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    Brand Re-positioning: Lidl Brand Re-positioning: Lidl Document Transcript

    • Brand Strategy Report MKTG 317
    • Executive SummaryThe UK grocery market is extremely competitive. With the demand of food products beingregularly affected by cross price elasticity; retailers must ensure that they are constantlyexploring new and innovative methods to achieve a differential advantage over competitors(Mitchell and Kiral, 1998). This report will assess the current brand strategy of discountgrocery retailer Lidl and provides recommendations on how Lidl can improve anddifferentiate their brand by adopting a fresh and invigorating brand image.
    • Contents1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 1.1Company Background ....................................................................................................... 1 Figure 1.0 Lidl Timeline ...................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Organisational Strategy.................................................................................................... 22.0 Existing Brand Architecture and Strategy ............................................................................ 3 2.1 Existing brand Architecture ............................................................................................. 3 2.2 Existing Brand Strategy .................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2.4 Current Mood Board ......................................................................................... 53.0 Positioning............................................................................................................................ 6 3.1 Competitor Analysis ......................................................................................................... 6 Figure 3.2 UK Grocery Market share January 2012. .......................................................... 6 Figure 3.3 Lidl’s competitor Analysis ................................................................................. 8 3.4 Positioning Grids .............................................................................................................. 94.0 Research ............................................................................................................................. 10 4.1 Primary Research ........................................................................................................... 10 4.2 Primary Research Findings ............................................................................................. 104.2 Secondary Research ........................................................................................................... 14 4.2.1The UK Grocery Market ............................................................................................... 14 4.2.2. Lidl .............................................................................................................................. 144.3 Social and Cultural Issues ................................................................................................... 15 4.3.1Recession ..................................................................................................................... 15 4.4 Research Implications .................................................................................................... 165.0 Recommended Brand Model ............................................................................................. 17 Figure 5.1 Recommended Brand Model .......................................................................... 176.0 New Mood Board ............................................................................................................... 18 Figure 6.1 Proposed Brand Model ................................................................................... 187.0 Brand Personality and Tone of Voice ................................................................................. 208.0 Expression of new Idea ...................................................................................................... 21 8.1 Logo and tag line ............................................................................................................ 21 8.2 Brand Touchpoints ......................................................................................................... 22 Figure 8.2.1 ...................................................................................................................... 239.0 Recommended measurements of outcome ...................................................................... 25
