0
Topics To Be Covered 
• Introduction 
• Composition & Synthesis 
• Types of Plastic & Their Uses 
• Disadvantages 
• Stati...
Introduction 
The word plastic is derived from the Greek (plastikos) 
meaning capable of being shaped or molded. 
Plastic...
Oxygen,200 °C 
Composition 
Ethene Polythene (LDPE) 
(CH2=CH2) 2000 atm ([-CH2-CH2-]n) 
Most plastics contain organic poly...
Composition 
Plastics that are made up of polymers 
having only aliphatic (linear) C atoms 
in their backbone chains. Ex -...
Classification 
Thermoplastic 
Thermosetting 
• Plastics that do not undergo 
chemical change in their 
composition when h...
Reaction On Heating 
Thermoplastic 
Uses includes 
plastic wrap, food 
containers, 
lighting panels, 
garden hoses, and 
t...
Classification 
Type Expansion Uses 
PEPT 
HDPE 
PVC 
LDPE 
PP 
PS 
Poly Ethylene Pterephthalat 
High-density polyethylene...
Types of Plastic products 
 PLASTIC BAGS 
 COATINGS 
 FURNITURE 
 SHEETS 
 FITTINGS 
 TANKS 
 TOYS 
 BUCKETS 
 SA...
POLLUTANTS FROM PLASTIC 
Plastics Release Pollutants: 
•Poly brominated di-phenyl ethers (PBDE) 
•Nonylphenolls 
•Bisphen...
Why is there ‘so much’ Plastic Pollution?? 
We currently recover only 5% of the plastics we produce. 
Pollution exists t...
Who is Affected? 
The species that is most affected is the 
marine, aquatic population. 
To a sea turtle, a floating plas...
Who is Affected? 
0.05% of plastic pieces from surface 
waters are pellets 
They comprise about 70% of the plastic 
eate...
Plastic Statistics 
Plastics Consumption Worldwide
Plastics > Statistics 
Each year, an estimated 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed 
worldwide. That's over...
World plastic Production 
Plastics > Statistics 
The per capita consumption of 
plastic in the country is 10.2 kg in 
201...
Agriculture 
7% 
Transport 
8% 
Furniture/Houseware 
8% 
Electrical and Electronics 
8% 
Building and 
Construction 
23% 
...
Plastics > Statistics 
Plastic Bag Statistics 
Total number of plastic bags used worldwide annually 1 trillion 
Total numb...
Is It Really Harmful?? 
Yes, it is.. 
 When we eat or drink things stored in plastic, 
plastic is incorporated into us. 
...
How does plastic waste impact oceans? 
Plastic is accumulating at an alarming rate in our 
oceans - wreaking havoc on wild...
What Is Great Pacific Garbage Patch? 
•An island of plastic 6 times the size 
of Vietnam in Central North Pacific 
Ocean. ...
Impact on Environment 
 Plastic is ubiquitous in our lives because 
it is convenient and relatively inexpensive. 
 Its c...
Disadvantages of Plastic Bottles 
Hard to 
Decompo 
se 
DISADVANTAGES 
Non- 
Renewa 
ble 
Hard to 
Reuse 
Difficult 
to 
R...
Disadvantages of Plastic Bottles 
Difficult To Recycle Glass bottles can be melted and 
easily reused, as can tin cans. 
R...
Disadvantages of Plastic Products 
As many as 100,000 whales, 
turtles and birds have been 
reported to die every year, 
...
ALTERNATIVES 
Plastic bags take between 15 to 1000 
years to degrade. 
The detoxins and other chemical 
pollutants relea...
What We Can Do? 
Say NO to plastic check-out bags whilst shopping and buy reusable 
bags or bring your own for your shoppi...
5R’s for Plastics!! 
1. Reduce 
2. Reuse 
3. Recycle 
4. Rebuy 
AVOID 
REDUCE 
REUSE 
RECYCLE 
RECOVER 
TREAT 
DISPOSE 
EE...
OUR RESPONSIBILITY 
It's impossible to eliminate most plastic from daily life, but it's 
prudent for our health & environ...
Plastic Waste Management 
Sorting 
EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Ch...
Plastic Waste Management 
 Disposing of plastic waste is trickier than 
dealing with traditional landfill material. 
Not...
Future of Plastic 
Biodegradable plastic seems to show some light, 
however, they too come with certain 
disadvantages. W...
What Can We Do To Save Our Environment? 
 The two best changes we can do are: 
 Use less plastics 
 To reuse plastics w...
