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ICOSIC2010 E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy
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ICOSIC2010 E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy

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E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. The main vehicle in......

E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies related to issues explored, studied and applied. In the global era, willingly or unwillingly, educations have to do with technology, especially information technology. Many research results indicate that the late master whom the information, it is too late also the gain opportunities to get ahead. Speed accompanied by demands could potentially contribute to the education and training sector. Positive potential that technology has not only increased efficiency and effectiveness and flexibility of the learning process, but also resulted in the development of materials, shifting the role of teachers/trainers and the development of learner autonomy.

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  • 1. E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy Djadja.Sardjana, Djadja.Sardjana, S.T., M.M. Djadja.Sardjana@widyatama.ac.id www.slideshare.net/djadja 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 1
  • 2. About me EDUCATION Indonesia Education University (www.upi.ac.id) 2011 expected Doctoral Candidate, Majoring on Education Management with concentration on Knowledge Management & e-Learning/E-Learning. Telkom Management Institute (www.imtelkom.ac.id) MBA on Telecommunication Business (Biztel), Cum Laude Graduate (3.71 from 4.0) with Theses “Role of Grameen Telecom Stakeholder at Bangladesh on Strategic Management” National Technology Institute (www.itenas.ac.id) May 30, 1990 Bachelor on Telecommunication Engineering, with Theses “Simulation of Automatic Direction Finder on Airplane” EXPERIENCE Council Member | Gerson Lehrman Group May 2009 - Now DIVISION HEAD | SAMPOERNA TELEKOMUNIKASI INDONESIA May 2008 – April 2009 SENIOR MANAGER | MOTOROLA, INC. November 2002 – April 2008 SENIOR MANAGER | MWEB, INC. June 2001 – October 2002 IT MANAGER | Ariawest International January 1997- May 2001 SUPERVISOR, CTS | AT&T/Lucent Technologies Indonesia JUNE 1994 – JANUARY 1997 Lecture| Sekolah Tinggi Telekomunikasi Telkom (STTTelkom) February 1991 – May 1994 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 3
  • 4. Education Challenges in Indonesia The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore (not practical) when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies relating to the problem needs to explored, studied and applied. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 4
  • 5. Information Necessity on Education Information is already a 'commodity' as like other economic goods. Without runaway from “ Philosophy of Education “ The role of information become increasingly large and visible in the modern world it is today including on education. This is understandable because the public now to the era of information society (information age) or community knowledge (knowledge society) 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 5
  • 6. Philosophy of Education Triangle Philosophers of education concerned with questions of schools and society Educator Philosophers concerned with Love of whirlwinds of wisdom , the social crisis, quest for ideological knowledge arguments 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 6
  • 7. Scope of Educational Philosophy Brings new interpretation and syntheses as well as analyzing, refining, modifying existing concepts and procedures Acts as a clearinghouse for analyzing and clarifying ideas and problems Offers a source of ethical guidance Induces habits of mind like tolerance, impartiality, and suspension of judgment 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 7
  • 8. E-LEARNING MODEL-BASED MODEL- IN EDUCATION 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 8
  • 9. Learning Explanations and Examples Campus Based Programmes Normal face to face teaching Blackboard for additional support Distance Learning Programmes Additional Minimal face to face Block teaching Blackboard for core Additional Postal Additional Lecturer Administrative contact Weeks support Correspondence Phone Support phone support Blended Learning Programmes in theory 25-50% May include additional Blackboard for May include additional delivered via e-learning Block teaching weeks Administrative phone additional/core support Lecturer Phone Support technology support E-Learning Programmes Different needs for different programmes 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 9
  • 10. History of E-Learning E- Independent Study First Generation (late 19th, early 20th century) Print based correspondence courses. Second Generation (1960’s through to the 1980’s) Radio and TV broadcast technology. Third generation (1980’s to early 90’s) Computer based learning, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, audio/video tapes, teleconferencing, multimedia CD-ROM’s. CD- Fourth Generation (early 90’s to late 90’s) Interactive multimedia, Access to Internet resources and computer mediated communications (e.g. asynchronous discussions). Fifth Generation (late 90’s to mid 2000’s) In addition to fourth generation delivery technologies, this generation includes the use of automated response systems (e.g. email, online tests) and Virtual Learning Environments to access institutional processes and resources. Sixth Generation (mid 2000’s – current) Web 2.0, Mobile and Synchronous technology: Much improved communications. A diverse set of tools to facilitate more active, participatory and collaborative learning. Connectivity Active Participation 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 10
  • 11. Implications of E-Learning E- There is still a place for ‘old’ media. Opportunity to Build on current good practices. Great opportunities, but it is a time for transition. There is a need to experiment in order to progress. New media needs to be introduced gradually. For students more emphasis on active learning, participating and collaborating could be scary – guidance and time to orientate to a new approach is essential. For Lecturers – it’s new too, they will need support to decide how best to use ‘new media’ and how to change teaching strategies. Cutting edge ‘New media’ technology is not controlled by the institution, this could be an issue at times. Best alternatives within current institutional online spaces may need to be found. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 11
