Policy Analysis: Evaluating Policy Performance

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Chapter Report: William N. Dunn, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Principles Chapter 07

Chapter Report: William N. Dunn, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Principles Chapter 07

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  • 1. UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 1 CHAPTER REPORT: WILLIAM N. DUNN, POLICY ANALYSIS: CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 07 Kuliah: Analisis Kebijakan Pendidikan (AP901) Dosen: Prof.Dr.H. Nanang Fattah, M.PD. Djadja Achmad Sardjana (0907904) 18 November 2009
  • 2. UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 2 CHAPTER REPORT: WILLIAM N. DUNN, POLICY ANALYSIS: CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES CHAPTER-07 Evaluating Policy Performance 18 November 2009
  • 3. Chapter-07 Table of Contents (1): 3 Ethics and Values in Policy Analysis Thinking about Values Ethics and Metaethics Standards of Conduct Descriptive Ethics, Normative Ethics and Metaethics Descriptive Value Typologies Developmental Value Typologies Normative Theories Metaethical Theories UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 4. Chapter-07 Table of Contents (2): 4 Evaluation in Policy Analysis The Nature of Evaluation Functions of Evaluation Criteria for Policy Evaluation Approaches to Evaluation Pseudo-evaluation Formal Evaluation Varieties of Formal Evaluation Decision-Theoretic Evaluation Methods For Evaluation UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 5. Chapter-07 has a strong public policy analysis focus on : 5 To distinguish policy outcomes, impacts, processes, and inputs Compare and contrast social systems accounting, social experimentation, social auditing, and research and practice syntheses To describe and illustrate criteria for evaluating policy performance To contrast decision-theoretic evaluation and metaevaluation To distinguish values, ethics and metaethics UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 6. Two Perspectives of Values MARKET-CENTERED POLIS-CENTERED 6 Individual as focus Community as focus Self-interest primary motivation Public and self-interest are primary motivations Performance through private competition Performance through cooperation and publicly managed competition Society governed by fixed and impersonal economic laws (“laws of matter”) Society governed by laws that are subject to human change (“laws of passion”) Personal decision criteria are individual interest maximization and cost minimization Personal decision criteria are loyalty, public commitment, and individual interest Change occurs through material exchange and the satisfaction of aggregate Information relatively incomplete and subjective individual interests Change occurs through persuasion, alliances, and Public administration is unproductive the satisfaction of public and community interests (“bureaucracy”) Public administration can be productive (“public trust”) UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 7. Values Are Central to Policy Analysis RETROSPECTIVE: PROSPECTIVE: 7 Analyzing the Past Analyzing the Future POLICY PERFORMANCE Evaluation Was it valuable? What will happen? POLICY OUTCOMES What happened? Will it be valuable? Recommendation UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 8. POLICY PERFORMANCE Evaluation Forecastingg Problem Structuring OBSERVED POLICY EXPECTED OUTCOMES PROBLEMS OUTCOMES Problem Structuring Monitoring Recommendation PREFERRED POLICIES 8 UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 9. Criteria for Evaluating Policy Performance 9 Effectiveness Efficiency Adequacy Equity Responsiveness Appropriateness UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 10. Three Approaches to Evaluation Approach Aims Assumptions Example Causal Analysts Values can be Field Evaluation determine described but experiment outcomes not justified Official Policymakers Values can be Summative Evaluation determine stated and need evaluation objectives no justification Participative Stakeholders Values can be Evaluability Evaluation determine stated and need assessment objectives no justification
  • 11. The Role of Policy Analysis In The Policy Process 11 Policy agenda setting Structuring policy problem Policy formulation Forecasting policy outcomes Policy adoption Recommending preferred policy Policy implementation Monitoring policy outcomes Policy evaluation Evaluating policy performance Policy adaptation Recommending adapted policy Policy succession (Re)commending existing policy Policy termination Recommending no policy UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 12. UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 12 CHAPTER REPORT: WILLIAM N. DUNN, POLICY ANALYSIS: CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES CHAPTER-07 Question & Answer 18 November 2009
  • 13. Question & Answer 13 1. Kebijakan Ujian Nasional Q: Kebijakan Ujian Nasional telah mendatangkan dilema bagi pemerintah dan masyarakat. Bagaimana kedudukan kebijakan tersebut? Apa yang harus dilakukan untuk mengevaluasinya? A: Menurut penyaji (DAS), kebijakan UN sebaiknya dijadikan bahan monitoring bagi jajaran pendidik dan pemerintah ,mulai dari guru sampai menteri, sebagai bahan perbaikan metodologi dan manajemen pendidikan ke depan. Sebaiknya dilakukan analisis kebijakan yang komprehensif dengan membadingkan kebijakan UN di masa lampau (sebelum dan sesudah kemerdekaan) serta bahan pembanding dari negara lain. 2. Kebijakan Sertifikasi Guru Q: Kebijakan Sertifikasi Guru saat ini menjadi salah kaprah karena lebih mementingkan portofolio dibanding kompetensi. Evaluasi serta pemecahan sistematis apa yang dibutuhkan ? A: Menurut penyaji (DAS), kebijakan Sertifikasi Guru sebaiknya tidak dihubungkan langsung dengan numerasi guru, namun menjadi bagian dari proses evaluasi kompetensi yang kontinyu dari Depdiknas. UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 14. UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 14 CHAPTER REPORT: WILLIAM N. DUNN, POLICY ANALYSIS: CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES CHAPTER-07 Additional Info & Reference 18 November 2009
  • 15. Center of Policy Evaluation 15 The Center of Policy Evaluation created by the team of experts in order to promote the use of advanced methods in evaluation of political outcomes of public policy and program implementation, performance management, as well as regulatory impact assessment; The staff members of the Center are very experienced also in applied projects on performance budgeting, field studies (electoral campaigns, market research, monitoring etc). UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 16. Government CPE 16 USA Russia Norwegia UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 17. Office of Governmentwide Policy Center for Policy Evaluation (CPE) 17 www.gsa.gov/cpe February 4, 2009 UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 18. Overall Process Agency writes OGP discusses OGP Agency Standard policies w/ establishes or implements or Operating Committees & OMB changes policy supplements GSA Procedures policy and internal guidance Continuous Improvement Policy Evaluation Role OGP identifies OGP Agency reports to strengths, evaluates OGP Agency verifies weaknesses, agency-provided policy is followed opportunities and information in threats the agency OGP - GSA’s Office of Governmentwide Policy UPI SPS ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) 18 November 2009
  • 19. Evaluation Criteria 1. Written Policy: Address the mandate, and provide evidence of current policy implementation 2. Awareness: Evidence of communicating with affected agency personnel about the mandate, including policy or implementation changes 3. Verification: Check adherence with applicable documented performance measures More details available ADPEN - Kebijakan Pendidikan (Teori dan Proses) UPI SPS at www.gsa.gov/cpescoring 19 November 2009 18