Pandora and her Trojan HorsesRob Cowan
“Sustainable   is a dangerously vague word”
Guns don’t killpeople, people do.
Defining sustainabledevelopment moreprecisely would run the riskof opening up a Pandora‟sbox with lots of Trojanhorses jum...
Communities
Sustainable
Delivering
Delivering SustainableCommunities
Sustaining DeliverableCommunities
Communing with   Sustainable   Deliverables
Communicatingwith Suspicious   Deliverymen
DraftNational Planning Policy Framework
Sustainable    Sustainable              Sustainable             SustainableSustainable
Sustainable                        Sustainable    Sustainable              Sustainable             SustainableSustainable
Sustainable         Sustainable          Sustainable              Sustainable              SustainableSustainable
Sustainable         Sustainable          Sustainable              Sustainable              SustainableSustainable         ...
Sustainable     Sustainable     Sustainable                                 Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable...
Sustainable     Sustainable              Sustainable Sustainablenable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainable      ...
Sustainable      Sustainable  Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable                           Sustai...
Sustainable      Sustainable  Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable                           Sustai...
Sustainability Permeability  Community    Legibility    Amenity      Quality
Character and appearance
Characterandappearance
QualityreviewerAppraising the design qualityof development proposals
QUALITYREVIEWERUNDERSTAND THE PLACE1. Site and context appraisal2. How policy and guidance applyUNDERSTAND THE PROPOSAL3. ...
1. What is special about the place?2. How should policy and guidance be applied?3. What is the design concept?4. How signi...
QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the place
Site and context appraisalWhat are the importantfeatures of the context of thearea and site?
How policy and guidance applyWhat policy, guidance andregulations apply to the areaand site?
QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the proposal
ConceptUnderstand the conceptConsider whether thereare examples of such adesign workingsuccessfully elsewhereand what benc...
ImpactHow significant is the site? Isdevelopment here likely to havean importantsocial, economic, environmentalor cultural...
Design quality
Design qualityMovement and legibilitySpace and enclosureMixed uses and tenuresAdaptability and resilienceResources and eff...
Diagrams   • Concept: landscape and built form           • Micro-climate           • Movement: pedestrian and             ...
Design qualityMovement and legibilitySpace and enclosureMixed uses and tenuresAdaptability and resilienceResources and eff...
Movement and legibilityWho will be able to get around most easily andreach their destinations most conveniently?To whom wi...
Space and enclosureWill the developmentreinforce the street‟sbuilding line or erode it?To what extent will thebuilding(s) ...
Mixed uses and tenuresWhat will the developmentdo to promote mixed usesand tenures at whateverlevel (building, block,neigh...
Adaptability and resilienceHow could the developmentbe adapted to a new use oruses if conditions change?
Resources and efficiencyWill the development useresources efficiently?Will it contribute to tacklingclimate change, and to...
Resources and efficiency: what to askOrientation• What is the site‟s main orientation?• Will shading (trees or artificial ...
• Are public spaces likely to have a pleasant micro-  climate, without strong winds, glare or significant  over-shadowing?...
Energy• Is there a site-wide energy strategy, based on an  energy hierarchy approach (reducing the demand  for energy; sup...
• How will the energy demand for  heating, lighting, hot water and cooling  be minimised?• Which renewable or low-carbon  ...
Drainage• Has a sustainable drainage  system been prepared for the  site? If so, is it integrated into  the landscape?• Ho...
Movement• Will it be easy, safe and pleasant to walk or cycle  to shops, surgeries, a library and other amenities?  How lo...
• How will residents be able to get to these  transport options?• What is the overall car parking ratio for the  site? Wha...
Waste• Has waste management for the site and within the  buildings been considered adequately (including its  visual impac...
• Will automated waste collection systems or  other site-wide waste solutions be used?• Will arrangements be made and faci...
Greenspace• Is there a greenspace strategy for the  site?• Will all residents be able to access  green amenity space easil...
Standards• What level of the relevant  environmental standard will be  achieved?• Will privately owned and social  housing...
The Merton RuleLondon Borough of MertonAt least 10 per cent of the energyrequired by a new development mustbe provided by ...
