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Creative Management: Lecture on Corporate Creativity



Creative management aims to transform ...

Creative management aims to transform
organisations through changing the way they are run, by trying to open up the climate and management style, increase participation and grant employees more freedom as to how things are accomplished, e.g. new product



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Creative Management: Lecture on Corporate Creativity Creative Management: Lecture on Corporate Creativity Presentation Transcript

  • Creative Management Lecture on Corporate Creativity From Cursory to Creativity-2m3223-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 1
  • LOGO Contents 1. THE IDEA-DRIVEN ORGANIZATION 2. CREATIVITY & ITS MANAGEMENT 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 2
  • THE IDEA-DRIVEN ORGANIZATION23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 3
  • LOGO THE PROBLEMFront-line workers see a great many problems andopportunities that their managers don’t.Today, most leaders either don’t realize the fullpower of employee ideas or have never learnedhow to tap them effectively.To be truly excellent, innovative, lean oreffective at execution, you have to be able tocapture and implement large numbers of employeeideas. IMT - Management Creativity 4 23-Sep-11
  • LOGO EXAMPLES OF GOOD IDEA SYSTEMS Boardroom Inc. 104 ideas per person per year Wainwright Industries 65 ideas per person per year 90 percent implemented Richer Sounds 20 ideas per employee per year Milliken Corporation 115 ideas per employee per year Toyota Lexus 100 ideas per employee per year IMT - Management Creativity 5 23-Sep-11
  • LOGO WHY IS CREATIVITY IMPORTANT? The greatest source of competitive advantage is not really cost or quality, but creativity. John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge Business editors of the Economist IMT - Management Creativity 6 23-Sep-11
  • LOGO YOUR GOAL Learn how to set up and run a good idea system, to enable everyone in your organization to act on the problems and opportunities they see. Goal: 12 implemented ideas per person per year by end of first year. IMT - Management Creativity 7 23-Sep-11
  • LOGO POINT 1: GO AFTER SMALL IDEAS It is impossible to improve performance past a certain point without getting the little things right. Unlike major innovations, most small ideas stay proprietary and create sustainable competitive advantage. Small ideas are the best source of big ideas. If you don’t go after small ideas, you won’t get many big ones either: • What other ideas does this one suggest? • Where else might this idea be used? • Are there any patterns in the ideas that have come in? IMT - Management Creativity 8 23-Sep-11
  • POINT 2: MAKE IDEAS PART OFLOGO EVERYONE’S JOB Document ideas and track them. Require or expect ideas from your front-line employees: Evaluate them on the quantity and quality of their ideas. Teach your supervisors the value of ideas and their own four roles: encouraging, mentoring, championing and looking for larger implications of ideas. Evaluate them on how well they promote ideas. Important principle: There is no such thing as a bad idea. IMT - Management Creativity 9 23-Sep-11
  • LOGO AT ONE LARGE COMPANY . Ideas PerPerson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Division IMT - Management Creativity23-Sep-11 10
  • LOGO AT ANOTHER Ideas PerPerson 15 Division IMT - Management Creativity 23-Sep-11 11
  • LOGO SOME THINGS TO KNOW How to handle the issue of rewards How to overcome initial reluctance to participate How to make ideas part of everyone’s jobs How to hold your people accountable What a good idea process looks like How to focus your team’s ideas on critical issues How to help your people come up with more and better ideas (a big area) What is the most effective way for top leadership to be involved How to design and launch an idea system And much more IMT - Management Creativity 12 23-Sep-11
  • CREATIVITY & ITS MANAGEMENT 4 Steps for Creative Visualization-2m3023-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 13
  • LOGO PROBLEM SOLVING Backward Reasoning Starting End ? ? ? point Point Need: Knowledge Forward Reasoning [Edward De Bono, Lateral Thinking for Management, Penguin Books, 1990] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 14
  • StartingLOGO Point DESIGN 1: ? ? ? ? End 2: ? ? ? ? Point Need: Knowledge + Creativity 3? ? ? ? 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 15
  • Starting EndLOGO Point INNOVATION Point 1: ? 1:? 2:? 2: ? 3:? 3? 4:? Need: Knowledge + Creativity 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 16
