Tutorial 1 kaedah penyelidikan

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Tutorial 1 kaedah penyelidikan

  1. 1. TUTORIAL 1PN SITI NUR DIYANAMAHMUD
  2. 2. KAJIAN KUANTITATIF Kajian kuantitatif adalah kajian yang menggunakan maklumat / data yang bersifat kuantitatif. Data kuantitatif boleh diukur, melalui proses pengukuran dan memerlukan alat-alat pengukuran seperti soal selidik dan ujian. Saiz sampel bagi kajian ini lebih besar berbanding kajian kualitatif. Jenis-jenis kajian kuantitatif: i) Kajian Deskriptif ii) Kajian Korelasi iii) Causal Comparative iv) Kajian Eksperimental
  3. 3. KAJIAN KUALITATIF Kajian kualitatif adalah kajian yang menggunakan maklumat / data yang bersifat kualitatif. Data kualitatif diperoleh dengan cara pemerhatian, temubual, analisis dokumen atau apa-apa cara untuk mendapatkan data yang lengkap. Saiz sampel bagi kajian ini lebih kecilberbanding kajian kualitatif. Jenis-jenis kajian kualitatif: i) Kajian Tindakan ii) Kajian Kes iii) Kajian Lapangan iv) Analisis Dokumen
  4. 4. Bentuk dataKAJIAN KUANTITATIF KAJIAN KUALITATIFData berbentuk angka yang boleh diukur. Data berbentuk perkataan atau ayat yang dikumpul melalui temubual atau yang direkod dalam bentuk gambar atau video.
  5. 5. Instrumen KajianKAJIAN KUANTITATIF KAJIAN KUALITATIFPenyelidik menggunakan instrument seperti Penyelidik adalah instrumen utamasoal selidik dan ujian pencapaian bagi memungut data. Penyelidik perlu beradamemungut data. Instrumen berfungsi sebagai dalam situasi yang dikaji, mendengar danalat pengukur dan menjadi alat perantaraan memerhati sendiri fenomena yang inginantara penyelidik dan peserta kajian. dikaji.
  6. 6. Reka bentuk KajianKAJIAN KUANTITATIF KAJIAN KUALITATIFReka bentuk ditetapkan sebelum data Reka bentuk bersifat mudah lentur / fleksibel,dipungut. boleh diubahsuai mengikut keadaan dan keperluan situasi.
  7. 7. Peserta KajianKAJIAN KUANTITATIF KAJIAN KUALITATIFPenyelidik bukan peserta kajian. Peserta kajian Penyelidik adalah sebahagian daripada pesertaadalah sampel yang dipilih dengan kajian. Maklumat kajian diperoleh secaramenggunakan teknik persampelan tertentu. langsung daripada peserta kajian.
  8. 8. Metodologi Kajian KAJIAN KUANTITATIF KAJIAN KUALITATIF Penyelidik mengkaji populasi atau sampel yang Saiz sampel kecil dan dipilih secara bertujuan mewakili populasi. Saiz sampel besar dan dan tidak berasaskan kebarangkalian. dipilih berasaskan kebarangkalian.RUJUKANAini Hassan. 2007. Kualitatif Atau Kuantitatif ?: Memahami Andaian AsasYang Mendasari Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Masalah Pendidikan. 30 (1). Halaman 7-16. ISSN 0126-5024
  9. 9. SOALAN 3: Huraikan kitaran proses yang terlibatdalam sesuatu penyelidikan
  10. 10. Fokus / interest Pembacaan secara intensif jurnal dlm bidang yang terkini (3-5 tahun kebelakangan) bagi mencari: KAJIAN KEPUSTAKAAN RESEARCH GAPPERSOALAN OBJEKTIF KAJIAN TAJUK KAJIAN KAJIAN PERNYATAAN MASALAH SIGNIFIKAN KAJIAN METODOLOGI BINA INSTRUMENVALIDITY & PUNGUTANRELIABILITY DATA ANALISIS DATA INTERPRETASI DATA PERBINCANGAN
  11. 11. Soalan 5: Reflek prosedur kognitifCOGNITIVE PROCESS The essential idea behind the cognitive processes is quite simple. Whenever our minds are engaged, we are doing one of two things. We are either taking in information or else organizing information and drawing conclusions. Jung called the "taking-in" process Perceiving and the "organizing-and-drawing-conclusions" process Judging.
  12. 12.  Heres an example of how it works: We observe we are thirsty (Perceiving), we decide to get something to drink (Judging), we come up with possibilities of what to drink (Perceiving), we decide on a beverage thats available several blocks away (Judging), we notice it is sunny (Perceiving), we decide to have water outside instead (Judging). And so it goes, back and forth, all through the waking hours of our life.
  13. 13. Cognitive process : ingenerating idea Step 1: Divergent Thinking Here are some examples of divergent thinking triggers: List all the uses you can think of for a shoe.  Generate meanings for a nutshell.  List all the resources available for your next project.  Make as many sentences as you can using all of the following words: candle, hope, tissue, egg.