    • References ............................................................................................................................... 26Appendices............................................................................................................................... 29 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................... 29 Appendix 1.1- Questionnaire- Question 1 ........................................................................... 29 Appendix 1.2- Questionnaire- Question 2 ........................................................................... 29 Appendix 1.3- Questionnaire- Question 3 ........................................................................... 29 Appendix 1.4- Questionnaire- Question 4 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.5- Questionnaire- Question 5 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.6- Questionnaire- Question 6 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.7- Questionnaire- Question 7 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.8- Questionnaire- Question 8 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.9- Questionnaire- Question 9 ........................................................................... 30 Appendix 1.10- Questionnaire- Question 10 ....................................................................... 31 Appendix 2- Focus Group images ........................................................................................ 31 Appendix 3- Lidl Advert ........................................................................................................ 33 Appendix 4- Loyalty Card ..................................................................................................... 33
    • 1.0 IntroductionLidl is a German discount supermarket; operating a chain of over 7000 stores across Europe.In Germany Lidl has an upmarket image attracting middle class professionals (Matamalasand Ramos, 2009). Despite the fact that in the UK Lidl products have been rated as betterquality than big name brands (Pearl, 2008), UK consumers perceive Lidl to be a Europeanand down market retailer attracting low income families (Matamalas and Ramos, 2009).However whilst the recession has brought a number of middle class consumers to Lidl andcreated a sharp increase in profits, analysts are uncertain as to whether Lidl’s no frillsbranding and strategy in the United Kingdom will be able to maintain levels of profitability ina strong economy (Blythman, 2008) as customers may seek an experience which goesbeyond products and pricing.1.1Company BackgroundSchwarz Beteiligungs GmbH is the holding company of the Handelshof and Kaufland storechains and Lidl Stiftung & Co KG, a wholly-owned subsidiary which owns supermarket Lidl.The company was founded in Germany in the 1930’s by the Schwartz family as a wholesalefoods company under the name Schwarz Assorted Wholesale Foods. The first Lidl storedopened in 1973 and by 1977 the Lidl chain comprised 33 discount stores. Today Lidloperates 7,200 stores across 20 European countries. Within the UK, Lidl has a nationaldistribution network servicing its 536 stores across the country. Whilst Lidl remainsconcentrated to grocery retailing, it has made attempts to diversify its offering by launchingLidl movies, a low cost movie rental company, however due to lack of demand the companynow ceases to exist. Lidl’s history within the UK has changed dramatically in recent yearsfollowing the appointment of three different managing directors within only two years. Thishighlights the difficulties the company faces in order to maintain strong sales (EuromonitorInternational, 2011). 1
    • Lidl Movies – online DVD Company rental. founded in MD Marcel Germany under Lidl opened Oosterwijk first store in steps down. Present the name UK. New MD Frank- Day Schwarz Assorted Michael Mros. Wholesale 1973 1930’s 1994 2008 2009 2010 20 Foods . 12 Lidl Lidl Express – Frank- Michael opened Edmonton. Mros steps down its first – New MD Ronny store in Gottschlich (Sept Germany 2010).Figure 1.0 Lidl Timeline .1.2 Organisational StrategyLidl’s no frills approach to retailing enables them to eliminate all extra costs such as carrierbags and customer services. The in-store design reflects this approach, Lidl avoids expensiveflooring, furnishing, or embellishments associated with most grocery stores and uses basicfixtures such as pallets, wire bins and simple shelving (ICMR 2010). Lidl do this in order tokeep their operating costs as low as possible which allows them to maintain low productprices and offer their customers value for money. Lidl also have a narrow productassortment, offering one or two items in each category. Therefore Lidl is able to buy largeamounts of stock achieving economies of scale, enabling Lidl to offer quality products at alow competitive price. 2