Order of preference1. Reduce demand for energy2. Efficient supply3. On-site renewable generation
Eco-minimalism is not just aboutgood „green‟ value for money – butgood value for money as such. Thiscomes from eschewing o...
Combined heat and powerIs there a suitably constant all-yeardemand for the hot water?
District heatingWill the demand and thelayout make this efficient?
ConservatoriesSupposedly green, but most end up being wastefully heated.
Green roofsIs the constructionunderneath equallygreen?
Photovoltaic solar cellsAre there more cost-effective alternatives?
Recycled materialsHow much energy willthe recycling use?
Reed bedsIs this a good use of space?
Timber claddingHow green is its sourcing,treatment and detailing?
Wind turbinesIs the site windy enough?                If so, why build there?
Architecture and townscapeHow successfully will thedevelopment be integrated intoits setting?How well will the building re...
Aspects of architectureand townscape
Aspects of architectureand townscape• Integration• Scale• Layout• Expression and honesty• Proportion• Order• Materials• De...
TeamFind out whetherthe proposal hasbeen designed bya person or teamwith design trainingand with a trackrecord of gooddesign
QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the implementation
ExecutionAssess whether thedesign is likely to bewell executed
Management and maintenanceConsider whether the developmentwill be well managed andmaintained
QUALITYREVIEWERMake the decision         Yes!
Information and adviceObtain any further information that theprevious stages have shown is neededfor a proper assessment o...
Getting help with the assessment• ATLAS• BREEAM and other environmental  assessments• Building for Life• Code for Sustaina...
A balanced decision
1. What is special about the place?2. How should policy and guidance be applied?3. What is the design concept?4. How signi...
www.qualityreviewer.co.ukhttp://skills.homesandcommunities.co.uk/qualityreviewerwww.urbandesignskills.com
www.streetwisepress.com
www.urbandesignskills.com
010 Pandora and her trojan horses
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Presentation given by Rob Cowan (Urban Design Skills) at UPEN workshop - Climate change and the Solent: Opportunities and Vulnerabilities.

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010 Pandora and her trojan horses

  1. 1. Pandora and her Trojan HorsesRob Cowan
  2. 2. “Sustainable is a dangerously vague word”
  3. 3. Guns don’t killpeople, people do.
  4. 4. Defining sustainabledevelopment moreprecisely would run the riskof opening up a Pandora‟sbox with lots of Trojanhorses jumping out of itPlanning minister Tony McNulty2003
  5. 5. Communities
  6. 6. Sustainable
  7. 7. Delivering
  8. 8. Delivering SustainableCommunities
  9. 9. Sustaining DeliverableCommunities
  10. 10. Communing with Sustainable Deliverables
  11. 11. Communicatingwith Suspicious Deliverymen
  12. 12. DraftNational Planning Policy Framework
  13. 13. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable
  14. 14. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable
  15. 15. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable
  16. 16. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainable Sustainable
  17. 17. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainablSustainable Sustainable Susta Sustainable Sustainable
  18. 18. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainablenable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable stainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainabl SustainableSustainSustainable Sustainable Susta Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable
  19. 19. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainablenable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainabl Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable stainableSustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustain Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainabl SustainableSustai SustainableSustainable Sustainable Susta
  20. 20. Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainablenable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainabl Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable stainableSustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustain Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable SustainableSustainable Sustainabl SustainableSustai SustainableSustainable Sustainable Susta
  21. 21. Sustainability Permeability Community Legibility Amenity Quality
  22. 22. Character and appearance
  23. 23. Characterandappearance
  24. 24. QualityreviewerAppraising the design qualityof development proposals
  25. 25. QUALITYREVIEWERUNDERSTAND THE PLACE1. Site and context appraisal2. How policy and guidance applyUNDERSTAND THE PROPOSAL3. Concept4. Impact5. Design quality6. TeamUNDERSTAND THE IMPLEMENTATION7. Execution8. Management and maintenanceMAKE THE DECISION9. Information and advice10. A balanced decision
  26. 26. 1. What is special about the place?2. How should policy and guidance be applied?3. What is the design concept?4. How significant is the scheme‟s impact likely to be?5. What are the design‟s strengths and weaknesses?6. Does the design team have the right skills and approach?7. How can we ensure that the design will be well executed?8. Is the scheme likely to be well managed and maintained?9. Do we need more information and advice?10. Is the design good enough?