  • 12. Profile of e-Learning Participants e- Has a self-learning motivation high and has a commitment to study seriously for learning responsibility entirely on self-learning participants themselves (Loftus, 2001) Have failed in certain subjects at school and need a replacement to Love to learn and conduct studies, conventional, or who require specific like reading for self development subject matter that is not served by continuously, and who enjoys local conventional schools and who freedom want to accelerate their graduation (Tucker, 2000). 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 12
  • 13. THE ROLE OF E-LEARNING IN E- EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 13
  • 14. Rosenberg (2008) three basic criteria contained in e-learning e- E-learning is delivered E-learning is a network, to users through a E-learning is focused which allows him to computer using on the views of the improve quickly, save standard Internet most extensive or bring back, technology. CD ROM, learning, learning distributing, and Web TV, Web Cell solutions beat sharing of learning and Phones, Pagers, and traditional paradigm in information absolute aids other personal training requirement. digital devices. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 14
  • 15. Cisco E-learning Management Strategies E- E-learning is the delivery of information, communication, education, training of on-line E-learning provides a set of tools that can enrich the value of learning in the conventional (conventional learning models, the study of text books, CD-ROMs, and computer-based training) in order to answer the challenges of globalization development E-learning is not meant to replace conventional learning models in the classroom, but to strengthen the model of learning through content enrichment and development of educational technology 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 15
  • 16. Future Paradigms in the Education The structure of vocational skills and Strong impact of the knowledge to support For that requires birth of globalization changing lifelong knowledge of will result in a change learning and education and in management continuous learning learning methods are strategy of education that serves to prepare new and training workers to meet the demands or industry interests 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 16
  • 17. E-LEARNING POLICY IN HIGHER EDUCATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 17
  • 18. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 (Leithwood, et al.,18 1998)
  • 19. The policy hierarchy International treaties; global policy System-wide macro policies Sectoral/ line policies Administrative policies Organisational operational policies
  • 20. Understanding the implications of public policy • For an act that led to goals rather than as behaviors or actions that 1 happened • Essentially consists of actions related to each other 2 • Concerned with what is actually done by the government in a particular 3 field or even what the government is mean or do something or says to do something • Can be positive, which means is some form of action (step) government on 4 certain issues, and is negative, meaning a government decision to not do something • Public policy, at least in a positive sense based or always premised on the 5 rules / laws that are forced 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 20
  • 21. The Policy Construction Process (Weimer & Vining Analyze • We need to develop a strategy for doing analysis; yourself first • Analysis of the analysis • Linear thinkers tend to solve Linear and problem by moving sequentially through a series of logical steps. • Nonlinear thinkers tend to view Non-linear problems configuratively, moving back and forth over steps • Linear thinkers should adopt Never a right or nonlinear thinking strategies and vice versa • Analyst should simultaneously utilize a wrong answer linear and nonlinear thinking when conducting policy analysis. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 21
  • 22. Seven Stages Policy Design Process Stage Setting goals and Formulation of the assessment policy objectives model issues Determination of Assessment of Formulation of alternative policy policy alternatives policy alternatives selection criteria. Formulation of policy William N. Dunn (2008) recommendations
  • 23. (Weimer & Vining, p.205) PROBLEM ANALYSIS 1. Understanding the problem a) Receiving the problem: SOLUTION assessing the ANALYSIS symptoms. 4. Choosing b) Framing the evaluation criteria problem: 5. Specifying policy analyzing market alternatives COMMUNICATION and government 6. Evaluating: Conveying useful failures. predicting impacts Advice to client c) Modeling the of alternatives and problem: valuing them in identifying policy terms of criteria variables. 7. Recommending 2. Choosing and actions. explaining relevant goals and constraints 3. Choosing a solution method. A summary of Steps in the INFORMATION GATHERING Rationalist Identifying and organizing relevant data, theories and facts; using facts as Mode evidence about future consequences of current and alternative policies. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 23
  • 24. Choosing a Solution Methods Yes No Benefit Cost Efficiency Can Efficiency Analysis Only Monetized Qualitative Benefit Cost No Analysis Other Goals Yes Efficiency Yes Can Other Plus Yes “Modified” in Addition to Goals Others Benefit Cost Efficiency Monetized Goal Analysis Can Efficiency & Other Goals Cost Quantified No Effectivenes Yes No Efficiency s Analysis + 2 Others Goal Multi-Goal (Weimer & Vining, p.219) Analysis 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 24
  • 25. Current Target of E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher Education ICT literacy (ability to access, utilize and use the radio, television, computers and the Internet) of the students and faculty with strengthening on Governance, Accountability, and Public Image Enhanced capacity of higher education unit conducted through competitive grant programs run by governments such as competitive grant programs, partnership programs, research grants, education development center and instructional activities Management capacity building will also be supported by the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as the development of higher education information system Source: Education Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education 2009-2014 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 25
