Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Golden ratio

1,451 views
1,164 views

Published on

nice for class presentations . and it also have a quiz for ur class mates

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
1,451
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
39
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Golden ratio

1. 1. GOLDEN RATIO MADE BY DIVYANSH MISHRA AND VARUN CHOPRA
2. 2. WHAT IS GOLDEN RATIO ? DIVYANSH • In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. Expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b, • where the Greek letter phi ( ) represents the golden ratio. Its value is • : • The golden ratio is also called the golden section (Latin: section aurea) or golden mean. Other names include extreme and mean ratio,medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: section divina), golden proportion, golden cut, and golden number.
3. 3. • Many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing (see Applications and observations below). Mathematicians since Euclid have studied the properties of the golden ratio, including its appearance in the dimensions of a regular pentagon and in a golden rectangle, which can be cut into a square and a smaller rectangle with the same aspect ratio. The golden ratio has also been used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets, in some cases based on dubious fits to data. • At least 1,000,000,000,000 decimal digits are known
4. 4. CALCULATION • • • Two quantities a and b are said to be in golden ratio if A+b/a = a/b =φ One method for finding the value of φ is to start with the left fraction. Through simplifying the fraction and substituting in b/a = 1/φ, • A+b/a=1+b/a= 1+1/φ • By definition, it is shown that • 1+1/φ =φ • Multiplying by φ gives Φ + 1= φ . Φ which can be rearranged to
5. 5. Φ . Φ – Φ-1 =0 Using the quadratic formula, two solutions are obtained: Φ = 1+root5 / 2 = 1.61803………… And Φ = 1 – root5/2 =.61803…………….. Because φ is the ratio between positive quantities φ is necessarily positive Φ = 1+root5 / 2 = 1.61803…………
6. 6. Uses in architecture date to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks • It appears that the Egyptians may have used both pi and phi in the design of the Great Pyramids. The Greeks are thought by some to have based the design of the Parthenon on this proportion, but this is subject to some conjecture. • Phidias (500 BC – 432 BC), a Greek sculptor and mathematician, studied phi and applied it to the design of sculptures for the Parthenon. • Plato (circa 428 BC – 347 BC), in his views on natural science and cosmology presented in his “Timaeus,” considered the golden section to be the most binding of all mathematical relationships and the key to the physics of the cosmos.
7. 7. • Euclid (365 BC – 300 BC), in “Elements,” referred to dividing a line at the 0.6180399… point as “dividing a line in the extreme and mean ratio.” This later gave rise to the use of the term mean in the golden mean.  He also linked this number to the construction of a pentagram. pentagram
8. 8. The Fibonacci Series was discovered around 1200 AD • Leonardo Fibonacci, an Italian born in 1175 AD (2) discovered the unusual properties of the numerical series that now bears his name, but it’s not certain that he even realized its connection to phi and the Golden Mean. His most notable contribution to mathematics was a work known as Liber Abaci, which became a pivotal influence in adoption by the Europeans of the Arabic decimal system of counting over Roman numerals. (3)
9. 9. Golden proportion was first called the “Divine Proportion” in the 1500 ′ s • Da Vinci provided illustrations for a dissertation published by Luca Pacioli in 1509 entitled “De Divina Proportione” (1), perhaps the earliest reference in literature to another of its names, the “Divine Proportion.”  This book contains drawings made by Leonardo da Vinci of the five Platonic solids.  It was probably da Vinci who first called it the “sectio aurea,” which is Latin for golden section. section • The Renaissance artists used the Golden Mean extensively in their paintings and sculptures to achieve balance and beauty. Leonardo Da Vinci, for instance, used it to define all the fundamental proportions of his painting of “The Last Supper,” from the dimensions of the table at which Christ and the disciples sat to the proportions of the walls and windows in the background.
10. 10. • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), discoverer of the elliptical nature of the orbits of the planets around the sun, also made mention of the “Divine Proportion,” saying this about it: • “Geometry has two great treasures: one is the theorem of Pythagoras; the other, the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. The first we may compare to a measure of gold; the second we may name a precious jewel.”
11. 11. The term “Phi” was not used until the 1900 ′ s • It wasn’t until the 1900′s that American mathematician Mark Barr used the Greek letter phi (Φ) to designate this proportion. By this time this ubiquitous proportion was known as the golden mean, golden section and golden ratio as well as the Divine proportion.  Phi is the first letter of Phidias (1), who used the golden ratio in his sculptures, as well as the Greek equivalent to the letter “F,” the first letter of Fibonacci.  Phi is also the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet, and 21 is one of numbers in the Fibonacci series.  The character for phi also has some interesting theological implications.
12. 12. Recent appearances of Phi in math and physics • Phi continues to open new doors in our understanding of life and the universe.  It appeared in Roger Penrose’s discovery in the 1970 ′s of “Penrose Tiles,” which first allowed surfaces to be tiled in five-fold symmetry.  It appeared again in the 1980′s in quasi-crystals, a newly discovered form of matter. matter
13. 13. MATERIAL CONTRIBUTED BY OTHER GROUP MATES AND FOR SOME OF YOU WHO DID NOT WATCH THE PPT , THE PPT WAS
14. 14. MATHEMATICIANS OF WHICH COUNTRY FIRST DEVELOPED BASIC NUMERICALS
15. 15. WHY NOBEL PRIZE IS NOT GIVEN FOR MATHS
16. 16. WHICH IS THE HIGHEST AWARD FOR MATHS
17. 17. FIELDS MEDAL
18. 18. NAME OF MATHS IN HINDI
19. 19. HOW MANY DECIMAL DIGITS OF GOLDEN RATIO ARE THERE
20. 20. NAME OF SIGN OF GOLDEN RATIO
21. 21. GOLDEN RATIO IS USED IN WHICH SCIENCE(SCEINCE + MATHS) HINT: GREEKS AND EGYPTIAN WERTE FIRST TO USE IT
22. 22. WHO DISCOVERED PIE
23. 23. PYTHOGORAS BELONGED TO WHICH CITY
24. 24. • SAMON