  • LOGO ARRANGEMENT OF INFORMATION • Analysis • Provocation • Description • Liberation • Proof • Intermediate Impossible 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 17
  • LOGO Basic Lateral Thinking Processes ESCAPE from cliches and patterns CHALLENGE assumptions GENERATE alternatives JUMP to new ideas and then see what happens (?) FIND new entry points from which to move forward (?) 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 18
  • PO “Provocative Operation”:LOGO A new functional word Logical thinking: YES/NO Lateral thinking: PO PO is an escape from HYPOTHESIS YES/NO. SUPPOSE PO introduces a discontinuity function. POSSIBLE PO is a fantasy device POTENTIAL PO is an insight tool. Po is a repatterning tool. POETRY PO is a-rational, not antirational. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 19
  • LOGO PO PO Creativity Information 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 20
  • LOGO Number of ideas 5 min 10 min 20 min PO 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 21
  • LOGOProblem: Find the size of in the tube without pulling othe constriction ut the tube. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 22
  • LOGO PO Spaghetti Spaghettifilaments push filaments down the hole one by one until no more will pass through the constriction diameter is then given by the number of filaments used. Spaghettifilaments use fiber optics with a camera at the end to actually photograph the constriction. Spaghettimacaroni tube attach a small balloon to the tube and push through constriction in deflated state, then blow up balloon and try to withdraw tube determine degree of inflation which will just allow withdrawal, then measure the diameter of the tube. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 23
  • LOGO Creativity • The term ‘creativity’ comes from Sanskrit kar, meaning “to make, originate, to bring into existence. • Creativity is about exploring as an end in itself, being interested in the unassuming, paying attention to the strange and the weird, not intending to produce any particular result, but delighting in the process of exploration [Moore and Gillette]. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 24
  • LOGO Creative Thinking A Technological Thinking Systematic Intuitive Empiricism Omphaloskepsis Flash of Genius/ Hunch 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 25
  • “Chase, Chance and Creativity:LOGO The Lucky Art of Novelty” According to the book with the above title written in 1978 by J.H. Austin (a neurological scientist), creativity involves chance and there are four types of chances: Chance I: Pure accident through ‘blind luck’. No purposive effort. We do not know how to motivate or encourage it. Chance II: Results from action even when there is no clear goal. Kettering, the famous automotive inventor said “Keep going and the chances are you will stumble on something, perhaps when you are least expecting it. I have never heard of anyone stumbling on something sitting down.” May be applicable in certain purely empirical applied research. Lesson: Success may improve with more people employed. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 26
  • LOGO Some other ‘serendipitous’ products Microwave oven, Bendix brake linings, Gore-Tex, Dynamite, Puffed wheat, Dextrose-Maltose, LSD, Penicillin, Dramamine, X rays, Pulsars. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 27
  • LOGO Present day Problems knowledge and Experience Exploratory Creativity Normative Creativity [Majaro 88] Flow of ideas 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 28
  • LOGO Serendipity “‘Serendip’ was the ancient name of Ceylon or Sri Lanka used by Horace Walpole in his fairy-tale ‘The Three Princes of Serendip’. The heroes of this book ‘were always making discoveries of things they were not in quest of’. They simply floated over the waves of destiny and allowed chance to ordain the events that directed their lives.” [Majaro 88] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 29
  • LOGO Brain Jogging: Using a different approach each time, divide each of the following squares into four equal pieces Time: 2 minutes 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 30
  • LOGO Cover the nine dots with four straight and continuous lines. In other words the lines must be drawn without lifting the pencil off the paper. [M ajaro 88] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 31
  • LOGO Which of these four pictures differs from the rest? A B C D 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 32
  • LOGO What was special about 1961 that has not happened that has not happened since 1881? 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 33
  • LOGO Solution to first nine dots puzzle. If you can do this one you are a lateral thinker and have an original and flexible mind. [Majaro 88] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 34
