Prefixes A. Negative Prefixes Being isolated, the prefixes (dis-, de-, il-, ir-, un-, im-and-in) are meaningless.But they convey a sense of negation when added to appropriate words. Please,consider the following examples.Examples: similar → dissimilar forestation → deforestation logical → illogical responsibility → irresponsibility familiar → unfamiliar precise → imprecise accurate → inaccuratePractice:1. Divide the following words into affixes and roots.decentralization, illegality, irreparably, depopulation, disapproval, irrationality,unable, immaturity, disharmony, unaffected, dissimilarity, deformed,uncomfortable, immeasurable, inadequately.2. Split the following words into affixes and roots.decode, illegible, irreconcilable, deregulation, unacceptable, disarm,irreplaceable, disloyal, immobility, disassociate, unaccompanied, degenerate,immodest, inadvisable.3. Divide the following words into affixes and roots.disappearance, decolonization, illegitimacy, irrecoverable, disapprove,desegregate, disingenuous, unaccustomed, irrepressible, disunity, degradation,unaccountable, immorality, unclassified, inattentive.
4. Divide the following words into affixes and roots.unable, decompose, unacknowledged, disintegrate, illiberal, deselection,disarrange, irredeemable, disequilibrium, unachievable, dehumanize,irreproachable, unchallengeable, immortality, incomparable.5. Divide the following words into affixes and roots.disadvantage, decompression, disband, irresolution, unacquainted, dishonest,devaluation, unadventurous, displeasure, irreducible, disused, demilitarize,uncertainty, immovable, incomprehension.Keys:1. word prefix Root suffixdecentralization de- central -ize, -ation.illegality il- legal -ityirreparably ir- repair -able, -ly.depopulation de- populate -iondisapproval dis- approve -alirrationality ir- ration -al, -ity.unable un- ableimmaturity im- mature -itydisharmony dis- harmonyunaffected un- affect -eddissimilarity dis- similar -itydeformed de- form -eduncomfortable un- comfort -ableimmeasurable im- measure -ableinadequately in- adequate -ly2. word prefix Root suffixdecode de- codeillegible il- legibleirreconcilable ir- reconcile -able
Suffixes A. Suffixes and Verbs The addition of the suffix –en to a number of adjectives results in theformation of their corresponding verbs. The suffix –en has no meaningalone and requires being attached to suitable adjectives to get verbs. Adjective + Suffix (–en) → VerbExamples:short + (-en) → shorten (V)wide + (-en )→ widen (V)Practice:Turn the following adjectives into verbs by adding the appropriatesuffix.sad, awaken, deep, dark, short, soft, rough, bright, tight, sharp, white,red, worse, quiet, hard.Key: adjective suffix verb sad sadden awake awaken deep deepen dark darken short shorten soft soften rough roughen bright -en brighten tight tighten sharp sharpen white whiten red redden worse worsen
quiet quieten hard harden B. Suffixes and Nouns A large number of nouns can be formed by adding particular suffixes toeither verbs or adjectives. V + Suffix (-ion, -tion, ition, -ation,-sion, -xion, -ment, -ing, -er, -or) → NounExamples:administrate→ administrationdeduce→ deductioninterpret→interpretation→itiondecide→ decisionconnect→connexion(or connection)achieve→ achievementcome→ comingspeak →speakeract →actor Adjective + Suffix (-ity, -ety, -ty, -ness) → NounExamples:sensitive →sensitivityproper →proprietyhonest→ honestyhelpful →helpfulness
Noun+ Suffix (-er, -ist) → NounExamples:astronomy→ astronomercartoon → cartoonistscience→ scientistPractice:1. Turn the following verbs into nouns by adding the appropriate suffix.arbitrate, arrange, assess, attack, attend, bake, begin, argue, assort, attach,call, campaign, counsel, counterfeit,2. Turn the following verbs into nouns by adding the appropriate suffix. evade, express, collect, imitate, interpret, contaminate, reduce, educate,converse, select, attract, innovate, construct.3. Turn the following adjectives into nouns by adding the appropriate suffix.sad, infirm, uniform, real, jealous, human, popular, electric, complex, fertile,feminine, happy, severe, passive, anxious, curious.4. Turn the following adjectives into nouns by adding the appropriate suffix.flexible, profitable, necessary, hospitable, stupid, moral, legal, responsible,probable, safe, personal, physical, able.