Conclusion 
• Enormous quantities of plastic are produced and used. 
• It is convenient (use and throw away). 
• Although ...
Think…. Respond…. & Act NOW SAVE EARTH
CS-1|| EEES Presentation|| Plastic Waste & Management 
Written & Designed By : ANKIT MISHRA 
Guided by : Dr. Sadhana Vishw...
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Plastic Pollution Presentation By AnkitMishra

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Plastic Pollution Presentation
Author : Ankit Mishra
Topic : Plastic Waste & Management

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Transcript of "Plastic Pollution Presentation By AnkitMishra"

  1. 1. Topics To Be Covered • Introduction • Composition & Synthesis • Types of Plastic & Their Uses • Disadvantages • Statistics • Impact on Environment • Plastic Waste Management • Measures To Be Taken • Conclusion EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  2. 2. Introduction The word plastic is derived from the Greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded. Plastics are a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products that can be molded into a permanent object having the property of plasticity. Properties of Plastics Resistant Durable Insulator Inexpensive About 100 million tones of plastic is produced each year. Easy to produce EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  3. 3. Oxygen,200 °C Composition Ethene Polythene (LDPE) (CH2=CH2) 2000 atm ([-CH2-CH2-]n) Most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well.  Most plastics contain Additives (0 to 50%). The average content of additives is 20% by weight of the polymer.  Fillers are used to improve performance and to reduce costs.  Stabilizers like fire retardants are used to lower the flammability of the material. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  4. 4. Composition Plastics that are made up of polymers having only aliphatic (linear) C atoms in their backbone chains. Ex - polypropylene polypropylene Plastics that are made up of heterochain polymers contain O, N, S in their backbone chains, in addition to C. Ex - polycarbonate polycarbonate Plastic behaviour of polymers is influenced by their morphology (arrangement of molecules ). They’re either amorphous or crystalline. Most thermosets are amorphous, while thermoplastics may be amorphous or semi crystalline. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  5. 5. Classification Thermoplastic Thermosetting • Plastics that do not undergo chemical change in their composition when heated and can be molded again and again. • Thermosets are permanently "set" once they're initially formed and can't be melted. 80% of the plastics produced are thermoplastics and of these Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene and Polyvinylchoride (PVC) are most commonly used (70%) EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  6. 6. Reaction On Heating Thermoplastic Uses includes plastic wrap, food containers, lighting panels, garden hoses, and the plastic bag. Thermoset Uses includes kitchen tools, glues, varnishes, electronic components (circuit boards). EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  7. 7. Classification Type Expansion Uses PEPT HDPE PVC LDPE PP PS Poly Ethylene Pterephthalat High-density polyethylene Polyvinyl chloride Low-density polyethylene Polypropylene -P Polystyrene Fizzy drink bottles and oven-ready meal trays Bottles for milk and washing-up liquids. Food trays, bottles for squash, mineral water and shampoo. Carrier bags and bin liners. Microwaveable meal trays, margarine tubs Pots, trays, boxes ,cartons, cups, plastic cutlery, packaging , toys EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  8. 8. Types of Plastic products  PLASTIC BAGS  COATINGS  FURNITURE  SHEETS  FITTINGS  TANKS  TOYS  BUCKETS  SANITARYWARE  STATIONERY EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  9. 9. POLLUTANTS FROM PLASTIC Plastics Release Pollutants: •Poly brominated di-phenyl ethers (PBDE) •Nonylphenolls •Bisphenol A •Phthalates Plastics Absorb Hydrophobic Pollutants: •Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) •Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloro ethane (DDT) •Dichloro Diphenyl Dichloro ethylene (DDE) PVC when burned result in emissions of the deadly poisons named dioxin. Dioxins are highly persistent compounds, with the potential to become increasingly concentrated in living tissues as they move up the food chain. It is often considered to be the man-made compound most toxic to animals. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  10. 10. Why is there ‘so much’ Plastic Pollution?? We currently recover only 5% of the plastics we produce. Pollution exists today due to the society's lack of environmental awareness & the ease of simply littering plastics. 
