Presentation on:Power and politics in Organisation<br />Presented By:<br /> A 20 Diwakar Sharma A 17 ChandanMishra<br /> A 21 KalpeshGadaria A 16 Bhavya Barbie<br /> A 24 SomnathGoudar A 25 RahulHardas<br /> A 23 GauravKhanna A 19 SwapnilDekate<br /> A 18 PriteshChhajed A 14 AshishSheth<br />Presented To:<br /> Prof. Harshali<br />
Power and politics IN ORGANIZATION<br /><ul><li>Introduction
Countering the effects of political Behavior</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants, either by self or by subordinates. The essence of power is the control over the behavior of others.<br />-----(French & Raven, 1962)<br />Managers derive power from organizational sources(called position power) and individual sources (called personal power)<br />Power refers to the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B,<br /> So that B acts in the accordance to A’s wish, the greater B’s dependency on A, the greater A’s power in relationship. Therefore power is the function of dependence.<br />….(Robbins,2003)<br />
Contrasting Leadership and power<br />With respect to an organization, leadership and power are related to each other.<br />Leaders use power to achieve group goals.<br /> Differences between leadership and power<br />Leadership and power differ on the basis of <br />Goal compatibility: Power does not require goal compatibility whereas leadership require some match between goal of the leader and the followers. <br />Direction of influence: Leadership focuses on downward influence on one’s followers also focuses on the importance of lateral and upward influence pattern.<br />
And now<br />Bases of power<br />Dependency: The Key to power<br />Power Tactics<br />Empowerment<br />Politics: Power in action<br />
Dependency: The Key to power<br />The general equation of dependency is <br />The more B is dependent on A, the more power A has over B. If a person has anything that the other person wants, then he has more power over him.<br />Dependency is inversely proportional to the source of supply.<br /> More the supply of resources, less is dependency and vice versa.<br /> that’s why most suppliers have more than one suppliers, rather than depending on a single supplier.<br />
Factors responsible for dependency<br />Three factors are responsible for dependency:<br />Importance: The more important a thing, more dependency it creates.<br />Scarcity: More scarce a resource, more dependency it creates.<br />Non-substitutability: When a resource has no practical substitute, the dependency on that resource increases.<br />
Power Tactics<br />Using power to achieve the desired effect over other people is a challenge faced by most of the managers.<br />The most common strategies to implement relational effect are..<br />Reason: Use of facts and data to present your ideas logically.<br />Friendliness: Use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble, and being friendly.<br />Coalition: Getting the support of other people in the organization.<br />Bargaining: Use of negotiation.<br />Assertiveness: Use of forceful approach<br />
Conti…<br />6. Higher authority: Getting the support of higher level members of the organization.<br />7. Sanctions: Use of rewards and punishments derived by the organization.<br />
<ul><li>Individual use the above strategies according to the situational factor.
The manager’s relative power also affect the selection of techniques in two ways:
Manager with greater power use more techniques than manger with less power.
Manager with power use aggressiveness more frequently than manager with less power.
When they want benefits from a superior, they use friendliness.
When they want superiors to accept new ideas, the user friendliness.
Managers use reason to make employees accept new ideas and friendliness to obtain favor.</li></li></ul><li>Empowerment<br />The process by which manager give others the power to make decisions affecting their work and themselves is known as empowerment.<br />The concept of empowerment is part of the decentralized structures found in today’s organizations.<br />The trend is to form organizations that are flexible and are able to take faster decisions.<br />Empowerment is the key foundation of self-managing work teams.<br />
Politics: Power in Action<br />Politics are those activities that are not a part of an individual’s formal role in the organization, but affect the advantage and disadvantages within the organization.<br />Organizational politics is the influence to obtain results not allowed by the organization or to obtain allowed results with the help of means that are not allowed .<br />
Legitimate and Illegitimate power dimensions<br />Legitimate political behavior is the normal everyday politics like complaining to supervisor, forming coalitions, etc.<br />Illegitimate politics behavior is the behavior that violates rules like sabotage(doing damage), whistle blowing(speaking bad about the organization).<br />A majority of organizational political actions are legitimate.<br />
Opinion about organizational politics:<br />According machiavelli’s philosophy- politics in terms of self interest and the use of non-authorized means.<br />The second opinion treats politics as necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals.<br />
Factors contributing to political behavior<br />Individual factors<br />Organizational factors<br />
Countering the effects of political Behavior<br />To deal with the effect of politicking individuals may use following three strategies:<br />Avoid action and risk taking<br />Redirect accountability and responsibility<br />Defend their turf<br />
Research has proved that perception of organizational politics are negatively to job satisfaction.<br />The perception of politics leads to anxiety or stress.<br />When this becomes unbearable , employees leave the organization.<br />High political skills individuals often have improved performance.<br />Low political skills individuals often respond with defensive behaviors –reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action , change or blame.<br />
Maccoby’s Four Political <br />The Craftsman: Craftsman are the least political. They are technical specialist who like details and accuracy. The person is usually quiet , sincere , modest and practical.<br />The Jungle Fighter: They are active politicians. They believe employees should be used to get ahead in the company. They want success at any cost. There are two types of jungle fighters:<br />Foxes: The foxes make their nests in the organization and plan from this safe base.<br />Lions: They capture others territories and build empires.<br />
Conti…..<br />Company men or women: These are traditional or moderate people. They have a desire for affiliation and may not show a lot of political bare more behavior. Such people are concerned for humans. They are more involved with security than success and may miss opportunities that arise.<br />The Gamesman: The Gamesman are competent politicians. They see business as a game and take calculated risks. The gamesmen are charismatic , grow when there are challenges and competition and motivate employees with enthusiasm.<br />