  • LOGO Solution to Historical Dates Puzzle Both 1961 and 1881 read the same if turned upside- down and are read back to front. No other dates between these two years manifest this characteristic. After 1961 the next one is in 6009, a long time to wait! If you have solved this, you seem to have good lateral thinking. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 35
  • LOGO Ideas, like eggs, need time to hatch. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 36
  • LOGO The Creative Process: 5 Stages Recognizing that a problem First Insight exists and determining to tackle it Attempts to understand the Preparation problem and to produce solutions Periods of relaxation allowing Incubation subconscious though Sudden emergence of the idea Illumination (the ’act of insight’ or ‘creative leap’) Conscious development and Verification testing of the idea into a workable solution 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 37
  • LOGO What is intelligence? Theories about general intelligence, have been discussed since the early 20th century. Psychologist Charles Spearman defined general intelligence in 1904 as the kind of intelligence that is used to an extent in all intellectual tasks. This type of general intelligence is supposedly what is measured by standardized tests, such as IQ tests and the SATs. Gardner defines intelligence as the “ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular setting or community.” 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 38
  • LOGO Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligence TheoryProposed in 1983 that there is no single quotient ofintelligence," but rather there are seven: Visual / Spatial Intelligence: The ability to perceive the world accurately and to perform transformations upon ones perceptions. Highly developed in guides, interior designers, architects, artists, and inventors, Musical Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms. Highly developed in musical performers, aficionados, and critics. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence: The capacity to use words effectively, either orally or in writing. Highly developed in story-tellers, orators, politicians, poets, playwrights, editors, and journalists. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 39
  • LOGO All thinking involves of logic. There are two kinds of logic. Crisp Fuzzy Yes/No Depends Black/White Shades of Gray Polar Distributed Membership 0 1 1 0 YIN YANG ARISTOTLE BUDDHA ORIENTAL OCCIDENTAL 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 40
  • Sees things in parts Sees things as a wholeLOGO Sequential Holistic Left Right Logic Rhythm Reasoning Music Language Imagination Numeracy Images, Color Analysis Shape recognition Linearity Day dreaming Abstract [Majaro 88] General creativity 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 41
  • LOGO Load the mind with pertinent information and identify the value problems Divert the mind to permit the unconscious mind to solve the problem Create an Later we will study environment that a technique called stimulates the VALUE ANALYSIS unconscious mind that helps implement to deliver the ideas we have learnt its solutions concerning creativity. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 42
  • LOGO Three levels at which we use our mind 1. Conscious level: communication of literal ideas and reality. 2. Preconscious level: Data processes at an extraordinarily rapid rate with great freedom, assembling and disassembling many diverse patterns (as in a dream). 3. Unconscious level: a. Use of special competence and knowledge b. Express the needs dictated by the innermost concerns and emotions. Kostler: “No problem was ever solved in the conscious mind.” 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 43
  • LOGO “ O n e o f th e s c ie n tis ts w o rk in g o n n e w p rin tin g te c h n o lo g ie s a t H e w le tt P a c k a rd L a b o ra to rie s in 1 9 7 8 w a s J o h n V a u g h t, a n d h e d ra n k a lo t o f c o f f e e . J o h n d ra n k s o m u c h c o f f e e th a t h e h a d to h a v e h is o w n c o f f e e m a k e r o n h is d e s k . N o w , a p e rc o la to r is a th e r m a l p u m p w ith n o m o v in g p a rts b u t th e c o ff e e its e lf . T h e re is a h e a te r a t th e b o tto m o f th e p o t, a f u n n e l c o v e rin g th e h e a te r th a t h a s a tu b e to c a rr y liq u id u p a n d o u t th e to p to a b a s k e t o f c o f f e e g ro u n d s . H e a tin g th e w a te r in th e b o tto m o f th e p o t f o rm s b ig b u b b le s o f s te a m th a t p u s h w a te r (c o f f e e ) u p th e tu b e a n d o u t o v e r th e c o f f e e g ro u n d s . O n e d a y , a s J o h n w a s w a itin g f o r a f re s h c u p o f c o ff e e , h e re c o g n iz e d th a t h e c o u ld u s e th is p rin c ip le to m a k e a n in k je t p rin te r w h e re h e a t, ra th e r th a n a m e c h a n ic a l p u m p , e je c ts th e in k .” 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 44