    • 2.0 Existing Brand Architecture and Strategy2.1 Existing brand ArchitectureLidl is seen to hold a house of brands strategy (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000). Lidl stocksvery few market leading brands and mainly stocks their own unfamiliar captive brands,which encompasses food and non-food products. Many ranges focus on the ethnic origin ofproducts. Its Italian brand Combino covers everything from dry pasta and frozen tortellonito pasta sauces; Eridanous covers all products Greek; El Tequito signals Mexican food;Vitasia carries a complement of Asian food products; while Trattoria Alfredo is Lidl’s pizzaline. In its non-grocery arm, brand Silvercrest focuses on electrical products. Lidl also offer afair trade brand, Free Globe, which provides Lidl consumers with an ethical alternative.Captive brands are in line with Lidl’s operating strategy as a no frills discount retailer. Ownlabel, captive brands are cheaper than branded label products as Lidl control the costs andproduction thereby ensuring higher profit margins.2.2 Existing Brand StrategyThe brand model in figure 2.3 highlights Lidl’s current brand strategy of offering qualityproduce at a low price. This identity however is not necessarily translated to UK consumersbrand image of Lidl, which is mainly focussed around low costs and cheapness as opposed togood quality food. 3
    • Figure 2.3 – Existing Brand Model 4
    • Figure 2.4 Current Mood BoardThe mood board highlights Lidl’s brand image as a cheap, low cost, cluttered discount retailer, whichis shown in its advertising, products, store design, logo, colour scheme and tagline. 5
    • 3.0 Positioning3.1 Competitor AnalysisFigure 3.2 UK Grocery Market share January 2012. 6
    • 7
    • Figure 3.3 Lidl’s competitor Analysis 8
    • 3.4 Positioning GridsLidl’s currently differentiate themselves in the market by offering quality products at a lowprice. Therefore the dimensions of quality and price can be used to segment the UK grocerymarket. Despite the numerous awards for the quality of products, Lidl is perceived as beinglow quality and low price by consumers. If Lidl were rebranded on these dimensions, theimage of quality could be enhanced.After the initial positioning grids that focused on quality and price, from research it wasrecognised that it was beneficial to focus on more market trends such as freshness. Whilstduring the current recession consumers focus may be on price, post-recession maydemonstrate a change in focus, emphasising more quality and freshness. Therefore thefollowing positioning grid displays this. 9
    • 4.0 Research4.1 Primary ResearchAn online survey was distributed to 106 participants; aiming to establish current perceptionstowards the Lidl brand and discovering what consumers look for in a supermarket.4.2 Primary Research FindingsThis graph demonstrates that Lidl is rated one of the lowest in terms of fresh, organic, staff,loyalty and product availability. It is rated as average in terms of being ethical comparedwith its competitors and was rated quite high in terms of price (value for money). Howeverit wasn’t rated as top four based on any of the aspects (see Appendix 1.1).Other findings: The most important factors in determining supermarket choice, as shown in rank order are; price, quality of produce, freshness of produce, availability of produce/brands, supermarket brands, in store convenience, location, ethical position and staff (see Appendix 1.2). The survey found that 93% of participant’s supermarket brand preferences have not changed as a result of the recession (see Appendix 1.3). Consumers also favorably rated supermarket private labels rating them with an 10
    • average of 4.1 out of 5 (see Appendix 1.4).Consumers surveyed also stated that on an average weekly shop consumerspurchased 53% private label brands versus 47% marketing leading brands (seeAppendix 1.5).The survey also asked participants what colours they positively associate withsupermarkets (see Appendix 1.6).47.5% of participants had never even been Lidl. Therefore participant’s views havebeen divided into users and non-users (see Appendix 1.7).The chart below illustrates the Lidl user and non-user’s perceptions of the Lidl brandin terms of positive and negative aspects.The majority of Lidl users infrequentlyshopped at Lidl (see Appendix 1.8) and 89% additionally used other grocery stores. 11
    • 12
