CYBER CRIME• Cyber crime is the latest and perhaps the most complicatedproblem in the cyber world. “Cyber crime may be said to be thosespecies, of which, genus is the conventional crime, and whereeither the computer is an object or subject of the conductconstituting crime”• “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as aninstrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimescomes within the ambit of cyber crime”• A generalized definition of cyber crime may be “ unlawful actswherein the computer is either a tool or target or both”
What is cyber crime?“He Uses Technology As His Weapon” It Is A Criminal Activity Committed On The Internet . A Generalized Definition Of Cyber Crime May Be “Unlawful Acts WhereinThe Computer Is Either A Tool Or Target Or Both”. Cyber crime offenses against the information technology infrastructure. Such conducts includes:• Illegal access• Illegal interception• System interference• Data interference• Misuse of devices• Fraud• Forgery
History• The first spam email took place in 1978 when it wassent out over the Arpanet (Advanced ResearchProjects Agency Network),.• The first virus was installed on an Apple computer in1982 when a high school student, Rich Skrenta,developed the Elk cloner.
Types of hackers• Professional hackers– Black Hats – the Bad Guys– White Hats – Professional Security Experts• Underemployed Adult Hackers– Former Script Kiddies• Can’t get employment in the field• Want recognition in hacker community• Ideological Hackers– hack as a mechanism to promote some political or ideological purpose– Usually coincide with political events• Criminal Hackers– Real criminals, are in it for whatever they can get no matter who it hurts• Disgruntled Employees– Most dangerous to an enterprise as they are “insiders”– Since many companies subcontract their network services a disgruntledvendor could be very dangerous to the host enterprise
Modes and manners of cybercrime• Unauthorized access & Hacking• Trojan Attack• Virus and Worm attack• E-mail & IRC related crimes• Email spoofing• Email Spamming• Email bombing• Denial of Service attacks• Web Jacking
hacking• Hacking in simple terms means an illegal intrusioninto a computer system without permission ofcomputer owner/user. Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the targetcomputer.
Trojan Attack• The program that acts like something useful butdoes things that are quiet damping. Theprograms of this kind are called as Trojans.• The name Trojan Horse is popular.• Trojans come in two parts, a Client part and aServer part. When the victim (unknowingly) runsthe server on its machine, the attacker will thenuse the Client to connect to the Server and startusing the trojan.• TCP/IP protocol is the usual protocol type usedfor communications, but some functions of thetrojans use the UDP protocol as well.
Virus and worm attack• A program that has capability to infect otherprograms and make copies of itself and spreadinto other programs is called virus.• Programs that multiply like viruses but spreadfrom computer to computer are called asworms.
E-mail and irc related crimes• 1. Email spoofingEmail spoofing refers to email that appears to havebeen originated from one source when it was actuallysent from another source.• 2. Email SpammingEmail "spamming" refers to sending email to thousandsand thousands of users - similar to a chain letter.• 3. Sending malicious codes through emailE-mails are used to send viruses, Trojans etc throughemails as an attachment or by sending a link of websitewhich on visiting downloads malicious code.contd.
E-mail and irc related crimes• 4. Email bombingE-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusersrepeatedly sending an identical email message toa particular address.• 5. Sending threatening emails• 6. Defamatory emails• 7. Email frauds• 8. IRC relatedThree main ways to attack IRC are: “verbal”attacks, clone attacks, and flood attacks.
Denial of service attackFlooding a computer resource with morerequests than it can handle. This causes theresource to crash thereby denying access ofservice to authorized users.
Web jackingOccurs when someone forcefully takes controlof a website (by cracking the password andlater changing it).
Protection Use anti-virus software and firewalls - keep them up todate Keep your operating system up to date with criticalsecurity updates and patches Dont open emails or attachments from unknownsources Use hard-to-guess passwords. Don’t use words foundin a dictionary. Remember that password crackingtools exist Dont share access to your computers with strangers Back-up your computer data on disks or CDs often If you have a Wi-Fi network, password protect it Disconnect from the Internet when not in use Reevaluate your security on a regular basis Make sure your employees and family members knowthis info too!
Steps for prevention of cybercrime Avoid disclosing any information pertaining tooneself. Avoid sending any photograph onlineparticularly to strangers. Use latest and up date anti virus software. Keep back up volumes. Never send your credit card number to anysite that is not secured. Use of firewalls may be beneficial.
Conclusion• User awareness is key to a secure computer/network– Do not open suspicious files/emails– Verify ActiveX/Java prompts– Avoid using P2P programs– Avoid downloading freeware– If attacked, disconnect the network. Do not turn off the computer Without Careful Attention To These Issues, The UncontrolledInterconnection Of Existing Systems, On Which People AndOrganizations Are Critically Dependent, Will Continue ToCreate Huge, Ill-defined And Defenseless Super - Systems. So We Must Pay Attention To All Those Issues And Protect TheWorld From Cyber Crime.