  • The Right Way:LOGO Stage 1: Assembling Knowledge Initial Feasibility Study Market data including Assess company strengths competition and weaknesses Store Checks and Agreed screening criteria Exhibitions Group discussions with Screens top market experts and opinion formers Creative Briefing 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 45
  • The Right Way:LOGO Stage 2: Idea Generation Creative Briefing From enthusiasts From existing and discussion products groups Idea Making From other From sources individuals From From unexploited brainstorming patents First ideas list 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 46
  • LOGO recycled Ideas Idea generation (60 ideas) The Idea idea funneling screening process Feasibility Implementation (innovation) (1) 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 47
  • The Right Way:LOGO Stage 3: Screening and Presentation Screen First Ideas List Short Ideas List Product Concepts Visual Business Draft technical description Appearance rationale Test concepts with users 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 48
  • The Right Way: Stage 4LOGO Development and Implementation Presentation Product brief and budget for each product R&D Product Design Model Prototypes Brand names and package designs 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 49
  • LOGO Generating Ideas: Brainstorming [Alex F. Osborne, ‘Applied ImaginationPrinciples & Procedures of Creative Problem Solving’, New York, 1963, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 4th Edition.] Osborn was a modest and unassuming person who developed a personal passion for one subject: helping people, froups and organizations to become more creative [Majaro 88]. He said: ‘It is a little like trying to get hot and cold water out of the dame faucet at the same time: the ideas may not be hot enough, the evaluation of them not cold or objective enough. The results will be tepid.” He suggested that the idea generation phase and idea screening phase must be de-coupled. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 50
  • LOGO Creating Innovative Product Ideas [Takahashi, 1999] Ideas generation may be stimulated by attempts towards • Imitation (e.g., imitating how a bird flies). • Analogy (e.g. ‘computer- hamburger’ analogy, different modules/layers made to order.) • Combination • Transformation • Improvement • Invention These six methods of triggering ideas can be repeated with respect to each of the fifteen design contexts factors shown in the next slide [Takahashi, 1999]. Thus, the method enables at least 90 new product ideas to be generated. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 51
  • LOGO1. Innovation2. Analogy3. Combination4. Transformation5. Improvement6. Invention 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 52
  • LOGO Volume Place Time Increase Bigger Expand Longer Heavier Fast Smaller Shorter Decrease Lighter Segmented Slow Discontinuous Diverse Split Separate Sequential Continuous Integrated Combine Unified Concurrent Transform Abstract Formal All at once Rounded Forward Concrete Separately Transfer Edged Informal Reverse [Takahashi, 1999] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 53
  • LOGO Creative Phase: Intuitive Method “Little by Little” The SIL Method [Battelle Institute, Frankfurt] • Each member of the team writes down two or more of her/his ideas for solving a defined problem. • Two members read their proposals aloud. • All the team members try to combine these two ideas into a new common solution concept. • Another member reads her or his own thoughts out loud to the team and again they attempt to create a new common solution. • This process is continued until the group has found an acceptable solution or the process is terminated when a given time limit has been reached. 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 54
  • 3D-Morphological AnalysisLOGO Exploration of New Packaging Ideas P ackage Shape Package C ontent P ackage M aterial 1. C ube 1. Liquid 1. P lastics 2. Sphere 2. P aste 2. Alum inum 3. T ube 3. P owder 3. P aper 4. C one 4. G as 4. B oard 5. T etrahedron 5. Solid 5. Steel 6. H exahedron 6. G rain 6. P aper/P lastic/La 7. P arallelepiped 7. S m ell m inate 8. R ho m boid 7. Alum inum /P last 9. C ushion-shaped ic/Lam inate Y ou m ay select from 9×7×7 = 441 possible com binations! 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 55