    • The current Lidl logo received a rating of 2.76 out of 5 (see Appendix 1.9). When askedabout their views on the logo, participants believed that the colours and image presentwere not associated with a supermarket (see Appendix 1.10). Participants said: “Makes the company look like a bad Ikea.” “Uninspiring” “The colours and image remind me of a hardware store and not a food store”.Primary research – Proposed new mood board images, colours and logoFurther research was later conducted using focus groups to explore opinions and views ofthe images, colours and logo used in the proposed mood board (See Appendix 2).The new logo received a rating of 4.64 out of 5.Word association was used to explore such opinions and views of the participants. Threethemes emerged from this: Appearance Quality Green Fresh Up-market Organic Friendly Professional Ethical Modern Local Organised – layout Environmental Clean Healthy Open Fait trade Cohesive Fresh Welcoming 13
    • 4.2 Secondary Research4.2.1The UK Grocery Market Research into supermarket preferences in the UK reveals that freshness of produce is rated the highest across four consumer groups (elderly, wealthy, ethnic and lone parents). Price was recognised as second, with quality, range and access as other key factors (I.R.I., 2007). Datamonitor (2009) points out that whilst low prices are a big influence on where UK consumers shop, the primary influence was the overall quality of the products sold. Datamonitor (2009) also points out that private label brands are currently performing very well. Only 15% of consumers stated that they rarely or never bought private label brands. Whilst 39% said that they were regular uses of private label brands with some believing that they were actually superior to market leading brands.4.2.2. Lidl Consumer magazine ‘Which?’ reports that Lidl consumer satisfaction scores are considerably higher than the big four supermarkets. Therefore Lidl’s current users, which represent only 2.6% of the UK grocery market, appear to be very pleased with Lidl’s operations (Wallop, 2010). The vast majority of UK consumers however do not share this image and have a very negative impression of the brand; “Strip lights glare down on a narrow range of products in ugly packaging, displayed in cardboard boxes piled on the floor and on low shelves” (The Economist 2008). Lidl has received widespread negative PR in the press regarding the poor treatment of workers (Connolly, 2008). Such damming reports have further damaged Lidl’s brand image. 14
    • Such impressions have led to Lidl being rated as one of the most hated brands in the UK (Schroeder, Salzer-Mörling and Askegaard, 2006). Residents of towns have become outraged by the prospect of a Lidl store opening, believing that it will lower the tone of the area and destroy its character (Poulter, 2010). According to Laforet (2010) a logo should signal allegiance to the brand it represents. The current Lidl logo is not representative of a grocery outlet. The main colour used in Lidl’s logo is blue. Research has found that blue slows metabolism and is an appetite suppressant (AstroNutrition, 2010). Such colours therefore are not ideal for a grocery brand. The colour orange however has been found to stimulate appetite and the mind. The colour green is also associated with food and healthy living.4.3 Social and Cultural Issues4.3.1RecessionThe financial recession is having a massive impact on grocery shopping in the UK. Researchreveals that discount retailers such as Lidl and high end retailer Waitrose were massively outperforming mid-market rivals (Wood, 2011). Research points out that Lidl is gaining a morediverse, middle class customer base as a result of the recession (Blythman, 2008). HoweverCharles (2010) points out that as the recession has eased Lidl’s market share has slowlydecreased for the first time since 2004. The Lidl brand therefore needs to be able tocompete on more than just price if it is to be sustainable and retain more affluentconsumers in the future.4.3.3. Ethical ConsumptionStatistics’ show that ethical consumption is increasing (McEachern and Berry, 2005).Research has revealed that the ethical food and drinks market saw an increase of 17% alonein 2006. In 2006 sales of free range eggs overtook the sales of non free range eggs(Cooperative Bank, 2007). It is also reported that 13% of adults in the UK purchased more 15