B. Suffixes and AdjectivesAdjectives can be formed with the addition of specific suffixes to verbs as wellas to nouns. Please consider the coming patterns. Verb + Suffix (-ed, -ible, -able…) → AdjectiveExamples:want →wantedreproduce→reproducibledrink→drinkable Noun + Suffix (-ic, -full, -ous, -less, -al, -y…) → AdjectiveExamples:atmosphere→ atmosphericwonder → wonderfulcourage→ courageousmotion → motionlesseducation→ educationalsmoke→ smokyPractice:1. Turn the following verbs into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix. break, cover, print, rely, eat, access, crack, justify, count, present, deliver,challenge.2. Turn the following verbs into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix.realize, note, move, like, predict, remedy, observe, comfort, discuss, change.3. Turn the following nouns into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix.
care, atom, drama, change, caprice, strategy, sympathy, beauty, politics,climate, job, economy, magic, mathematics, romance.4. Turn the following nouns into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix.danger, alcohol, home, syntax, grammar, regard, help, comedy, criticism,count, charisma, practice, courage, rhythm, therapy.5. Turn the following nouns into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix.guilt, blood, bog, mint, booze, cloud, bounce, breath, wood, breeze, brine,brood, milk, bubble, bulk, bush, carrot, count, rain, craft, crag, craze, creak.6. Turn the following nouns into adjectives by adding the appropriate suffix.ease, chalk, risk, smoke, fun, fur, fuss, fuzz, need, fruit, wealth, health, grease,film, flake, flesh, flint, streak, mess, spike.Keys:1. verb suffix adjectivebreak breakable/brokencover coveredprint printable/printedrely reliableeat eatable/eatenaccess accessiblejustify justifiable/justifiedcrack crackedcount -able/-ible/-ed countable/countedpresent presentable/presenteddeliver deliverable/deliveredchallenge challenged/challenging2.
craft crafty crag craggy craze crazy creak creaky6. noun suffix adjective ease easy chalk chalky risk risky smoke smoky fun funny fur furry fuss fussy fuzz fuzzy need needy fruit -y fruity wealth wealthy health healthy grease greasy film filmy flake flaky flesh fleshy flint flinty streak streaky mess messy spike spikyPrepositions A. Verb + PreposionExamples: believe + in → believe in complain + about → complain about
boast + of → boast ofPractice:1. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C- Some people still rely -the building of pyramids.- Aristotle and other philosophers -the ancient Mesopotamians.worked into -observing plants and animals- Archaeologists divided Egypt’s from and organizing them intohistory on different types.-The pharaohs put all the resources into -horses to travel long distances.- The idea of dividing an hour into 60 -six different time periods.minutes and a minute into 60seconds came2. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-The Egyptians worked - the Babylonian or Semitic stock.- In Sumerian times, even kings had like -carpets and hangings forto ask the Assembly for decoration.-The Phoenicians were a great race on - any one built before.which descended to -some new ideas in the 1000’s- Indian advances in iron-working from and 1100’s AD.led out -ways good ways to move water-because ancient Arabs were from the Nile to outlying farms innomadic, they had relied the desert.-The famous mosque at Samarta did -permission to do certain things.not look3. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-Embezzling is the act of takingmoney that has been placed in -regional laws and restrictions.your trust but belongs from -gifts offered in genuine good will?-What distinguishes bribes on -another person.
-The punishment for bribery at -the process of concealing financialdepends to transactions.-Money laundering refers -some common examples.- The best way to understandthe concept of moneylaundering is to look4. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-All citizens suffer-Tax evasion prevents thegovernment -counterfeiting.-When these funds are not for -their school timings.collected, services have to be with -collecting funds.curtailed and thus result in -a lower quality of life for all citizens.-Most mints around the world from -tax evasion.use a number of safety systemto protect their currency-Children can take up lightsummer jobs that do notinterfere5. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-The evolution of culture, and - their children the expectation thathuman beings as a species they will perform better than thedepended about pupils believe they are capable of.-Pupils will write with -the creation of examination stress.-Both the school and the family to -that experienced by high powered
can contribute on businessmen.-Experts compared this stress - the Algerian Revolution and its-One thing parents should aftermath.avoid is to impose -the practice of transmitting knowledge.Keys:1.- Some people still rely on horses to travel long distances.- Aristotle and other philosophers worked on observing plants and animals andorganizing them into different types.- Archaeologists divided Egypt’s history into six different time periods.-The pharaohs put all the resources into the building of pyramids.- The idea of dividing an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60 secondscame from the ancient Mesopotamians.2.-The Egyptians worked out ways good ways to move water from the Nile tooutlying farms in the desert.- In Sumerian times, even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to docertain things.-The Phoenicians were a great race which descended from the Babylonian orSemitic stock.- Indian advances in iron-working led to some new ideas in the 1000’s and1100’s AD.-Because ancient Arabs were nomadic, they had relied on carpets and hangingsfor decoration.-The famous mosque at Samarta did not look like any one built before.3.-Embezzling is the act of taking money that has been placed in your trust butbelongs to another person.
-What distinguishes bribes from gifts offered in genuine good will?-The punishment for bribery depends on regional laws and restrictions.-Money laundering refers to the process of concealing financial transactions.- The best way to understand the concept of money laundering is to look atsome common examples.4.-All citizens suffer from tax evasion.-Tax evasion prevents the government from collecting funds.-When these funds are not collected, services have to be curtailed and thusresult in a lower quality of life for all citizens.-Most mints around the world use a number of safety system to protect theircurrency from-Children can take up light summer jobs that do not interfere with their schooltimings.5.-The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on thepractice of transmitting knowledge.-Pupils will write about the Algerian Revolution and its aftermath.-Both the school and the family can contribute to the creation of examinationstress.-Experts compared this stress with that experienced by high poweredbusinessmen.-One thing parents should avoid is to impose on their children the expectationthat they will perform better than the pupils believe they are capable of.
