their own words to develop an argument after reading all four websites?
  • 35. Communicate: Email (Wiki) Does the student include the correct email address in an email message? Does the student include an appropriate subject line in an email message? Does the student include an appropriate greeting in an email message to an important, unfamiliar person? Does the student compose and send a well-structured, short report of their research in an email with sources and appropriate argument structure, containing at least one relevant claim and at least two pieces of evidence.
  • 36. 36
  • 37. Reading  to  Locate Informa1on  Online
  • 38. Reading  to  Locate Informa1on  Online
  • 39. Reading to Synthesize Information Online
  • 40. Reading to Critically Evaluate Information Online
  • 41. Reading  and  Wri1ng  to   Communicate  Informa1on  Online:   Email  Task 41
  • 42. State 1 State 2 (laptops) TOTAL Locate (8) 4.52 4.64 4.58 Evaluate (8) 3.61* 3.32 3.47 Synthesize (8) 6.07 5.86 5.97 Communicate (8) 4.22 4.00 4.11 TOTAL (32) 18.42 17.81 18.13 Mean Scores of Representative State Samples of 13-year Olds (n = 1,129) *p < .05 t(1127) = 2.641, p=.008
  • 43. Adjusted Total Mean Scores When Covariates of SES and Prior Knowledge Controlled 43 State 1 State 2 (laptops) Adjusted Means 17.56 19.08* *p < .05 F (1, 1021) = 14.854, p = .000
  • 44. Most Recently n Current work is showing unidimensional scaling for ORCA-Multiple Choice but Multidimensional scaling for ORCA-Closed and ORCA-Open. n This suggests ORCA-Multiple Choice will perform more like offline reading while performance-based assessments (ORCA- Closed and ORCA-Open) perform more like online reading, with additional skills required. 44
  • 45. Recent Work from Finland • Collaborative online reading can lead to important learning gains. • Individual readers concentrated on gathering facts. • Collaborative readers explored ideas more deeply and shared different perspectives. Kiili,C.,Laurinen,L.,Marttunen,M.,&Leu,D.J.(2012).Workingonunderstandingduring collaborativeonlinereading.JournalofLiteracyResearch.44(4).448-483.ThousandOaks, CA:SagePublications.doi:10.1177/1086296X12457166 45
  • 46. III. INSTRUCTION WHEN LITERACY IS DEICTIC n A particular problem in some nations: n We often think about our curriculum ONLY with a lens to our past, not a lens to the future. n A special problem for the U.S. with our new Common Core State Standards. n It may also apply to nations/schools who specify a reading/literacy curriculum. 46
  • 47. n A Lens to the Future 1. “Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.” n A Lens to the Past n Narrative Text n Inferential Comprehension 47
  • 48. n A Lens to the Future n Web site reliability n Who is the author n Is the author an expert? How do you know? n What is the author’s point of view? How do you know? n Is this site reliable? How do you know? 6. “Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.” n A Lens to the Past n Narrative text n What was the author’s point of view? n What was Jacob’s point of view? 48
  • 49. What Can We Do To Enrich Our Reading Programs and Prepare Students For Their Future? Two Classrooms
  • 50. Grades 2-3: Internet Morning Message of the Day http://www.epals.com/find-classroom.php
  • 51. Grade 7: Online International Projects Hey! Gary Paulson??? O yeah! I got some grat idea. Let me send them to Tomas and Ben in the US We’re on it! Making a web page now. Monique, South Africa Ben and Tomas, Connecticut Jose, Costa Rica
  • 52. Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT) 53
  • 53. A Three-Phase Model n Phase I: Teacher-led and Student-led Instruction in Cool Tools for Information Use n Phase II: Problem-based Learning of Online Research and Comprehension Skills n Phase III: Internet Inquiry
  • 54. IRT: Phase III Inquiry n Initially, within the class. n Then, with others around the world. n Internet Morning Message of the Day n Student Online Collaborations
  • 55. Help the last become first with new literacies.
  • 56. Some Thoughts to Review 1.Literacy as deixis means that new literacies appear every day. 2.In a deictic world of reading and literacy, we need new approaches to theory development. Dual Level theory. 3.We reviewed one area of lower case new literacies research with important classroom implications: online research and comprehension.
  • 57. Some Thoughts to Review (cont.) 4. We have looked at several instructional ideas in online research and comprehension: Internet Morning Message, IRT, and helping the last become first. 5.We have looked at online collaborative learning projects, an approach that may hold important potential for raising a new generation of globally aware and sensitive citizens. 6.I believe that Europe has special potential for leading our way forward with new literacies.
  • 58. Change Is Never Easy. How does it look on a bad day?
  • 59. But, On Your Most Difficult Days, Keep This Thought In Mind: The Leadership That You Provide With New Literacies…
  • 60. Determines The Future That Our Students Achieve! Thank you!
  • 61. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Reading with a Lens to the Past and a Lens to the Future Donald J. Leu Neag Endowed Chair in Literacy and Technology Neag School of Education University of Connecticut donald.leu@uconn.edu