Policy Making and Decision Making in Education

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What is Policy?


Decision makers, who are used to depending on their past experiences, must make decisions and take actions in the rapidly changing world we face today. In this turbulent environment, the ability to successfully view the current situation through the traditional "good judgment" viewpoint is weakened through increasing external noise (a multitude of information sources on multiple topics) and changing paradigms of how we think about social, cultural, organizational and economic issues, creating internal noise within our prevailing mental models. These noises skew our perception of what is really happening in the world. In addition to facing this constant flux, leaders are being asked to choose the path to the future as well as to explain exactly how they plan to get there. Before putting a stake in the sand, leaders begin by developing and testing hypotheses about possible scenarios, and then eliminate numerous courses of action until a small set of viable choices remain. Once the decision to act is made, the communication of the new initiatives begins. The results of these initiatives usually produce some expected behavior, but almost always, much to our surprise, our actions produce unexpected behavior as well, that once again changes our situation. And so it goes…

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Policy Making and Decision Making in Education

  1. 1. Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan dalam Pengembangan Program Pendidikan Stratejik (Policy Making and Decision Making in Expansion of Strategic Education Program) Presentation for Lecture: Kepemimpinan dan Politik Pendidikan (AP903) Lecturer: Prof.Dr.H. Djam’an Satori, MA. Student: Djadja Sardjana - 090790425-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 1
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Overview of Educational Policy Making and Decision Making Consequences and costs of Policy Making and Decision Making Policy Making and Decision Making in relation to Strategic Education Program25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 2
  3. 3. Presentation Outline Overview of Educational Policy Making and Decision Making25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 3
  4. 4. Definition of Policy The statements and frameworks by Government to direct their agencies design and delivery of programs and services to the public.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 4 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  5. 5. What is Policy? “Advice that “Policy Analysis is relates to public client-oriented decisions..” which advice relevant to are also “informed public decisions by social values.” and informed by (Weimer and social values.” Vining, p.23) (Ibid. p.24) “Policy analysis Policy analysis is goes beyond a social and personal decision political activity. making.” (Bardach, Intro) (Bardach, Intro)25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 5
  6. 6. Role of policy Provide guidance Avoid “ad hoc” and clarification decisions and under prevailing possible legislation. inconsistencies. Place hierarchy of Clear guidelines legislation into for changed land context. use - new lands. New Technological Advances.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 6
  7. 7. Policy Involvement Government Strategic Operational Agency Functional Procedural Adapted from WH Dunn: “Policy Analysis”25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 7
  8. 8. From Policy to Implementation Policy Politic Process of putting policy into action – continuation of policy process An allocation system that translates Stresses (inputs), reacts to them and produces decisions (outputs) that resolve conflicts over values and resources Decision25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 8
  9. 9. Decision Making Theory Rational Mixed Comprehensive Scanning Model Model Incremental Garbage Model Can Model25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 9
  10. 10. The Decision Making Process Map The following map briefly describes each phase of the decision making process and the difficulties that decision makers have in that phase. Please read through the storyline and then click on the "Changing World" to start. Decision makers, who are used to depending on their past experiences, must make decisions and take actions in the rapidly changing world we face today. In this turbulent environment, the ability to successfully view the current situation through the traditional "good judgment" viewpoint is weakened through increasing external noise (a multitude of information sources on multiple topics) and changing paradigms of how we think about social, cultural, organizational and economic issues, creating internal noise within our prevailing mental models. These noises skew our perception of what is really happening in the world. In addition to facing this constant flux, leaders are being asked to choose the path to the future as well as to explain exactly how they plan to get there. Before putting a stake in the sand, leaders begin by developing and testing hypotheses about possible scenarios, and then eliminate numerous courses of action until a small set of viable choices remain. Once the decision to act is made, the communication of the new initiatives begins. The results of these initiatives usually produce some expected behavior, but almost always, much to our surprise, our actions produce unexpected behavior as well, that once again changes our situation. And so it goes…25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 10 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  11. 11. Presentation Outline Consequences and costs of Policy Making and Decision Making25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 11
