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Empathy northampton 30 nov 2011
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Empathy northampton 30 nov 2011

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  • This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near- Infrared Spectroscopy.To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children’s processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one.This mig
  • Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp
  • Montag, C., J. Gallinat, et al. (2008). "Theodor Lipps and the Concept of Empathy: 1851-1914." Am J Psychiatry165(10): 1261-.
  • Montag, C., J. Gallinat, et al. (2008). "Theodor Lipps and the Concept of Empathy: 1851-1914." Am J Psychiatry165(10): 1261-.

Empathy northampton 30 nov 2011 Empathy northampton 30 nov 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Judging empathyDigby TantamNew School of Psychotherapy andCounselling//Dilemma Consultancy//Universities of Sheffield and Cambridge
  • • Contrasts ―sympathy and antipathy‖ • ―An idea leading to an impression‖ (when we imagine being someone else we feel like them) (the root for Adam Smith of fellow feeling) • RELATION, ACQUAINTANCE, andDavid Hume: RESEMBLANCE Treatise of • But sympathy with a widowed mother (but not a father) diminishes if she marries againHuman Nature • Hume unconvincingly says that the impression has to be returned to be effective, and if mother remarries it gets lost in her second husband • Another possibility is that we can stop ourselves empathizing if we feel estranged from them. www.nspc.org.uk 2
  • David Hume: Treatise of Human Nature• ―the minds of men are mirrors to one another, not only because they reflect each others emotions, but also because those rays of passions, sentiments and opinions may be often reverberated and decay away by insensible degrees‖• The passions are so contagious, that they pass with the greatest facility from one person to another, and produce correspondent movements in all human breasts www.nspc.org.uk 3
  • Adam Smith• See things from another person‘s point of view, and by their values• But only if those values are those with which we can identify: they are within the ―human community‖ Agosta, L. (2011) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: an inhuman murderer01/12/2011 www.nspc.org.uk 4
  • The orbitofrontal cortex as cache? fNIRS evidenceBrink, T. T., Urton, K., Held, D., Kirilina, E., Hofmann, M. J., Klann-Delius, G., et al. (2011). The role of orbitofrontal cortex in processing empathy stories in 4- to 8-year-old children. Front Psychol, 2, 80. Negative affective empathy Positive affective empathy Logical cognitive empathy Non- logical cognitive empathy
  • Gaze following and theinterbrain
  • The Wright brothers SynchronyArmies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities for example,marching, singing, and dancing that lead group members to act in synchrony with eachother.….Across three experiments,people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economicexercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positiveemotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the resultssuggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening socialattachment among group membersWiltermuth and Heath, 2009, Psychological Science
  • Schurmann M, Hesse MD, Stephan KE, Saarela M, Zilles K, Hari R, et al. Yearning to yawn: the neural basis of contagious yawning. Neuroimage. [doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.10.022]. 2005;24(4):1260-4.
  • 01/12/2011 www.nspc.org.uk 10
  • EMG responses in patient G.Y. (A) Mean responses in the ZM for seen stimuli. Tamietto M et al. PNAS 2009;106:17661-17666©2009 by National Academy of Sciences
  • Factors that influence Hume‘s mirroring• Paying interested attention – to the other person as a person rather than as a curiosity – Looking at the eyes for facial expression (influences unconscious and conscious processing) – Possibly attentive listening – Body isomorphism for paying attention to the body – All of these are ‗counselling skills‘ known to increase empathy• Inferences too about other people‘s state of mind from the direction of their gaze01/12/2011 www.nspc.org.uk 12
  • Jan Swammerdam, Author of De Bybel der Natuure22 May 09 ARC club and book launch
  • Knowing about the world using non-verbal cues Who is being shot? Terrorists or partisans? Goya, Francisco The Shootings of May Third 1808 181422 May 09 ARC club and book launch
  • 22 May 09 Edouard Manet. The Execution of Maximilian. 1868–69. ARC club and book launch
  • Skipping some steps, many of which Have been filled in by neuroimaging: Emotional contagion generalizes into feeling akin to movements that can be imitated. So for Lipps became an aesthetic principle But for later psychologists, firstly Vischer and then theTheodore Lipps, American George TitchenerTranslator of David Hume, from whom he tookthe notion of ‗sympathy‘ It led to an explanation of why we have ‗fellow feeling‘ and how we distinguish animated objects with souls from soul-less objects
  • Lipps argued that ‗Einfühlung’ allowed us to perceive nature and know about the feelings of other peopleWe think of the lines not being parallel because wethink of one line wanting to go towards the other:empathy can be misleading
  • What is the difference between empathy and sympathy?• Remember the very rapid • But we may accurately facial responses? respond to empathy, but react without pity or compassion or• We can suppress them by an simply not take action on our act of will, but responses• The amplitude of the rapid • Pity, compassion, or the response is also correlated readiness to interfere are all with self-ratings of linked to how the term ‗dispositional empathy‘ ‗sympathy‘ is currently used• We can withold our empathic • Sympathy may not always be responding appropriate01/12/2011 www.nspc.org.uk 18
  • What Hume originally meant by sympathy• Theory of mind (ToM)• Perspective-taking• Cognitive empathy• Imagination—or as we would say, ‗narrative ability‘
  • Exercising the narrative ability• How supple are our stories• Do we extract objective principles from stories or also subjective reasons:• In his Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, Soren Kierkegaard concluded that ‗subjectivity is truth‘: but that is the subjectivity of the other, and not the self www.nspc.org.uk 20
  • Fig. 2.Results from Study 2: the interactive effect ofMachiavellian ism and emotion- regulationknowledge in predictinginterpersonal deviance.Côté S et al.PsychologicalScience2011;22:1073-1080Copyright © by Association for Psychological Science
  • Some factors that emerge as possibly relevant to empathizing• Better at paying personal attention – Means more tolerance of factors the inhibit attention like disgust or shame• Better at picking up cues, especially blended ones – Means not just focussing on main expression, but noting masked ones• More able to reflect on what these cues or stories might mean without judging – Using ‗judging‘ in its everyday sense of rejecting justifications• Less willing than Adam Smith to conclude that there are some people who are outside the human tribe – Talking about those who are different, or just talking• Being less Machiavellian
  • Even more complications• Machiavellianism – NOT ‗honesty is the best policy‘ – BUT ‗the best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear‘ – OR ‗it is safest to assume that all people have a vicious streak and it will come out when they are given a chance‘ from the 20 item MACH IV scale by Christie and Geis, 1974• Linked to sales volume but not customer satisfaction• Ethics www.nspc.org.uk 23
  • Blind spots: when antipathy kicks in• Empathy may be generally diminished, but this is rare• Most likely that there is selective ‗blind spot‘• For example, Hume‘s example of the remarried mother• In psychotherapy, dealt with in supervision www.nspc.org.uk 24
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VsNfnq95mrE&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=se749koezXchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4-sXODP6J8 www.nspc.org.uk 25