  • 26. Operational E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher Education The accreditation document (BOOK IIIB) point 6.4.1 (Information Systems) as follows: "Describe the management information systems and facilities of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) used the Faculty / School for the academic administration and administration (eg SIAKAD, SIMKEU, SIMAWA, SIMFA, SIMPEG and the like), including distance / e-learning. Explain utilization in decision-making processes in the development of institutions In Book VI - ACCREDITATION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS FOR GRADUATE PROGRAM STUDY also described in detail the policy "Access and utilization of information systems in managing data and information on the implementation of academic programs in the course of study” Source: The accreditation document of the Ministry of Education - 2008 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 26
  • 27. Operational E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher Education Source: The accreditation document of the Ministry of Education -2008 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 27
  • 28. E-learning shortcomings (Bullen, 2001, Beam, 1997) Bullen, Lack of interaction between Lecturers and The tendency to ignore students or even among aspects of the academic The process of learning the students themselves. or social aspects and and teaching tend Lack of this interaction instead encouraging the toward training than could slow the formation growth of the business / education of values in the process commercial of learning and teaching The changing role of Lecturers from the Not all the available original master internet facilities (this Students who do not conventional learning may be related to the have a high learning techniques, are now also problem of availability of motivation tended to fail required to know the electricity, telephone or learning techniques that computer); use ICT 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 28
  • 29. E-learning in Higher Education Policy Framework Propose Policy Area Key Issues Calendar, Course integrity, Transferability, Transcripts, Student/Course evaluation, Academic Admission standards, Curriculum/Course approval, Accreditation, Class cancellations , Course/Program/Degree availability, Recruiting/Marketing Governance / Administration Tuition rate, Technology fee, Administration cost, State fiscal regulations, Tuition / Fiscal disbursement, Space, Single versus multiple board oversight, Staffing Compensation and workload, Development incentives, Faculty training, Congruence Faculty with existing union contracts, Class monitoring, Faculty support, Faculty evaluation Legal Intellectual property, Faculty, Student and institutional liability Advisement, Counseling, Library access, Materials delivery, Student training, Test Student Support Services proctoring, Videotaping, Computer accounts, Registration, Financial aid, Labs Systems reliability, Connectivity/access, Hardware/software, Setup concerns, Technical Infrastructure, Technical support (staffing), Scheduling, Costs Adoption of innovations, Acceptance of on-line/distance teaching, Understanding of Cultural distance education (what works at a distance), Organizational values Gellman-Danley and Fetzner (1998) 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 29
  • 30. Policy Analysis Framework Propose on E-learning in Higher Education Policy Area Description Rewards (e.g., stipends, promotion and tenure, merit increases, etc.); Support Faculty (including Continuing (e.g., student help, technical assistance, training, etc.); Opportunities to learn Education and Cooperative about technology and new applications (e.g., release time, training, etc.); Extension) Intellectual property (e.g. ownership of materials, copyright, etc.) Support (e.g., access to technology, library resources, registration, advising, financial aid, etc.); Requirements and records (e.g., residency requirements, Students/Participants acceptance of courses from other places, transfer of credit, continuing education, etc.) Tuition and fee structure; Funding formula; Collaboration (e.g., with other Departments, units, institutions, consortia, intra-and inter-institutional, service areas, etc.); Resources (e.g., financial resources to support distance education, Management and Organization equipment, new technologies, etc.); Curricula/individual courses (e.g., delivery modes, course/program selection, plans to develop, individual sequences, course development, entire program delivery, interactivity requirements, test requirements, contact hour definitions, etc.) 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 30
  • 31. Conclusion 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 31
  • 32. Higher Education E-Learning E- E-Learning will be used or not depends on government policy in education and how users view or assess the e-learning. Generally the use of these technologies depends on: (1). Is the technology was already a requirement?, (2). Is adequate supporting facilities?, (3). Is supported by adequate funding?, and (4). Is there support from policy makers? 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 32
  • 33. E-Learning Prerequisites Many people often try to launch e-learning without careful consideration and use it to look prestigious without Management Policy and Strategy Education. Therefore one thing to note before using the Internet for learning, the policy analysis to answer whether it requires e-learning. In this analysis would have included whether it is technically and non-technical e-learning can be carried out this analysis regarding the availability of People, Process and Technology. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 33
  • 34. E-Learning Social Economic Analysis Economic analysis Social Analysis Resistances • Economic analysis • Furthermore • Because such as Cost Benefit whether socially, the sometimes, although (B / C) ratio, the use of e-learning the usage of e- Internal Rate of must be accepted by learning for learning Return (IRR), Net the community has been prepared Present Value (NPV) (socially properly and operate or Return on acceptable). quality is also good, Investment (ROI) people can not can be used as a accept it because measuring tool. they consider the ways of conventional education is considered better. 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 34
  • 35. Thank you very much for your attention Djadja.Sardjana, Djadja.Sardjana, S.T., M.M. Djadja.Sardjana@widyatama.ac.id www.slideshare.net/djadja 16-Mar-10 16-Mar- Widyatama-ICOSIC2010 Widyatama- 35