    • regionally produced items. Ethical, fair-trade and local food consumption is thereforebecoming increasingly important to UK consumers. Interestingly Lidl does currently sell free-trade products (Lidl, 2012), however the current branding does not communicate this ideato the customer.4.4 Research ImplicationsThe current low cost and discount strategy of Lidl has resulted in a poor brand image. Inorder to ensure future success Lidl need to diversify from the current low cost approach andfocus not solely on price but on contemporary grocery market trends. The research revealsthat more people are seeking fresh, healthy and ethically sourced food, which is easilyavailable. Therefore in order to overcome the current poor brand image and differentiatethemselves in the current competitive grocery market; it is proposed that Lidl radicallytransform their brand and adopt a fresh and invigorating brand image which is focusedaround delivering fresh, ethically sourced food to local communities. 16
    • 5.0 Recommended Brand ModelThe recommended brand model takes into account the research findings and reflects andjustifies the new brand values. The core brand essence moves from; low price and qualityproducts to; natural, fresh, organic and quality (figure 5.1). This will be communicatedthrough our company values, originally geared towards Lidl being traditional, European andholding a no frills approach; it becomes; more ethical, innovative, trustworthy andcontemporary. The product values move from; foreign, discount, captive brands and cheapto identifiable and symbolic private label brands, quality and locally sourced.Figure 5.1 Recommended Brand Model 17
    • 6.0 New Mood BoardFigure 6.1 Proposed Brand ModelThe new mood board represents the ideas that are demonstrated by the recommendedbrand model. It reflects a fresh and organic range of food, with a market place layout to 18
    • reflect a family/community feel to the store. All the brands are now recognisable, labelledas Lidl’s own brands. 19
    • 7.0 Brand Personality and Tone of VoiceLidl’s personality is not distinct from their competitor’s offerings. Lidl’s brand personalityreflects an; outdated, cheap, European, cluttered product range, which is negativelyperceived by some consumers. Within the UK, Lidl’s personality and captive brandedproducts lack symbolic meaning and have few strong associations with Lidl. Lidl currentlyportray a muted tone of voice. It is recommended that the new tone of voice, in order tomatch the new brand ideas, is fresh and natural. It should portray Lidl as honest andtrustworthy, offering; quality, fresh and organic products at a competitive price. It shouldalso aim to show that Lidl is natural as opposed to cheap and basic. 20
    • 8.0 Expression of new Idea8.1 Logo and tag lineIn order to overcome the negative perceptions associated with the current logo andrepresent a true and radical break with the previous brand image, a new logo has beendesigned to represent Lidl’s new and fresh proposed brand image and positioning. Greenrepresents freshness, ethical and positive brand image. This is complemented with anorange trademark to create a symbolic identity. The simplicity of the logo depicts a moresophisticated and positive image to appeal to a wider consumer base.The tag line ‘Simply, Fresh, Delicious’ is designed to portray the proposed Lidl brand clearlyto the consumer and adds to the brand personality. The three words together create amemorable connection with the consumer. 21
    • 8.2 Brand TouchpointsPre purchase experience Marketing communications will be used to portray the proposed brand identity to the customers. Advertisements both online and offline in press and on television will be used to appeal to a wide audience (see Appendix 3). Adverts will depict the proposed fresh, ethical and invigorating brand by showing affluent consumers purchasing aesthetically pleasing food. Social media such as blogs, Twitter and Facebook will also be used to communicate the proposed brand to consumers. Not only will this help to advertise the new brand values it will also help to establish the community element of the brand online. Additionally the website shall enable the new brand idea to be demonstrated to current and potential customers. Its focus will be on expressing the core values of the new brand, fresh, ethical and local. Internet shopping will also help to enhance the brand image by appearing more convenient and accessible. 22