  14. 14.  open-ended exercise. No evaluation is required or asked for. None of the questions asked you to meet any criteria whatsoever. The responses are free from any restriction, even if they are outside the parameters you perceive in the question. That’s an important point.
  15. 15.  Step 2: Convergent Thinking Here are some examples to demonstrate convergent thinking.  Which shoe idea is the most novel?  Rank your meanings of the nutshell from the most personally meaningful to the least.  Select the resources that are most challenging to maintain.  Of all the sentences you made, which is the most intriguing?
  16. 16.  During the convergent stage, we apply critical thinking; that is, we use some criteria to evaluate, select, and analyze the output from the divergent phase.
  17. 17. Cognitive Processes and Idea Generation • <> • DIVERGE CONVERGE PERCEPTION JUDGMENT Creative ideas— Creative ideas— where they come from. how they are evaluated. How well do ideas Consider using each of these: meet these criteria?Extraverted Sensing (Se) Extraverted Thinking (Te)Change what is. Improve efficiencies, structures, measurements,•Give new uses and tactics for what is and organizing principles.contextually happening now, what’s right in front •Demonstrate excellence using provable andof you. profitable standards.Introverted Sensing (Si) Introverted Thinking (Ti)Change what was. Improve understanding of how something•Recombine past elements. works. •Provide clear categorical shifts.Extraverted iNtuiting (Ne) Extraverted Feeling (Fe)Change what might be. Improve harmony among people.•Infer new patterns, potentials, and spin-offs •Facilitate cooperation and interpersonalfrom the current situation. harmony in the outcome.Introverted iNtuiting (Ni) Introverted Feeling (Fi)Change the representation of the future. Align with values, personal and corporate.•Integrate insights to form new concepts. •Demonstrate commitment to what is truly important to those impacted and involved.
  18. 18. Learning and the Cognitive Processes INFORMATION-ACCESSING PROCESSES—Perception Extraverted Sensing: Experiencing and noticing the physical world, scanning for visible reactions and relevant dataSe What is really happening? What are the facts of the situation? What can I do with this now? Introverted Sensing: Recalling past experiences, remembering detailed data and what it is linked toSi What have I already learned that I can build on? What resources and materials are available? What practical use does this have? Extraverted iNtuiting: Inferring relationships, noticing threads of meaning, and scanning for what could beNe What inferences can I make? What meanings am I perceiving? What hypotheses can I generate? Introverted iNtuiting: Foreseeing implications, conceptualizing, and having images of the future or profound meaningNi What are the implications for the future? What are the concepts? What is the greater purpose?
  19. 19. ORGANIZING-EVALUATING PROCESSES—Judgment Extraverted Thinking: Organizing, segmenting, sorting, and applying logic and criteria How can I structure and organize my learning? What is the sequence and arrangement of what I am learning?Te What is the logic behind what I am learning? Introverted Thinking: Analyzing, categorizing, and figuring out how something works What principles do I need to learn? What models can I fit the learning into? WhatTi techniques or approaches can I apply? Extraverted Feeling: Considering others and responding to them Who can I connect with, or relate to in order to learn better? Who can I help with thisFe learning? How can I use this to improve my relationships? Introverted Feeling: Evaluating importance and maintaining congruenceFi What is really important here? What is of value to me, and what do I want out of this? Who is good to learn from?

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