Age of Exploration and Treaty of Tordesillas

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Age of Exploration and Treaty of Tordesillas

  1. 1. Age of Exploration andAge of Exploration and Treaty of TordesillasTreaty of Tordesillas
  2. 2. Marco……POLO!!!Marco……POLO!!! Marco Polo, an Italian explorer returned to Venice, Italy from China in 1295. He wrote a book describing the China (The far east) as a magnificent place filled with riches and resources. 200 years later, Kings from Europe were allowing explorers to look for these resources and valuable materials (gold).
  3. 3. A growing interestA growing interest Most Europeans had no idea the Western hemisphere existed Goods from the Far East began appearing in European markets and people started becoming interested in distant land.
  4. 4. Treaty of TordesillasTreaty of Tordesillas
  5. 5. Who and Why?Who and Why? Signed between Spain and Portugal ◦ June 7, 1494 ◦ Ratified by Spain July 2nd. ◦ Agreed to by Portugal on September 5th . Designed to divide the world outside Europe. Intended to resolve disputes between the two powers when Columbus returned in 1493. Talks were conducted because of a papal decree.
  6. 6. Terms to knowTerms to know Meridian: A line of longitude running north-south through the poles and measured east to west. Statute mile (Our mile): 5,280 feet. Nautical mile: 6,076 feet. About 15% longer than a mile. League: 3 nautical miles. Bull: A decree or order issued by the Pope.
  7. 7. PapalPapal Bull Inter CaeteraBull Inter Caetera by Pope Alexander VIby Pope Alexander VI All lands west of a meridian 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands would belong to Spain. ( 345 miles). All discovered lands east of the line would belong to Portugal. All territory currently under Christian rule would remain untouched.
  8. 8. Time to NegotiateTime to Negotiate King John of Portugal was not happy! ◦ Wanted the line moved west. ◦ Told Spain that since it would go all the way around the world, it would limit Spanish control in Asia. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed. Their treaty countered the papal Bull ◦ Uncontested by Pope Alexander VI ◦ Sanctioned by Pope Julius II in a new Bull in 1506.
  9. 9. Terms of the TreatyTerms of the Treaty Moved the line to a position 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands (1,277 miles). Portugal gained a larger portion of South America: Brazil. Spain gained control (on paper) of most of the New World.
  10. 10. And we thought we had problems!And we thought we had problems! No one really knew where the boundary line was because: ◦ Didn’t know which side of the Cape Verde Islands they were to measure from, east or west? (difference of 193 miles). ◦ Was it Cape Verde or Capo Verde on Africa’s western coast? Measurement of a league was different in different countries. ◦ Portuguese maritime leagues were different from Portuguese land leagues! ◦ Portuguese leagues were different from Spanish, French, and English leagues! ◦ Old leagues were different from New leagues in Portugal!
  11. 11. After the TreatyAfter the Treaty Portugal discovers Brazil by accident in 1500. Cabral The line wasn’t enforced by the Spanish so the Portuguese encroached deep into South America. France, England, and the Netherlands were refused access.
  12. 12. DisputesDisputes Francis I of France wanted the Pope to show him “The clause in Adam’s will excluding his authority from the New World.” Initially, the only option left to France, England, and the Netherlands was piracy. Later, these countries rejected the Pope’s authority. Magellan’s voyage around the globe spurred a new problem: Where should the line be on the other side of the world?
  13. 13. A view of the TreatiesA view of the Treaties
  14. 14. QUESTIONSQUESTIONS ????????????????

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