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Digitalization in Higher Education Knowledge Management

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Strong impact of the birth of globalization will result in a change in management strategy of education and training. …

Strong impact of the birth of globalization will result in a change in management strategy of education and training.

For that requires knowledge of education and learning methods are new

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  • i have been asked to prepare a presentation (Part of interview process for presales lead) based on the below problem statement: ABC Corporation is a Modern day technology services company helping their customer with business transformation using devices, mobility, analytics and cloud. Most of the ABC Corporation’s Customers are Product Development Companies (ISVs). You have recently joined ABC Corporation as a Pre-Sales Specialist. You are selected to work with a Business unit which deals with Digital business applications (Platforms). This business unit has done quite a bit of work with education domain (K-12 and Higher Education). One of their core strengths is developing Platforms (LMS, LCMS etc…) With the kind of work ABC Corporation has done in Education, ABC Corporation feels that they still have not penetrated much into this market and feels there is a lot of potential in this market. Considering your previous background, organization feels that you can help them to decide whether it is worth investing time in this domain and if it is worth, what could be their GOTO market strategy. With this given background context, we would want you to put together a PowerPoint presentation that contains 1. The Education Market Size (Across the World/Sliced and Diced) 2. Key Drivers for Growth in this Market Segment 3. What are the key trends that we could potentially capitalize in education domain? 4. Who could be our target prospects? 5. What could be our potential offering(s) (Considering our experience in LMS/LCMS etc…) 6. How would we reach out to the potential prospects with our offering? Help with this will be highly appreciated since am new to this segment.
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  • 1. Digitalization in Higher Education Knowledge Management Djadja.Sardjana, Djadja.Sardjana, S.T., M.M. Djadja@bapinger.web.id www.slideshare.net/djadja Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 1
  • 2. About me EDUCATION Indonesia Education University (www.upi.ac.id) 2011 expected Doctoral Candidate, Majoring on Education Management with concentration on Knowledge Management & e-Learning/E-Learning. Telkom Management Institute (www.imtelkom.ac.id) MBA on Telecommunication Business (Biztel), Cum Laude Graduate (3.71 from 4.0) with Theses “Role of Grameen Telecom Stakeholder at Bangladesh on Strategic Management” National Technology Institute (www.itenas.ac.id) May 30, 1990 Bachelor on Telecommunication Engineering, with Theses “Simulation of Automatic Direction Finder on Airplane” EXPERIENCE Council Member | Gerson Lehrman Group May 2009 - Now DIVISION HEAD | SAMPOERNA TELEKOMUNIKASI INDONESIA May 2008 – April 2009 SENIOR MANAGER | MOTOROLA, INC. November 2002 – April 2008 SENIOR MANAGER | MWEB, INC. June 2001 – October 2002 IT MANAGER | Ariawest International January 1997- May 2001 SUPERVISOR, CTS | AT&T/Lucent Technologies Indonesia JUNE 1994 – JANUARY 1997 Lecture| Sekolah Tinggi Telekomunikasi Telkom (STTTelkom) February 1991 – May 1994 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Profil Peserta 25Jan11 A_Vision_of Students_Today- 4m44 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 3
  • 4. Education Challenges in Indonesia The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore (not practical) when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies relating to the problem needs to explored, studied and applied. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 4
  • 5. Information Necessity on Education Information is already a commodity as like other economic goods. Without runaway from “ Philosophy of Education “ The role of information become increasingly large and visible in the modern world it is today including on education. This is understandable because the public now to the era of information society (information age) or community knowledge (knowledge society) Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 5
  • 6. NEW MEDIA LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Mobile learning- 1m14 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 6
  • 7. The Significance of New Media! student- Can improve student-student, Can promote participation, student- staff- student-staff and staff-staff collaboration and active learning communication Can enhance student motivation, enjoyment and learning A combination of synchronous or asynchronous strategies Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 7
  • 8. New Media – A DefinitionPCMAG.COM (2008) define new media as:“A generic term for the many different forms of electronic [digital] communicationthat are made possible through the use of computer technology. The term is inrelation to “old” media forms, such as print newspapers and magazines, that arestatic representations of text and graphics.” PCMAG.COM (2008)Content Communication – Multimedia, Interactive Multimedia co-Human Communication – Interaction, collaboration, co-operationCutting Edge New Media – Web 2.0, Social Software Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 8
