Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations C H A P T E R 2
Customer Service at Singapore Air
Singapore Airlines provides exceptional customer service by paying attention to the four drivers of individual behavior and performance: motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors (MARS).
Courtesy of Singapore Airlines
MARS Model of Behavior and Performance Individual Behavior and Performance Motivation Role Perceptions Situational Factors Ability
Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior:
M A R S BAR
Competencies -- personal characteristics that lead to superior performance
select qualified people
develop employee abilities through training
redesign job to fit person's existing abilities
M A R S BAR Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
Employee Role Perceptions
Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results
Understanding what tasks to perform
Understanding relative importance of tasks
Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks
M A R S BAR
Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior
M A R S BAR
Types of Work-Related Behavior Types of Work-Related Behavior Joining the Organization Remaining with the Organization Maintaining Work Attendance Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship Performing Required Tasks
Definition of Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment.
We “operate” on the environment
Alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences.
Operant versus respondent behaviors
Law of effect
Likelihood that an operant behavior will be repeated depends on its consequences
A-B-Cs of Behavior Modification Example Consequences What happens After behavior Employee receives attendance bonus Behavior What person says or does Employee attends scheduled work Antecedents What happens before behavior Attendance bonus system is announced
Contingencies of Reinforcement Behavior Increases/ Maintained Behavior Decreases Consequence is Introduced Consequence is Removed Punishment Positive reinforcement Extinction Punishment Negative reinforcement No Consequence
Schedules of Reinforcement Behaviors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Continuous Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval
Behavior Mod at Nova Chemicals
Nova Chemicals’ million dollar “recruitment and retention program” cut absenteeism rates by 25 percent and improved long-term employment at its Canadian construction site.