Endocrine System<br />Mark Paola<br />
Postprandial<br />The term Postprandial means after meals. This term is used mostly for those people, Type one or two diab...
What is Diabetes?<br />Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the action of insulin, ins...
Normal Body Cell Function<br />Normally, insulin molecules bind to the body’s cell receptors. When activated by insulin, p...
Diabetic Body Cell Function<br />Without insulin, portals are not opened. As a result, glucose is not able to enter the ce...
Types of Glucose Tests<br />FPG- Fasting Plasma Glucose- The blood glucose level after abstaining from eating for 8-12 hou...
American Diabetes Association(ADA)<br />ADA Standards of Care A1C Level and Mean plasma Glucose Level Correlations<br />
Polyuria<br />Polyuria is the excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) resulting profuse urin...
Causes of Polyuria<br />Based on the ADA, there are 277 diseases alone that may cause polyuria.<br />The obvious causes wo...
Polyuria Can Lead To<br />Dehydration, weight loss, poly dispa, polyphagia, nocturia, CHF, Insomnia, Venous insufficiency,...
How to Control Polyuria<br />Monitor fluid intakes during the day and evening.<br />Stay away from high caffeine and sugar...
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Endocrine system

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. Endocrine System<br />Mark Paola<br />
  2. 2. Postprandial<br />The term Postprandial means after meals. This term is used mostly for those people, Type one or two diabetes patients who may be watching or monitoring their glycemic control levels anywhere from 1 to 2 hours after a meal. <br />Diabetic patient’s goal is to maintain a normal glycemic (sugar) level.<br />
  3. 3. What is Diabetes?<br />Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the action of insulin, insufficient insulin secretion or both. <br />
  4. 4. Normal Body Cell Function<br />Normally, insulin molecules bind to the body’s cell receptors. When activated by insulin, portal open to allow glucose to enter the cells, where it is converted to energy. <br />Normally, in response to a rise blood glucose levels, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. Type 2 diabetes is due to insulin resistance and or relative deficiency. Type 1 diabetes, there is an absolute deficiency in production of insulin in the pancreas. <br />
  5. 5. Diabetic Body Cell Function<br />Without insulin, portals are not opened. As a result, glucose is not able to enter the cells to be converted to energy. As a result of a Type 2 diabetes, cells don’t get enough energy. This causes glucose to build up in the blood vessels, resulting in damage to all body organs. <br />It’s crucial that Diabetes patients monitor their blood glucose levels several times a day. Blood glucose is the level of glucose (sugar) found in the bloodstream. It is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl)<br />
  6. 6. Types of Glucose Tests<br />FPG- Fasting Plasma Glucose- The blood glucose level after abstaining from eating for 8-12 hours, (usually overnight)<br />PPG- Postprandial Plasma Glucose- The blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after a meal. <br />IFG- Impaired Fasting Glucose- A condition in which blood glucose test, taken after an 8-12 hour fast, shows a level of glucose higher than normal but not normal enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IFG, also called pre-diabetes, is an FPG level of 100mg/dl to 125mg/dl. <br />IGT-Impaired Glucose Tolerance- A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IGT, also called pre-diabetes, is a level of 140mg/dl to 199 mg/dl 2 hours after the start of an oral glucose tolerance test. <br />Hemoglobin A1C Test- Hemoglobin A1C reflects the mean blood glucose concentration over the preceding 2 to 3 months. <br />
  7. 7. American Diabetes Association(ADA)<br />ADA Standards of Care A1C Level and Mean plasma Glucose Level Correlations<br />
  8. 8. Polyuria<br />Polyuria is the excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) resulting profuse urination and urinary frequency. <br />Polyuria is not a disease but more of a symptom.<br />
  9. 9. Causes of Polyuria<br />Based on the ADA, there are 277 diseases alone that may cause polyuria.<br />The obvious causes would be drinking a large amount of fluids during the day and especially after 7:00pm.<br />Drinking large amounts of alcohol and caffeine<br />Patients on certain medications that may cause polyuria- diuretics, lithium, blood pressure medication, diabetes patients, myeloma, liver disease, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis and even antibiotics may cause polyuria. <br />
  10. 10. Polyuria Can Lead To<br />Dehydration, weight loss, poly dispa, polyphagia, nocturia, CHF, Insomnia, Venous insufficiency, Hypoabluminemia, Diabetes<br />Polyuria is a possible sign of diabetes along with Polyphagia, polydypsia, fatigue, blurred vision, wounds that are slow to heal and itching of the skin. <br />
  11. 11. How to Control Polyuria<br />Monitor fluid intakes during the day and evening.<br />Stay away from high caffeine and sugar drinks and limit alcohol intake.<br />Monitor time that one takes certain medications.<br />Exercise and monitor time of day that one may exercise. <br />Monitor sleeping patterns and eating after 7:00 PM. <br />Limit food and fluid intake during this time. <br />
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