  • 9. New Media -its Relationship to E-LearningNew Media facilitates Active Learning - Active Learning is preferable toisolated independent study.Palloff and Pratt (1999) suggest that:“for E-Learning that an active learning model is the model of choice especially giventhe separation between Lecturer and student. They suggest also that the Lecturer’srole is to devise learning activities that promote interaction and collaboration,facilitate active discussion, promote the development of critical thinking and researchskills” Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 9
  • 10. New Media – Applications to Learning Social Bookmarking Blogs Connections to useful websites and other online resources Social Networking Connections to people and Reflection resources Wikis Online Media Interaction with multimedia content . Examples include youtube (video), flickr (photos), itunes (podcasts) plus self Collaboration produced media Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher EducationWeb 2.026-Jan-1126-Jan- Social Software Knowledge Management Read/ Write Web10
  • 11. Transitional Strategies Consideration of economic, logistical, instructional, technological, historical and political factors. Consideration of each particular student cohort and their needs.Strong explanation as to why new online ways oflearning (contributing, participating) are beneficial Clear Expectations and Ground Rules Lecturer Facilitation, Encouragement and Leading by example Good Quality Student Inductions Staff Training Introductory tasks Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education for students26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 11
  • 12. Disruptions in pedagogical spaces - 2003 Voices of policy – official Voices of Lecturers – professionalinitiatives and programmes and curriculum interests The construction of the ICT curriculum Voices of ICT – interests of Voices of pupils – software developers out of school use of ICT Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 12 Robertson et al., 2003
  • 13. E-LEARNING MODEL-BASED MODEL- IN HIGHER EDUCATION Computer Assisted Learning-3m Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 13
  • 14. Learning Explanations and Examples Campus Based Programmes Normal face to face teaching Blackboard for additional support Distance Learning Programmes AdditionalMinimal face to face Block teaching Blackboard for core Additional Postal Additional Lecturer Administrative contact Weeks support Correspondence Phone Support phone support Blended Learning Programmes in theory 25-50% May include additional Blackboard for May include additionaldelivered via e-learning Block teaching weeks Administrative phone additional/core support Lecturer Phone Support technology support E-Learning Programmes Different needs for different programmes Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 14
  • 15. History of E-Learning E- Independent Study First Generation (late 19th, early 20th century) Print based correspondence courses. Second Generation (1960’s through to the 1980’s) Radio and TV broadcast technology. Third generation (1980’s to early 90’s) Computer based learning, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, audio/video tapes, teleconferencing, multimedia CD-ROM’s. CD- Fourth Generation (early 90’s to late 90’s) Interactive multimedia, Access to Internet resources and computer mediated communications (e.g. asynchronous discussions). Fifth Generation (late 90’s to mid 2000’s) In addition to fourth generation delivery technologies, this generation includes the use of automated response systems (e.g. email, online tests) and Virtual Learning Environments to access institutional processes and resources. Sixth Generation (mid 2000’s – current) Web 2.0, Mobile and Synchronous technology: Much improved communications. A diverse set of tools to facilitate more active, participatory and collaborative learning. ConnectivityActive Participation Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 15
  • 16. Implications of E-Learning E- There is still a place for ‘old’ media. Opportunity to Build on current good practices. Great opportunities, but it is a time for transition. There is a need to experiment in order to progress. New media needs to be introduced gradually. For students more emphasis on active learning, participating and collaborating could be scary – guidance and time to orientate to a new approach is essential. For Lecturers – it’s new too, they will need support to decide how best to use ‘new media’ and how to change teaching strategies. Cutting edge ‘New media’ technology is not controlled by the institution, this could be an issue at times. Best alternatives within current institutional online spaces may need to be found. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 16
  • 17. Profile of e-Learning Participants e- Has a self-learning motivation high and has a commitment to study seriously for learning responsibility entirely on self-learning participants themselves (Loftus, 2001) Have failed in certain subjects at school and need a replacement to Love to learn and conduct studies, conventional, or who require specific like reading for self development subject matter that is not served by continuously, and who enjoys local conventional schools and who freedom want to accelerate their graduation (Tucker, 2000). Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 17
  • 18. THE ROLE OF E-LEARNING IN E- KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Merica+Garam experiment.36s Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 18
  • 19. Rosenberg (2008) three basic criteria contained in e-learning e- E-learning is deliveredE-learning is a network, to users through a E-learning is focusedwhich allows him to computer using on the views of theimprove quickly, save standard Internet most extensiveor bring back, technology. CD ROM, learning, learningdistributing, and Web TV, Web Cell solutions beatsharing of learning and Phones, Pagers, and traditional paradigm ininformation absolute aids other personal trainingrequirement. digital devices. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 19