    • Purchase Experience The main touch point in portraying the proposed Lidl brand is the retail environment. Primary research highlights the importance of store design and layout in supermarket preferences. Both the external and internal store design should be upgraded to reflect the proposed, fresh and invigorating brand identity. The current smaller size of Lidl stores is in keeping with Lidl’s new brand image as a fresh, ethical retailer. The store interior however should portray a more natural, open and cleaner image whist displaying the produce in attractive and effective manner, which is functional for consumers to use. Figures 8.2.1 & 8.2.2 show a proposed design, which has a very fresh and organic atmosphere, where consumers can experience the new brand identity.Figure 8.2.1 Figure 8.2.2 It is proposed that the majority of Lidl’s products will remain of the same award winning quality; however any products which are unethical or not perceived as fresh will be removed from the product offering. The products sold at Lidl will no longer be unknown, ambiguous captive brands. The research reveals a strong consumer preference for own label retail brands. Not only do such brands provide Lidl with high profit margins they will also help to enhance the brand and ensure more recognisability and trust within the product offering. Such products will also be packaged in a cohesive manner, which portrays the fresh, invigorating and ethical image of the brand. 23
    • Post purchase experience In order to promote a corporate social responsibility and reinforce Lidl’s proposed ethical positioning, it is suggested that Lidl forms an alliance with an ethical and fair trade organisation in order to gain recognition for its efforts and reinforce this idea to the consumer. The loyalty scheme will be used to retain customers. It will also enable Lidl to assess customer behaviours, finding trends and patterns. This would enable Lidl to examine the success of the new brand idea whilst addressing any necessary alterations (see Appendix 4). 24
    • 9.0 Recommended measurements of outcome Lidl are currently one of the most hated brands in the UK, a focus group and questionnaires would be undertaken to measure consumer’s new attitudes towards the brand. In contrast we expect to measure a greater positive attitude expressing love and excitement towards the brand. In particular the Initial question (Appendix 1.1) could be repeated to assess whether these proposed changes for example; focus on freshness of products rather than low price had a positive effect on Lidl overall. This would be measured by comparing the previous results for this question with the new findings. The loyalty scheme will also assess the retention rate of consumers, additionally be able to assess the brand loyalty and buying behaviours of the new customers acquired. Another measurement of outcome could be to assess and improve market share (see figure 3.2) after rebranding and once again post recession. 25
    • ReferencesAaker, D A. Joachimsthaler, E. (2000) ‘The Brand Relationship Spectrum: The Key to theBrand Architecture Challenge’ California Management Review, Vol. 42/4, pp. 8-23.AstroNutrition (2010). How Colours Affects Your Appetite. Available at:http://www.astronutrition.com/blog/how_colour_affects_your_appetite. [Accessed on 26thFebruary 2012].Blythman, J. (2008) The rise of Lidl Britain during the credit crunch. Available at:http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/features/3637902/The-rise-of-Lidl-Britain-during-the-credit-crunch.html. [Accessed on 26th February 2012].Centaur Media plc a (2012) ‘Asda’ Available athttp://www.marketingweek.co.uk/brands/asda/ [Accessed on 23rd March 2012].Centaur Media plc b (2012) ‘Sainsburys’ Available athttp://www.marketingweek.co.uk/brands/sainsburys/ [Accessed on 23 rd March 2012].Cooperative Bank (2007) Ethical Consumerism Report. Availablehttp://www.cooperativebank.co.uk/servlet/Satellite?c=Pageandcid=1139903089615andpagename=CoopBank%2FPage%2FtplPageStandard. [Accessed on 2nd March, 2012].Co-operative Group Limited (2012) materiality and strategy Available at http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/Sustainability09/Overview/sustainability-management/materiality-and-strategy/ [Accessed on 23rd March 2012].Cowe, R. and William, S (2000), Who are the Ethical Consumers?. Ethical ConsumerismReport, Cooperative Bank (online) Availablehttp://www.cooperativebank.co.uk/servlet/Satellite?c=Pageandcid=1139903089615andpagename=CoopBank%2FPage%2FtplPageStandard. [Accessed on 20th December, 2011].Datamonitor (2009) UK consumers: shopping for value, but reluctant to compromise onquality. Available at:http://www.datamonitor.com/store/News/uk_consumers_shopping_for_value_but_reluctant_to_compromise_on_quality?productid=E49760A1-176A-485D-A0D8-2626A134395D.[Accessed on 4th March 2012].Emap Ltd (2011) ‘Aldi Corporate Strategy’ Available athttp://www.racplus.com/intelligence/retailers/aldi/aldi-corporate-strategy/8601475.article[Accessed on 23rd March 2012].Euromonitor International (2011). Schwarz Beteiligungs GmbH - Retailing 26