  11. 11. Who is Affected? The species that is most affected is the marine, aquatic population. To a sea turtle, a floating plastic bag looks like a jellyfish. When they eat these plastics, it clogs their intestines, and they miss out on vital nutrients, and ultimately starve to death. Other types of loose plastics entangle birds, fish and mammals, making it difficult, if not impossible to move or eat, which too leads to their ultimate demise. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  12. 12. Who is Affected? 0.05% of plastic pieces from surface waters are pellets They comprise about 70% of the plastic eaten by seabirds. These plastic particles have been found in the stomachs of 63 of the world's approximately 250 species of seabirds. Birds and other marine animals gets trapped in plastic shopping bags, which suffocate them to death. Plastic bags and other plastic garbage thrown into the ocean kill as many as 1 million sea creatures every year. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  13. 13. Plastic Statistics Plastics Consumption Worldwide
  14. 14. Plastics > Statistics Each year, an estimated 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide. That's over 1 million plastic bags used per minute. Scientists estimate that every square mile of ocean contains about 46,000 pieces of floating plastic. Plastic bags can take up to 1,000 years to break down. At least 267 different species are known to have suffered from entanglement or ingestion of plastic marine debris. Only 14% of plastic water bottles are recycled. Packaging now accounts for 1/3 of all household waste. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  15. 15. World plastic Production Plastics > Statistics The per capita consumption of plastic in the country is 10.2 kg in 2012. It is expected to go up to 12 kg by 2014. By 2012, India is also projected to be the third largest consumer market for plastic goods with a consumption of 12.5 million tonnes per annum, behind US and China. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  16. 16. Agriculture 7% Transport 8% Furniture/Houseware 8% Electrical and Electronics 8% Building and Construction 23% Plastics > Statistics Footwear 1% Packaging 35% Medical 2% Mechanical Engineering 2% Toys/Sports 3% Other 3% Percentage of Plastic used in different fields EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  17. 17. Plastics > Statistics Plastic Bag Statistics Total number of plastic bags used worldwide annually 1 trillion Total number of plastic bags China consumes everyday 3 billion Total number of plastic bags used every minute 1 million Total number of years it takes for a plastic bag to degrade 1,000 years Total amount of plastic bags that were discarded in 2008 3.5 million tons Total amount of plastic floating in every square mile of ocean 46,000 pieces Average plastic bags consumed per family in 4 trips to the grocery store 60 Percent of plastic made every year that will end up in the ocean 10% Percent of household waste that is plastic 11% EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  18. 18. Is It Really Harmful?? Yes, it is..  When we eat or drink things stored in plastic, plastic is incorporated into us.  Plastic is one of the few chemical materials which pose environmental problem.  Plastic is biologically quite inert, hence regarded to be more an aesthetic nuisance than a hazard.  Plastic is cheap, it gets discarded easily, and, its persistence in the environment can do great harm.  It causes immune and enzyme disorders, hormonal disruption leading to endocrinal disorders and even infertility and is also considered as carcinogenic (cancer).  Not only human health, it dangerously effects other animal life and alters the environmental (air, water and soil) sustainability causing hazardous pollution. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  19. 19. How does plastic waste impact oceans? Plastic is accumulating at an alarming rate in our oceans - wreaking havoc on wildlife, polluting our beaches and entering our food chain. Our addiction to use-and-toss items is causing this growing problem. Plastic bags pose a serious danger to birds and marine animals that often mistake them for food. Thousands of marine animals and more than 1 million birds die each year as a result of plastic pollution. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  20. 20. What Is Great Pacific Garbage Patch? •An island of plastic 6 times the size of Vietnam in Central North Pacific Ocean. •Over 300,000 pieces of plastic/sq. mile. •Plastic outnumbers plankton 6 to 1. •80% of plastic from land-based sources, 20% from ships. Estimates of size range from 700,000 square km to more than 15,000,000 square km (0.41% to 8.1% of the size of the Pacific Ocean). EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  21. 21. Impact on Environment  Plastic is ubiquitous in our lives because it is convenient and relatively inexpensive.  Its convenience comes from being lightweight and its ability to absorb impact shock without breaking.  Plastics are so versatile in use that their impacts on environment are extremely wide ranging, posing serious challenge for disposal. Careless disposal of plastic bags chokes drains, blocks the porosity of the soil, and causes problems for groundwater recharge. Due to its non-biodegradable nature, littering of plastics causes irreversible damage to the environment. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  22. 22. Disadvantages of Plastic Bottles Hard to Decompo se DISADVANTAGES Non- Renewa ble Hard to Reuse Difficult to Recycle Threat to Animals Toxic Plastic bags, once ingested, cannot be digested or passed by an animal so it stays in the gut. Plastic in an animal’s gut can prevent food digestion and can lead to a very slow and painful death. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Plastic Bottles Difficult To Recycle Glass bottles can be melted and easily reused, as can tin cans. Recycling plastic is not so simple. Water bottles are often reused in the home but become less and less sturdy over time and are ultimately thrown away. Plastic is manufactured using oil by-products and natural gas, materials that could be used in numerous other applications. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  24. 24. Disadvantages of Plastic Products As many as 100,000 whales, turtles and birds have been reported to die every year, because of plastic in environment. Plastic not only have adverse effects on our natural habitats, but have also been found to be responsible for the death of many animals, mainly on account of the suffocation encountered on eating them. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  25. 25. ALTERNATIVES Plastic bags take between 15 to 1000 years to degrade. The detoxins and other chemical pollutants released from them are a Serious threat to be tackled. Paper , Cloth, Jute, Cane, etc., are the most preferable but still controversial. Designing eco-friendly, biodegradable plastics is the need of the hour. Though partially biodegradable plastics have been developed and used, completely biodegradable plastics based on renewable starch rather than petrochemicals have only recently been developed and are in the early stages of commercialization. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  26. 26. What We Can Do? Say NO to plastic check-out bags whilst shopping and buy reusable bags or bring your own for your shopping instead. Use Glass/Ceramic instead of plastic in Microwave. Replace plastic travel mugs with stainless steel for hot beverages. When you can’t avoid plastic, check container bottoms for recycling codes (in triangle with chasing arrows). Choose those easily recycled. Shop at the local farmer’s markets. Buy can instead of the plastic bottle . The amount of oil needed to produce a years worth of plastic packaging could fuel 480,000 cars for a year. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  27. 27. 5R’s for Plastics!! 1. Reduce 2. Reuse 3. Recycle 4. Rebuy AVOID REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE RECOVER TREAT DISPOSE EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  28. 28. OUR RESPONSIBILITY It's impossible to eliminate most plastic from daily life, but it's prudent for our health & environment to curb the use of some. Proper management for disposal and public awareness would bring a great difference in present situation. Overall reduction in plastic usage. Hand over plastics properly for recycling or disposal. Do not let plastic litter the environment. PLASTIC Act NOW …. SAVE EARTH EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  29. 29. Plastic Waste Management Sorting EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary Industrial Waste Commercial Waste Agricultural Waste Municipal Waste Collection >> Pipes,Tubes >> Miscelle -neous >> Bottles >> Bags, Sheets Extrusion Injection Moulding Blow Moulding Film Moulding Sorting Cleaning
  30. 30. Plastic Waste Management  Disposing of plastic waste is trickier than dealing with traditional landfill material. Not only plastic take thousands of years to break down, it can leach dangerous poison into the environment. Plastic is not going away, but how plastic waste is managed is becoming more sophisticated. Managing plastic waste starts at home with the consumer, but ultimately depends on governments around the world as well. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  31. 31. Future of Plastic Biodegradable plastic seems to show some light, however, they too come with certain disadvantages. When degraded, these emit harmful Co2 and methane. However, there is a recycled plastic curbstone, which acts as a substitute to building materials. “oxo-biodegradable” plastics are eco-friendly as when degraded they emit no methane. Many developing countries like India are banning plastic bags. Instead of banning them, the plastic bags should be utilized elsewhere. EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  32. 32. What Can We Do To Save Our Environment?  The two best changes we can do are:  Use less plastics  To reuse plastics when possible. Lead by example Ask your friends and family to join you Speak to city council Write letters to government officials Get your institute involved By using ONE reusable cloth bag, we can save up to 6 plastic bags a week that translates into 24 bags a month or 288 bags a year that amounts to 22,176 bags in an average lifetime.  EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  33. 33. Conclusion • Enormous quantities of plastic are produced and used. • It is convenient (use and throw away). • Although some plastics are recyclable, not enough is recycled. • Plastic waste pose a serious threat to environment. • Laws, economical measures and education help. Should we really put our own selfish needs before the needs of everything around us now and the lives of future generations? As a responsible citizen we must take precautions while using plastic products, reduce the consumption, and encourage others to do the same. ||THANK YOU   || EEES Presentation │Topic- Plastic Pollution & Management│ CS-1 | Ankit Mishra | Arun Choudhary
  34. 34. Think…. Respond…. & Act NOW SAVE EARTH
  35. 35. CS-1|| EEES Presentation|| Plastic Waste & Management Written & Designed By : ANKIT MISHRA Guided by : Dr. Sadhana Vishwakarma GROUP MEMBERS Ankit Mishra Arun Choudhary Bhupendra Dangi Bhuvnendra Soni Topic Plastic Waste & Management Institute Technocrats Institute Of Technology (Main), Bhopal fb.com/djankit007
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