  • 20. Cisco’s E-learning E- Management Strategies E-learning is the delivery of information, communication, education, training of on-line E-learning provides a set of tools that can enrich the value of learning in the conventional (conventional learning models, the study of text books, CD-ROMs, and computer-based training) in order to answer the challenges of globalization development E-learning is not meant to replace conventional learning models in the classroom, but to strengthen the model of learning through content enrichment and development of educational technology Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 20
  • 21. Future Paradigms in the Education The structure of vocational skills and Strong impact of the knowledge to support For that requires birth of globalization changing lifelong knowledge of will result in a change learning and education and in management continuous learning learning methods are strategy of education that serves to prepare new and training workers to meet the demands or industry interests Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 21
  • 22. E-LEARNING POLICY IN HIGHER EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Light an Educational Fire 1m15 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 22
  • 23. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management (Leithwood, et al.,23 1998)
  • 24. Current Target of E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher EducationICT literacy (ability to access, utilize and use the radio,television, computers and the Internet) of the studentsand faculty with strengthening on Governance,Accountability, and Public Image Enhanced capacity of higher education unit conducted through competitive grant programs run by governments such as competitive grant programs, partnership programs, research grants, education development center and instructional activities Management capacity building will also be supported by the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as the development of higher education information system Source: Education Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education 2009-2014 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 24
  • 25. Operational E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher EducationThe accreditation document (BOOK IIIB) point 6.4.1 (Information Systems) as follows:"Describe the management information systems and facilities of ICT (Information andCommunication Technology) used the Faculty / School for the academic administration and administration (eg SIAKAD, SIMKEU, SIMAWA, SIMFA, SIMPEG and the like),including distance / e-learning. Explain utilization in decision-making processes in the development of institutions In Book VI - ACCREDITATION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS FOR GRADUATE PROGRAM STUDY also described in detail the policy "Access and utilization of information systems in managing data and information on the implementation of academic programs in the course of study” Source: The accreditation document of the Ministry of Education - 2008 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 25
  • 26. Operational E-learning Policy E- in Indonesia Higher Education Source: The accreditation document of the Ministry of Education -2008 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 26
  • 27. E-learning shortcomings (Bullen, 2001, Beam, 1997) Bullen, Lack of interaction between Lecturers and The tendency to ignore students or even among aspects of the academic The process of learningthe students themselves. or social aspects and and teaching tend Lack of this interaction instead encouraging the toward training than could slow the formation growth of the business / education of values in the process commercial of learning and teaching The changing role of Lecturers from the Not all the available original master internet facilities (this Students who do not conventional learning may be related to the have a high learningtechniques, are now also problem of availability of motivation tended to fail required to know the electricity, telephone or learning techniques that computer); use ICT Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 27
  • 28. E-learning in Higher Education Policy Framework Propose Policy Area Key Issues Calendar, Course integrity, Transferability, Transcripts, Student/Course evaluation, Academic Admission standards, Curriculum/Course approval, Accreditation, Class cancellations , Course/Program/Degree availability, Recruiting/MarketingGovernance / Administration Tuition rate, Technology fee, Administration cost, State fiscal regulations, Tuition / Fiscal disbursement, Space, Single versus multiple board oversight, Staffing Compensation and workload, Development incentives, Faculty training, Congruence Faculty with existing union contracts, Class monitoring, Faculty support, Faculty evaluation Legal Intellectual property, Faculty, Student and institutional liability Advisement, Counseling, Library access, Materials delivery, Student training, Test Student Support Services proctoring, Videotaping, Computer accounts, Registration, Financial aid, Labs Systems reliability, Connectivity/access, Hardware/software, Setup concerns, Technical Infrastructure, Technical support (staffing), Scheduling, Costs Adoption of innovations, Acceptance of on-line/distance teaching, Understanding of Cultural distance education (what works at a distance), Organizational values Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education Gellman-Danley and Fetzner (1998) 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 28