  27. 27. QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the place
  28. 28. Site and context appraisalWhat are the importantfeatures of the context of thearea and site?
  29. 29. How policy and guidance applyWhat policy, guidance andregulations apply to the areaand site?
  30. 30. QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the proposal
  31. 31. ConceptUnderstand the conceptConsider whether thereare examples of such adesign workingsuccessfully elsewhereand what benchmarksto compare it to
  32. 32. ImpactHow significant is the site? Isdevelopment here likely to havean importantsocial, economic, environmentalor cultural impact?What will be the impact of thisparticular development proposalwill be, at any scale from localto national?
  33. 33. Design quality
  34. 34. Design qualityMovement and legibilitySpace and enclosureMixed uses and tenuresAdaptability and resilienceResources and efficiencyArchitecture and townscape
  35. 35. Diagrams • Concept: landscape and built form • Micro-climate • Movement: pedestrian and vehicular routes • Uses, tenures and densities • Views • Building lines along the street • Building heights, roofline, skyline and massing • Public space, private space and ambiguous space • Front doors • Dead frontage: blank (or mainly blank) walls at ground floor level
  36. 36. Design qualityMovement and legibilitySpace and enclosureMixed uses and tenuresAdaptability and resilienceResources and efficiencyArchitecture and townscape
  37. 37. Movement and legibilityWho will be able to get around most easily andreach their destinations most conveniently?To whom will the development be easilyaccessible?Who will be made more or less welcome bythis development?Who will be made more or less comfortableand at ease by this development?Will the development be part of a network ofconnected streets?
  38. 38. Space and enclosureWill the developmentreinforce the street‟sbuilding line or erode it?To what extent will thebuilding(s) help toframe and enclosestreets and publicspaces?
  39. 39. Mixed uses and tenuresWhat will the developmentdo to promote mixed usesand tenures at whateverlevel (building, block,neighbourhood or district)is appropriate?
  40. 40. Adaptability and resilienceHow could the developmentbe adapted to a new use oruses if conditions change?
  41. 41. Resources and efficiencyWill the development useresources efficiently?Will it contribute to tacklingclimate change, and toadapting to and mitigatingits effects?
  42. 42. Resources and efficiency: what to askOrientation• What is the site‟s main orientation?• Will shading (trees or artificial shading) prevent summer overheating?• Will the development take advantage of prevailing winds during warmer months and minimise wind- tunnel effects during cooler months?
  43. 43. • Are public spaces likely to have a pleasant micro- climate, without strong winds, glare or significant over-shadowing?• Are the buildings designed to maximise the potential for passive solar gain?• Are buildings designed for stack- and cross- ventilation?
  44. 44. Energy• Is there a site-wide energy strategy, based on an energy hierarchy approach (reducing the demand for energy; supplying as much as possible of the energy requirement from on-site renewable or low- carbon sources; and supplying as much as possible of the remaining demand from off-site low-carbon technologies, including decentralised and district sources)?• How does the energy strategy relate to the energy strategy of the wider area?
  45. 45. • How will the energy demand for heating, lighting, hot water and cooling be minimised?• Which renewable or low-carbon energy solutions will be used?• What level of analysis has been undertaken to arrive at the proposed solutions?
  46. 46. Drainage• Has a sustainable drainage system been prepared for the site? If so, is it integrated into the landscape?• How will the development deal with storm and rainwater run- off?• Is there a site-wide rainwater recycling proposal? If so, does it recycle used water or other sources of non-potable water?
  47. 47. Movement• Will it be easy, safe and pleasant to walk or cycle to shops, surgeries, a library and other amenities? How long will it take?• How will cycling and walking be promoted across the site and to neighbouring areas?• How close will the development be to bus and rail services?