  12. 12. The Process of Policy-Making Policy- A policy must be well-planned, implemented well- and evaluated effectively so that the target group would receive the expected benefits benefits.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 12
  13. 13. Hence, a policy should have the following characteristics: • Strategic; able to contribute to the achievement of long-term goals. long- • The objective of the policy must be clear. Must identify, the ‘change’ that will be established through the policy. • Fair to all parties. • Flexible and innovative • Strong. The policy could be implemented from A to Z.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 13
  14. 14. 5 Stages (Dunn, 1994; Cochran et al, 1995; Dye, 1998). 1. Problem identification 2. Goal and alternatives identification 3. Selection of policy instruments 4. Implementation of the policy 5. Evaluation of the policy25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 14
  15. 15. Liabilities of Group Decision Making • Groups often work more slowly than individuals. • Groups decisions involve considerable compromise that may lead to less than optimal decisions. • Groups are often dominated by one individual or a small clique, thereby negating many of the virtues of group processes. • Overreliance on group decision making can inhibit management’s ability to act quicklyKebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) necessary. Pembuatan and decisively when25-Mar-12 15
  16. 16. 3 Initial Big Ideas • Myth of meritocracy vs. Reality of Inequality • Excellence and/or Equity • Social Capital and Limits of Schooling25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 16
  17. 17. Areas of Interest • Intersection of Policy, Research, and Practice • Intention Output Outcome • Evidence – Incentives – Intuition • Systems – Organizations – Individuals • Culture: Internal & External • Limits of Policy25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 17
  18. 18. Politics • An allocation system that translates Stresses (inputs), reacts to them and produces decisions (outputs) that resolve conflicts over values and resources25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 18
  19. 19. ISSUE ATTENTION CYCLE 1. Problem Builds 2. Alarming Incident 3. Support for change 4. Change Proposals Emerge 5. Interest Wanes25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 19
  20. 20. Presentation Outline Policy Making and Decision Making in relation to Strategic Education Program25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 20
  21. 21. Where is Public Education Going? “Education, then beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the condition of man - thebalance wheel of the social machinery.” Horace Mann ~ 1848 Speech about Education and National Welfare25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 21 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  22. 22. No Child Left Behind25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 22 Courtesy of USA.Ed.gov Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  23. 23. Education Policy Strategic Questions • Who is the • What is the “public” in mission of public public education? education? 1 2 4 3 • What is the • Who does product? public education serve?25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 23
  24. 24. Strategic Government Education Agency OLD ROLES • Operational • Regulatory • Services • Developmental (improvement of service) • Public Support NEW ROLES • Standard Setting • Assessment • Accountability • Technical Assistance • Capacity Building25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 24
  25. 25. Strategic Questions: Which factors influence the education outcomes of students? • Enrolment rate (general) • Enrolment rate by programme Access • Distribution of students across Individual schools factors • Participation rate; Drop-out rate School levelParticipation • Grade repetition rate Factors • Achievement Scores at different System levelPerformance levels of education factors • Transition rates25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 25
  26. 26. Which strategic policies can influence these factors to improve the education? Access System level factors School level POLICIES Participation factors Individual Factors Performance25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 26