  • 29. Policy Analysis Framework Propose on E-learning in Higher Education Policy Area Description Rewards (e.g., stipends, promotion and tenure, merit increases, etc.); SupportFaculty (including Continuing (e.g., student help, technical assistance, training, etc.); Opportunities to learn Education and Cooperative about technology and new applications (e.g., release time, training, etc.); Extension) Intellectual property (e.g. ownership of materials, copyright, etc.) Support (e.g., access to technology, library resources, registration, advising, financial aid, etc.); Requirements and records (e.g., residency requirements, Students/Participants acceptance of courses from other places, transfer of credit, continuing education, etc.) Tuition and fee structure; Funding formula; Collaboration (e.g., with other Departments, units, institutions, consortia, intra-and inter-institutional, service areas, etc.); Resources (e.g., financial resources to support distance education,Management and Organization equipment, new technologies, etc.); Curricula/individual courses (e.g., delivery modes, course/program selection, plans to develop, individual sequences, course development, entire program delivery, interactivity requirements, test requirements, contact hour definitions, etc.) Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 29
  • 30. The Policy Construction Process (Weimer & Vining) Analyze • We need to develop a strategy for doing analysis; yourself first • Analysis of the analysis • Linear thinkers tend to solve Linear and problem by moving sequentially through a series of logical steps. • Nonlinear thinkers tend to view Non-linear problems configuratively, moving back and forth over steps • Linear thinkers should adopt Never a right or nonlinear thinking strategies and vice versa • Analyst should simultaneously utilize a wrong answer linear and nonlinear thinking when conducting policy analysis. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 30
  • 31. Seven Stages Policy Design Process Stage Setting goals and Formulation of the assessment policy objectives model issues Determination of Assessment of Formulation of alternative policy policy alternatives policy alternatives selection criteria. Formulation of policy William N. Dunn (2008) recommendations Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 31
  • 32. PROBLEM ANALYSIS (Weimer & Vining, p.205)1. Understanding the problem a) Receiving the problem: SOLUTION assessing the ANALYSIS symptoms. 4. Choosing b) Framing the evaluation criteria problem: 5. Specifying policy analyzing market alternatives COMMUNICATION and government 6. Evaluating: Conveying useful failures. predicting impacts Advice to client c) Modeling the of alternatives and problem: valuing them in identifying policy terms of criteria variables. 7. Recommending2. Choosing and actions. explaining relevant goals and constraints3. Choosing a solution method. A summary of Steps in the INFORMATION GATHERING RationalistIdentifying and organizing relevant data, theories and facts; using facts as Mode evidence about future consequences of current and alternative policies. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 32
  • 33. Choosing a Solution Methods (Weimer & Vining, p.219) Yes No Benefit Cost Efficiency Can Efficiency Analysis Only Monetized Qualitative Benefit Cost No Analysis Other Goals Yes Efficiency Yes Can Other Yes “Modified”in Addition to Plus Others Goals Benefit Cost Efficiency Goal Monetized Analysis Can Efficiency & Other Goals Cost Quantified No Effectiveness Yes No Efficiency Analysis + 2 Others Goal Multi-Goal Analysis Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education 26-Jan-11 26-Jan- Knowledge Management 33
  • 34. Conclusion Focus on Solution not Problem-1m12 Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 34
  • 35. Higher Education E-Learning E- E-Learning will be used or not depends on government policy in education and how users view or assess the e-learning. Generally the use of these technologies depends on: (1). Is the technology was already a requirement?, (2). Is adequate supporting facilities?, (3). Is supported by adequate funding?, and (4). Is there support from policy makers? Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 35
  • 36. E-Learning Prerequisites Many people often try to launch e-learning without careful consideration and use it to look prestigious without Management Policy and Strategy Education. Therefore one thing to note before using the Internet for learning, the policy analysis to answer whether it requires e-learning. In this analysis would have included whether it is technically and non-technical e-learning can be carried out this analysis regarding the availability of People, Process and Technology. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 36
  • 37. E-Learning Social Economic Analysis Economic analysis Social Analysis Resistances• Economic analysis • Furthermore • Because such as Cost Benefit whether socially, the sometimes, although (B / C) ratio, the use of e-learning the usage of e- Internal Rate of must be accepted by learning for learning Return (IRR), Net the community has been prepared Present Value (NPV) (socially properly and operate or Return on acceptable). quality is also good, Investment (ROI) people can not can be used as a accept it because measuring tool. they consider the ways of conventional education is considered better. Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 37
  • 38. Thank you very much for your attention Educational Philosophy-1m48 Djadja.Sardjana, Djadja.Sardjana, S.T., M.M. Djadja@bapinger.web.id www.slideshare.net/djadja Comslab- Comslab-ITB Higher Education26-Jan-1126-Jan- Knowledge Management 38