    • I.R.I (2007) Consumers’ shopping wants and UK grocery retailing. Are consumer needs beingmet?. Available :http://www.britishbrandsgroup.org.uk/upload/File/BBG%20Needs%20research%2077.pdf.[Accessed on 1st March 2012].ICMR (2010) ‘Lidl: The Hard Discounter Case Study 2008’ Available athttp://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Business%20strategy/BSTR290.htm[Accessed on 15th February 2012].Laforet, S. (2010) Managing Brands. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Lidl (2012) Available at www.Lidl.co.uk [Accessed on 20th February 2012].Mitchell, V.W, and Kiral, R.H (1998). Primary and Secondary store-loyal consumerperceptions of grocery retailers, British Food Journal, 100 (7), pp. 312-319.Pearl, J. (2011) Why I shouldn’t think twice about budget champagne. Available at:http://conversation.which.co.uk/consumer-rights/champagne-taste-test-morrisons-lidl-waitrose/. [Accessed on 25th February 2012].Morrisons (2012) Available athttp://www.morrisons.co.uk/Corporate/2010/AnnualReport/strategic-review/our-strategy/[Accessed on 23rd March 2012].Poulter, S. (2010). Were too posh for Lidl: Cut-price superstore will lower the tone, say thepeople of Lytham. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1314616/Were-posh-Lidl-Cut-price-superstore-lower-tone-say-people-Lytham.html#ixzz1sxiFoC5n.[Accessed on 3rd March 2012].Schroeder,J.E., Salzer-Mörling, M. and Askegaard, S. (2006). Brand Culture. Taylor & Francis.SPAR (2012) ‘SPAR around the world’ Available athttp://www.spar.co.uk/AboutUs/CompanyInfo/SPARaroundtheworld.aspx [Accessed on23rd March 2012].Tesco PLC (2012) Available at http://www.tescoplc.com/about-tesco/our-strategy/[Accessed on 23rd March 2012].The Economist (2008). The Germans are coming. Germany’s “hard discount” model ofsupermarket retailing is spreading in Europe. Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/11920665. [Accessed on 2nd March 2012].Waitrose (2012) Available athttp://www.waitrose.com/content/waitrose/en/home/about_waitrose/our_company/the_waitrose_difference.html [Accessed on 23rd March 2012]. 27
    • Wallop, H. (2010) Aldi and Lidl beat Tesco and Sainsburys in Which? Survey. Avaliable at:http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/7083273/Aldi-and-Lidl-beat-Tesco-and-Sainsburys-in-Which-survey.html. [Accessed on 23rd Febuary 2012].Wood, Z (2011) Waitrose or Lidl? Shoppers in a divided Britain compare supermarkets deals.Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jun/29/waitrose-lidl-shopper-divided-britain. [Accessed on 2nd March 2011]. 28
    • Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 1.1- Questionnaire- Question 1 Please rank the following supermarkets in order of preference on the following factors. 1 being the least preferred and 12 being the most preferred. Iceland Farmfoods Lidl Spar Aldi Asda Tesco M&S Sainsburys Co- Morrissons Waitrose opFreshness ofproduceLoyaltyOrganicStaffProductavailabilityPriceEthics Appendix 1.2- Questionnaire- Question 2 Please rate out of 5 the importance of the following factors in determining your supermarket choice. 1 being of the least importance and 5 being of the most importance. 1 2 3 4 5 Quality of produce Freshness of produce Price Location Ethical position Staff In store convenience Availability of produce/brands Supermarket brand Appendix 1.3- Questionnaire- Question 3 Has your supermarket brand preferences changed within the recession? 29
    • Appendix 1.4- Questionnaire- Question 4On a scale of 1 to 5 how do you rate supermarket own label brands. 5 being the highest and 1being the lowest.Appendix 1.5- Questionnaire- Question 5What Percentage of supermarket own label products do you buy versus market leadingbrands? Own label brands Market leading brandsAppendix 1.6- Questionnaire- Question 6Which colours do you positively associate with supermarkets?Blue Red Green Yellow PurpleOrange Pink Black BrownAppendix 1.7- Questionnaire- Question 7Have you been to Lidl?If YES what did you like and dislike about LidlIf NO why have you not been and what do you think are the positive aspects and negativeaspects of shopping at Lidl?Appendix 1.8- Questionnaire- Question 8Lidl Users: How often do you go to Lidl?Very Rarely Rarely Sometimes Frequently Very FrequentlyAppendix 1.9- Questionnaire- Question 9In terms of colours used, style and design what do you think of the Lidl logo (Please seebelow)?Please indicate your answer using the scale below, with 1 being the low and 5 being high. 30
    • Appendix 1.10- Questionnaire- Question 10Please explain why you gave the Lidl logo that particular rating.Appendix 2- Focus Group images 31
    • 32
    • Appendix 3- Lidl AdvertAppendix 4- Loyalty Card 33