Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) Question: what is the relationshipbetween leaders & followers & how does that affect response? • News • Quiz • Multiple-Linkage Model • Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) & Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) • Team Task
Multiple-Linkage Model (Yukl, 1994)• Recognizes complexity in formal organizations• Incorporates other theories• Leaders have short (tactical) and long term (strategic) impact• Short term relies on skillful correction of deficiencies of intervening variables in the work unit• Long term relies on leader changing situational variables to be more favorable (e.g., strategic planning, policy formation, program development, organizational change, political activity, etc. )
Short-term Long-termExtent to which these areappropriately used will reflect theleader’s success
Yukl’s Multiple Linkage Model
Leader Leader Variables characteristics Personal power Modification of • Technical • Expert Yukl’s Model • Cognitive • Reference • Social • Connection • Personality • Motivation • Values Individual /group behavior, capabilities Leader Influence & performance Essential Secondary behavior • Directive • Task role clarity Outcomes outcomes • Contingent Direct • Task proficiency • Mission success • Professional image • Analysis • Ach-oriented • Motivation & effort • Member well being & & reputation • Intent • Persuasive confidence commitment • Trust & confidence formation • Facilitative • Teamwork & cohesion • Internal integration in Ldr • Supportive • Professional conduct • External adaptability • Support for the Ldr • Participative • Resilience • Delegative Position power Task, group, system, • Legitimate institution & environ. Uncontrollable factors • Reward characteristics • Coercive • Resources • Information • Structures • Ecological • Procedures• Responsibilities • Climate and culture• Constraints • Strategic capabilities• Opportunities • Professional attributes Situational Variables • External relationships http://www.cda.forces.gc.ca/cfli-ilfc/lea/conc/ch8-eng.asp
Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) / Leader- Member Relations (LMX)• Think of a work/team situation in which there have been an “in-group (close to the boss) and “out-group” (well established but just not given those special tasks)• How what influenced the formation of those two groups?• What did the boss expect of each group? How did s/he treat them differently?• What were advantages and disadvantages of being in each group?• How did the groups perceive each other?• What was the effect on the work environment & relationships?
Vertical-Dyad Linkage (VDL) Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) (Dansereau, Cashman, & Graen, 1973)• While most leadership theories account for the impact of leadership on groups or the organization as a whole, Leader-Member Exchange Theory uniquely focuses on the Leader-Follower dyad.• Not every follower is treated the same by the leader due to time and resources. This differential treatment, expectation, and exchange separates followers into two groups: the “in-group” and “out- group”• Interaction varies from dyad to dyad, exchanging privilege for performance, & focuses on quality of Perceptions of the interaction “out-group” when LMX• Negotiating latitude: as relationship evolves, the is not going well leader enables the role incumbent to further define his/her own role
The Role theory of Katz and Kuhn (1966) is the original theoretical base of the LMX (Graen, 1976). Leaders accomplish their work through role sets, in which the leader is most influential. The leader communicates to the member a set of expectations regarding the appropriate role behavior of the member (role expectation). The member then receives and interprets these sent expectations (received role) and may modify his or her role behavior. Finally, the members role behavior transmits feedback to the leader (monitored behavior). Burns and Otte (1999) describe the three stages:Phase 1: Role-taking as leaders and members come to understand how the other views anddesires respect, the leader communicates role expectations to the member, with noreciprocal contribution from the member.Phase 2: Role-making is the trust that develops in order for leaders and members to furtherextend the relationship and influence over each others attitudes and behaviors. Bothcontribute to role re-definition and this is where in/out work groups are differentiatedPhase 3: Role-routinization of the social exchange pattern becomes established androutine http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/power_and_leadership.htm
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Vertical-Dyad Linkage (VDL) Leader • Comply with basic role requirements • Accept legitimate direction • Standard benefits and compensation Perceived• Inside information • Unstructured tasks Equity or• Influence decisions • Volunteer extra• Task assignment • Additional Inequity • Alienation• Job latitude responsibilities • Apathy• Support • Special projects • Hostility• Attention • Low performance Other Subordinates-- Subordinate Viewed as having less •Leadership potential •Competency potential, interest, or •Compatibility opportunity •Agreement •Personality “In-Group” “Out-Group” •Loyalty High----Negotiating Latitude-----Low •Commitment High Power Leaders give more negotiating latitude to high power employees)
Strengths & Weaknesses of LMXStrengths of LMX • As a descriptive theory, it notes the importance of the existence of in-groups and out-groups within an organization • The LMX theory is unique as the only leadership theory that makes the the dyadic relationship the central factor of the leadership process • LMX directs our attention to the importance of leadership communication and relationships • Research substantiates how the practice of the LMX theory is related to positive organizational outcomes http://www.d.umn.edu/~stau0106/group/LMX.doc
Weaknesses of LMX• The LMX theory runs counter to basic human belief in fairness: It gives the appearance of discrimination against groups that don’t receive the special attention• The basic ideas and theory are not fully developed: details of compatibility of personality, interpersonal skills, how trust is developed, etc., are not presented or discussed how important they are compared to other constructs• Few empirical studies have used dyadic measures to analyze the LMX process• Measurement scales lack content validity (may lack what they intended to measure) and unclear whether they measure single or many dimensions http://www.d.umn.edu/~stau0106/group/LMX.doc
What makes a good “follower”?
Team Discussion• Pick a case you are familiar with that involves in/out group dynamics• Use the theory to analyze what went well/not well and why• If you were a trainer or consultant to this leader, write out a series of recommendations about what should be changed to improve the situation (consider selection criteria for subordinates, how in/out groups are framed, equity issues, opportunities to break into the in-group, dealing with alienation, etc.)