  27. 27. System level factorsAccess Participation Performance• school catchment • second chance schools • external student• school choice or recognition system of assessment• school fees (regionally/ experiential learning • school / teacher (nationally determined) • grade repetition policy evaluation • long schooling time (curricular/extra-curricular) • national curriculum or teaching guidelines responsive to linguistic and cultural diversity • tracking system • preschool education and care system25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 27
  28. 28. School level factorsAccess Participation PerformanceSchool School Community• placement assessment • induction/integration program • ethnic residence• school admission • language support • share responsibility in• recommendation • peers (discrimination) creating better to schools • teachers (expectation, communicationCommunity pedagogy, stereotypes, etc) channels b/w school,• support for academic • curriculum adaptation of parents & community guidance cultural & linguistic diversity School Community • ability grouping • area of residence • concentration of immigrants at school25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 28
  29. 29. Individual factorsAccess Participation PerformanceStudent Student Family Parents• immigrant status • age • generation • expectation for • age of arrival • learning children • gender at homeStudent Family Parents• language competencies • family structure • occupation status• length of stay • family size/siblings • education level• country of origin • aspiration for child’s• academic performance education• aspirations 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 29
  30. 30. What works in education policy? Literature ReviewSystem level policies: shaping the structure and inputs of education systems Reduce • School choice segregation • Tracking / ability groupingProvide quality • Provide funding for migrant education resources • Ensure quality teachers for migrant education • Determine target groups Set priorities • Ensure efficient management and monitoring • Prioritise between levels of education25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 30 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  31. 31. What works in education policy? Literature ReviewSchool level policies: shaping schools, classrooms and school-homerelationships Language • Early starting, time-intensive, continuous • High standards, clear curricula learning • Quality language teachers • Diversity in curricula and textbooksIntercultural • Teacher training education • School goals, culture, leadership Parental • Bringing education into homesinvolvement • Schools reaching out to parents25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 31 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  32. 32. 2008 2009 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Process Phase I: Phase II: Phase IV: Fact-Finding visit Pre-Visit Post-Visit Phase III: Policy review visit Outputs Country NotesDraft policy evaluation framework Final ReportProposed decision-making tools Knowledge- Mapping of existing policy options Formulating policy relevant base questionsFacts Building Developing analytical frameworkFactorsLiterature Review of existing research Stock-takingWork done by other Directorates of Collecting evidence of good practicesthe OECD; other organisations; and policy challenges from countriesresearch communities Fact-finding Facts and mission empiricalCountry background Reports questions 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 Policy review Hypotheses about possible mission causes and explanations, and possible remedies 1 2 4 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan 6 3 5 7 (AP903) 32Adjusted from Figure 1 in EDU/EDPC/MI(2008)3/REV1
  33. 33. Back-up Presentation Policy Making and Decision Making in relation to Strategic Education Program25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 33
  34. 34. Stage 1: Problem Identification • The problem becomes the agenda of the political/organizational institution. • At this point, the decision-makers will decision- decide whether or not actions will be taken to address the problem. • Justifications will be made whether or not the problem is worth to be made into an agenda. • Only issue/problem which is worth for institutional/governmental interventions= policy agenda agenda.
  35. 35. Stage 2: Goal and Alternatives Identification• At this point, the objective of the policy will be identified (what is to be achieved out of the policy).• Once the objective is clear, policy alternatives be identified and then selected.
  36. 36. Step 3: Establishment of Policy Instruments• At this point, establishment of policy instruments will take place after agreement is reached upon several alternatives/possible solutions.
  37. 37. Stage 4: PolicyImplementation• At this point, the implementation of the policy would involve the transfer of policy interpretation to policy instruments.
  38. 38. Stage 5: Policy Evaluation• At this final stage, the policy would be evaluated to see its effectiveness as well as its impacts.