  48. 48. • How will residents be able to get to these transport options?• What is the overall car parking ratio for the site? What will be done to reduce private car use and to promote other forms of transport?• What provision is being made for a car club, car club parking spaces and electric car charging points?
  49. 49. Waste• Has waste management for the site and within the buildings been considered adequately (including its visual impact)?• Has adequate space been allocated for different recycling methods used now and likely to be used in the future?• Will community-based waste collection systems be provided?• Will the waste collection system avoid adverse impact on the public realm?
  50. 50. • Will automated waste collection systems or other site-wide waste solutions be used?• Will arrangements be made and facilities be provided to collect separated waste streams?• Will a construction waste strategy be developed to minimise waste to landfill from the site during clearance and construction?• Is there a strategy eventually to achieve a zero-waste policy?
  51. 51. Greenspace• Is there a greenspace strategy for the site?• Will all residents be able to access green amenity space easily?• Has greenspace been designed to facilitate walking and cycling across the site?• Will a productive landscape be provided for food production?• Will greenspace promote biodiversity?
  52. 52. Standards• What level of the relevant environmental standard will be achieved?• Will privately owned and social housing be built to the same standard?
  53. 53. The Merton RuleLondon Borough of MertonAt least 10 per cent of the energyrequired by a new development mustbe provided by renewable energyequipment on site.
  54. 54. Order of preference1. Reduce demand for energy2. Efficient supply3. On-site renewable generation
  55. 55. Eco-minimalism is not just aboutgood „green‟ value for money – butgood value for money as such. Thiscomes from eschewing overblownand often overspecified technologyin favour of sound science, commonsense and good housekeeping.Howard Liddell, Gaia
  56. 56. Combined heat and powerIs there a suitably constant all-yeardemand for the hot water?
  57. 57. District heatingWill the demand and thelayout make this efficient?
  58. 58. ConservatoriesSupposedly green, but most end up being wastefully heated.
  59. 59. Green roofsIs the constructionunderneath equallygreen?
  60. 60. Photovoltaic solar cellsAre there more cost-effective alternatives?
  61. 61. Recycled materialsHow much energy willthe recycling use?
  62. 62. Reed bedsIs this a good use of space?
  63. 63. Timber claddingHow green is its sourcing,treatment and detailing?
  64. 64. Wind turbinesIs the site windy enough? If so, why build there?
  65. 65. Architecture and townscapeHow successfully will thedevelopment be integrated intoits setting?How well will the building relateto human scale and the scaleof its surroundings?How attractive will thedevelopment be?
  66. 66. Aspects of architectureand townscape
  67. 67. Aspects of architectureand townscape• Integration• Scale• Layout• Expression and honesty• Proportion• Order• Materials• Detail• Style
  68. 68. TeamFind out whetherthe proposal hasbeen designed bya person or teamwith design trainingand with a trackrecord of gooddesign
  69. 69. QUALITYREVIEWERUnderstand the implementation
  70. 70. ExecutionAssess whether thedesign is likely to bewell executed
  71. 71. Management and maintenanceConsider whether the developmentwill be well managed andmaintained
  72. 72. QUALITYREVIEWERMake the decision Yes!
  73. 73. Information and adviceObtain any further information that theprevious stages have shown is neededfor a proper assessment of the proposal
  74. 74. Getting help with the assessment• ATLAS• BREEAM and other environmental assessments• Building for Life• Code for Sustainable Homes• Design Quality Indicator• Design review• Secured by Design
  75. 75. A balanced decision
  76. 76. 1. What is special about the place?2. How should policy and guidance be applied?3. What is the design concept?4. How significant is the scheme‟s impact likely to be?5. What are the design‟s strengths and weaknesses?6. Does the design team have the right skills and approach?7. How can we ensure that the design will be well executed?8. Is the scheme likely to be well managed and maintained?9. Do we need more information and advice?10. Is the design good enough?
  77. 77. www.qualityreviewer.co.ukhttp://skills.homesandcommunities.co.uk/qualityreviewerwww.urbandesignskills.com
  78. 78. www.streetwisepress.com
  79. 79. www.urbandesignskills.com

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