B. Adjective + PrepositionExamples: aware + of → aware of interested + in → interested inPractice:1. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C- Closer contacts amongneighbours, friends and familieshad to be beneficial-The Greeks were very in -science as a way of organizing theinterested on world and making order out of chaos.-The ancient Sumerians of - the pharaoh and their country.invented a system of at - communal harmony.mathematics based for -astronomy.- The Babylonians were very - the number of 60.good-The ancient Egyptians grewvery proud2. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-Ancient Egyptian scientists -finding the patterns and rules inwere extremely good in mathematics and music.- Pythagoras was interested from -studying science.-The Nile was so important at - those of the Egyptians.-Greek women usually were of - observing nature and practicalthought to be incapable engineering.- The Greeks had developed -Egyptian farming.building styles different
3. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-The Phoenicians were earth’sfirst-known sailors andexplorers who were alwayseager -Arabic and Persian models.-The arrival of Islamic -inventing the numeral zero and theconquerors about 1000 AD from decimal system.brought to India iconoclasm for -is their architecture.and a love of varied and to -Islam.complex patterning derived -adventure.- This affected even Hindusartists who had not converted-Indian mathematicians mayhave been responsible-One of the things the Romansare famous4. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-Arabic scholars were able toread the books of Greek -creative accountingphilosophers Plato and to -other fields.Aristotle and translated them from -the ones built by the Greeks.-Because architects who lived like -Arabic.in Baghdad adopted Sassanian intoarchitectural traditions, theirbuildings looked very different-The term “window dressing”is similar-However, this term is broaderand can be applied
5. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-According to the World Bank, -corruption reduction.economic development is -the operation of essential services toclosely linked the population.-Particularly in countries which on -an error on calculating taxes onare based of reported income should contact the-The collected funds are used for tax agency.-Persons who become aware to -tax evasion, and allow the matter to-This will help to minimize the be settled before interest chargeschances of being suspected become significant. -egalitarian ideals, bribery is often viewed immensely offensive.6. Match parts from column A with parts from both columns B and C so thatyou get meaningful sentences. A B C-Most modern counterfeiting is - forthcoming examinations, it isfocused almost certain that the same fear will-Someone who is convicted of be passed on to the pupil him/herself.-Teachers who are specialized for -counterfeiting will spend at least a-Education as a science cannot about decade in prison.be separated in -competitive situations.-Parents should be concerned from -astrophysics, law or zoology, for-If a pupil senses that his or her on example, may teach only a certainparents are worried subject.-Regular and consistent -their offsprings’ career prospects.support is important to young -the educational traditions thatpeople involved existed before. -paper money, because it has a higher face value.
Keys:1.- Closer contacts among neighbours, friends and families had to be beneficialfor communal harmony.-The Greeks were very interested in science as a way of organizing the worldand making order out of chaos.-The ancient Sumerians invented a system of mathematics based on thenumber of 60.- The Babylonians were very good at astronomy.-The ancient Egyptians grew very proud of the pharaoh and their country.2.-Ancient Egyptian scientists were extremely good at observing nature andpractical engineering.- Pythagoras was interested in finding the patterns and rules in mathematicsand music.-The Nile was so important to Egyptian farming.-Greek women usually were thought to be incapable of studying science.- The Greeks had developed building styles different from those of theEgyptians.3.-The Phoenicians were earth’s first-known sailors and explorers who werealways eager for adventure.-The arrival of Islamic conquerors about 1000 AD brought to India iconoclasmand a love of varied and complex patterning derived from Arabic and Persianmodels.- This affected even Hindus artists who had not converted to Islam.-Indian mathematicians may have been responsible for inventing the numeralzero and the decimal system.-One of the things the Romans are famous for is their architecture.
4.-Arabic scholars were able to read the books of Greek philosophers Plato andAristotle and translated them into Arabic.-Because architects who lived in Baghdad adopted Sassanian architecturaltraditions, their buildings looked very different from the ones built by theGreeks.-The term “window dressing” is similar to creative accounting.-However, this term is broader and can be applied to other fields.5.-According to the World Bank, economic development is closely linked tocorruption reduction.-Particularly in countries which are based on egalitarian ideals, bribery is oftenviewed immensely offensive.-The collected funds are used for the operation of essential services to thepopulation.-Persons who become aware of an error on calculating taxes on reportedincome should contact the tax agency.-This will help to minimize the chances of being suspected of tax evasion, andallow the matter to be settled before interest charges become significant.6.-Most modern counterfeiting is focused on paper money, because it has ahigher face value.-Someone who is convicted of counterfeiting will spend at least a decade inprison.-Teachers who are specialized in astrophysics, law or zoology, for example, mayteach only a certain subject.-Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditionsthat existed before.-Parents should be concerned for their offsprings’ career prospects.
-If a pupil senses that his or her parents are worried about forthcomingexaminations, it is almost certain that the same fear will be passed on to thepupil him/herself.-Regular and consistent support is important to young people involved incompetitive situations.