  • 3D-Morphological AnalysisLOGO Developing a New Concept in Air Fresheners Sh ap e S m ell L o ca tion 1. P endant 1. A ro m atic salts 1. H ome p o m aind er 2. D eod o rants 2 . M eat & fish 2. V inaigrette 3. M entho l m arkets 3. P en-shap ed 4. R o ses 3 . P ub lic transp o rt sp rayer 5. Sp iced lem o n 4 . P ub lic 4. P ocket sp rayer co nveniences 5. Stand ard aero so l 5 . C inem as Y ou m a y select from 5× 5× 5 = 125 possible co m binations! 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 56
  • 4-D Morphological AnalysisLOGO New Products in the Disposable Container Business M aterials Shapes Content W here 1. Paper 1. Beakers 1. Coffee 1. Home 2. W axed paper 2. Cups 2. Tea 2. Canteens 3. Polystyrene 3. Plates 3. Juices 3. Coal mines 4. Polyethylene 4. M ulti- 4. M eals 4. Army 5. Aluminum foil compartment 5. W hisky 5. Climbing 6. Rubber 5. Grenade shape 6. Glucose water 6. Cycling 7. High barrier 6. Condom 7. Syrup 7. Golf courses plastics 7. Balloon 8. Pain killers 8. Space 8. Aluminum/ 8. Sachets 9. Energy 9. Gliding Paper 9. Hip flask producers 10. Cross-country 9. Laminates 10. Inflatable belt 10. skiiing 10. PVC with straw 11. PET Select from 11×10×10×10 = 11000 possible combinations! 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 57
  • LOGO You learn the general principles of good practice Apply to your Why is it work successful? Copying Example Your of Good Work Practice Learning not Copying [Petty 97] 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 58
  • LOGO More Enjoyment You are more engrossed, motivated, spontaneous, and bold Better Ideas Enjoy the Inspiration Phase 23-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 59
  • LOGO Competence Doing the old way Trying the new way Practicing the new way and making it work Time Learning a New Approach Creativity, Management of 60 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • www.themegallery.com Back to Orbit A Song About Innovation.6m0623-Sep-11 IMT - Management Creativity 61
  • LOGO Problem Example A lift in a building is usually very crowded. You are being asked to submit a quotation for solving the problem. You could quote a new and larger lift. This requires major modifications to the building. Cost = $500,000. You are looking for a far cheaper solution: Creativity, Management of 62 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO“Ask an impertinent question and youare on the way to a pertinent answer” [J. Bronowski, scientist] “Why?” followed by “So? ” Step-up using “Why?” “How?” “Unless?” [Petty 1997] Creativity, Management of 63 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO WHY-SO REASONING [Petty 1997] I need to reduce the waiting time for lifts. WHY? So, fit a new lift shaft. Because the lifts are inadequate. WHY? Because they are old- So, modernize them. fashioned. WHY? Because they are in an So, move to a new old-fashioned building. building. Creativity, Management of 64 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO I need to reduce waiting time for lifts How? Well, I could reduce the use of the lift How? By increasing the use of stairs Asking How? Creativity, Management of 65 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO Step-up using “Why?” I need to reduce the waiting time for lifts. Why? Because people find waiting for the lift very frustrating. Why? Because they are bored. Creativity, Management of 66 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO Side-stepping using “Unless?” I want to reduce the frustration of waiting. No! It is a nice rest to wait. Unless! you make waiting interesting by providing some sort of entertainment. Creativity, Management of 67 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGOI need to reduce the waiting time for lifts.Unless I can get people to accept the waiting time in some way.Either I need to reduce the waiting time for lifts.Or .reduce the number of people using them.Or .encourage alternative ways for people to get together.Or put people who communicate with each other a lot on the same floor.No! the waiting time is perfectly acceptable, stop fussing!No! let’s make use of the time for corporate communications.What about a notice board. Creativity, Management of 68 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO The lifts are inadequate. Unless I can speed them up Either the lifts are inadequate Or too many people are using them No! slow lifts are fine, they encourage informal communication. It is boring waiting. Unless you make it interesting. Creativity, Management of 69 Technological Innovation, KV Patri
  • LOGO Or! Unless! Sidestep to another Keep stepping up way of achieving until you discover this goal your true goalWhy? Step down to find I’ve hit a way of achieving a difficulty this in practice Creativity, Management of 70 Technological Innovation, KV Patri