  39. 39. Normative Decision Making Model • Basis: Decision making is not rational; it is rather intuitive. • Characteristics of decision making: Limited Information Use of rules of thumbs Processing or shortcuts Satisficing25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 39
  40. 40. ICT for Decision Making • E-democracy research has so far focused on early stages of political decision making: How to include citizens in the process. • Our focus was to look at how ICT can be used to evaluate policy decisions (later stages) • Also to discuss what impact ICT has on the political decision making process itself.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 40
  41. 41. Redefined decision making model • ICT provides for faster and even continuous evaluation of the results of decisions. • This opens up for a reformulation of the model presented earlier:25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 41
  42. 42. Goals and focus points Information on time for decision making, then better decisions at national, local and school level, then higher effectiveness of education system, and better learning achievements25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 42
  43. 43. Assumptions in Rational Decision- Making Model • This process assumes that you have or can obtain adequate information, both in terms of accuracy, quality, and quantity, about the situation and the alternative technical innovations. innovations • it assumes that you have knowledge of all of the alternatives and all of the consequences of the alternatives. • it assumes that you can somehow rank-order rank- the alternatives or generate satisfactory decision- decision-rules or criteria for choice.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 43
  44. 44. Limitations of the rational decision- decision- making model: • It requires a great deal of time. • It requires a great deal of information. • It assumes rational, measurable criteria are available and agreed upon. • It assumes accurate, stable, and complete knowledge of alternatives, preferences, goals, and consequences. • It assumes a rational, reasonable, non-political non- world.25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 44
  45. 45. Bonus Points in Group DecisionMaking• Groups can accumulate more knowledge and facts.• Groups have a broader perspective and consider more alternative solutions.• Individuals who participate in decisions are more satisfied with the decision and are more likely to support it.• Group decision making processes serve an important amount of knowledge available to groups.• In identifying alternatives, the individual efforts of group alternatives, members encourage a broad search in various functional areas of the organization.• In evaluating alternatives, the collective judgement of the alternatives, group, with its wider range of viewpoints, seems superior to that of the individual decision maker. 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 45
  46. 46. What works in education policy? Literature ReviewSystem level policies: shaping the structure and inputs of education systems Reduce • School choice segregation • Tracking / ability groupingProvide quality • Provide funding for migrant education resources • Ensure quality teachers for migrant education • Determine target groups Set priorities • Ensure efficient management and monitoring • Prioritise between levels of education25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 46 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  47. 47. What works in education policy? Literature ReviewSchool level policies: shaping schools, classrooms and school-homerelationships Language • Early starting, time-intensive, continuous • High standards, clear curricula learning • Quality language teachers • Diversity in curricula and textbooksIntercultural • Teacher training education • School goals, culture, leadership Parental • Bringing education into homesinvolvement • Schools reaching out to parents25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan 47 Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903)
  48. 48. Existing policy options from a mapping exercise What policy alternatives and options are available to countries to address the major policy challenges based on country experience and research findings? Our Project •CBR •Literature Review •Statistical findings Access Individual •Country visits factors Policy options EDU’s and alternatives other reviews School levelParticipation factors DELSA/ ECO System level Provisional EuropeanPerformance Factors areas Commission Council of Europe Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 25-Mar-12 Etc. Etc. 48
  49. 49. Policy alternatives and options that may influence individual factors.Language matters.1. Provide systematic language support for both children and their parents by…..SES matters.2. Effectively mitigate the negative impact of low SES by….. 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 49
  50. 50. Policy alternatives and options that may influence school level factors.First school experience matters.3. Provide an effective induction/integration programme into school and intosociety at large by…..Schools matter.4. Make school culture more responsive to linguistic and cultural diversity by…..Teachers matter.5. Make the teaching workforce responsive to linguistic and cultural diversity by…..Segregation in school may have negative effects.6. Effectively mitigate the negative impact of segregation and/or self-segregationby…..Family and community involvement matter.7. Ensure family and community involvement by….. 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 50
  51. 51. Policy alternatives and options that may influence system level factors.Funding strategies matters.8. Design effective funding strategies and provide extra resources most efficiently by…..Overall school systems matters.9. Make education systems comprehensive, fair and flexible by…..Participation in ECEC matters.10. Provide effective and quality early childhood education and care by…..Research matters.11. Encourage goal-setting, data collection, monitoring and evaluation of educationoutcomes of immigrant students by….. 25-Mar-12 Pembuatan Kebijakan dan Pengambilan Keputusan (AP903) 51

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