Indian_Premier_League (IPL)_2014

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Indian Premier League Cricket IPL 2014
Strategic challenges and potential strategic solutions.

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Indian_Premier_League (IPL)_2014

  1. 1. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 1 FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE (IPL) FIRM DESCRIPTION AND STRATEGIC CHALLENGE - The Indian Premier League (IPL) is the major cricket league in India, and the world’s richest cricket federation with net profits of $71.5 million in 2012 (Emmett, J, 2012). It is run, regulated, and managed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). Since its origination in 2008 by Lalit Modi, the IPL has emerged as the foremost cricket league as well as one of the fastest growing professional sports organizations in the world. With brand valuations in excess of $4 billion, Forbes has labeled the IPL as being “The World's Hottest Sports League” (Schwartz, P. J, 2009). The league was created in 2007 out of the International Cricket Council (ICC), the governing body of global cricket, which includes107 members from various participating cricket leagues such as the African Cricket Association, the Americas Cricket Association, the Asian Cricket Council, ICC East Asia-Pacific, and European Cricket Council. These leagues typically participated in the traditional model of cricket, with matches lasting 1-3 days in length (ICC.com, 2014). In an attempt to satisfy evening television audiences, the IPL differentiates its style of play from other cricket leagues by playing a fast-paced, action-packed version of the original game known as Twenty20 cricket, in which a match runs around three hours instead of days. The first official Twenty20 match was played in 2003 in England and has spread globally since. The business model of the IPL is one of individual franchisees, similar to the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the English Premier League (EPL). In 2008, the IPL held their league-starting auction with initial franchise sales nearing $400M. There are currently still only eight franchises today though a few have started and shutdown since (Exhibit 1). These eight franchises compete in 59 matches throughout the summer and conclude in a brief playoff tournament for the top four teams. Revenue streams for the league include franchisee membership fees, memorabilia sales, media rights and advertising. Revenue for the franchisees comes primarily from shares in television rights, corporate sponsorships, and event ticket sales.
  2. 2. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 2 The league is incredibly popular within the Indo-Asian region; albeit, several obstacles to the league’s growth cast doubts as to whether the league will be adopted globally. Individual franchises can cost upwards of several hundred million dollars, so initial investors can be difficult to find. In 2008, India could not provide security for the league’s startup funding, so the league moved to South Africa for the season (CNN, 2009). The attempt to market the league in a new country was successful and the IPL has now integrated this strategy into each season, consistently introducing their tournament to new markets. Recent studies indicate the decline in attendance over the first five years of the league has since righted itself. Despite holding claim as the world's first live sports event to be streamed on YouTube, TV ratings have been subsequently flat (Engineer, T, 2012). This is concerning as TV advertising is the main source of revenue for the initial club investors (Engineer, T, 2012). TV advertising revenues are also highly competitive, with many families preferring to watch soccer (Exhibit 2). Key sponsors for the league include marketing giants such as Pepsi, Nike, Vodafone, Amazon, Starsports, and Sony (IPLT20, 2014). In fact, the league is officially named the Pepsi Indian Premier League. Sponsorship can take many forms but most commonly companies are seeking advertising mediums through the player’s uniforms, the stadium billboards, and team and player merchandise. Keeping sponsors has been difficult as they are quick to leave when there are downturns in attendance or television ratings. Sponsorships and other revenue streams from event ticket sales and team merchandise have slowed down mainly due to a slumping Indian Economy (Khambatta, P, 2014). Though revenue generation is a primary concern for the IPL, resolving issues of fiscal responsibility and corruption are central to their success as well. In recent years the IPL has been plagued with match-fixing scandals resulting in several players being banned from the sport (Basnu, I, 2012). Any competitive advantage that the IPL will gain against other cricket leagues, and other sports leagues, will be via its ability to attract and retain premier athletes. These athletes will not likely continue to participate in the league if ethical issues persist. Having already captured the leading position in the competitive cricket market, the primary strategic problem now facing the IPL is how it can grow profitably within the global sports entertainment
  3. 3. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 3 industry (SEI). Should the IPL try to accomplish this by a frontal attack on its major competitors like professional soccer and football leagues or should they focus in the core cricket markets like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Australia, New Zealand and England. The IPL’s struggles to expand are a matter of strategic misalignment, particularly in the fields of marketing, finance, and ethics. The earnings potential within foreign markets will only be tapped if the IPL can successfully generate first-time exposure to the sport in new markets, grow the sport in under- developed markets, and clean up the corruption that is marring the league’s image. The IPL must make decisions on whether they should focus marketing efforts for short-term gains in television exposure and sponsorship rights or whether they should invest in marketing for a long-term adoption of cricket and the Twenty20 format. Financing this growth is going to be critical as well. The IPL must wrestle with the balance of enabling their players to become global icons but not allowing the players to become so powerful they could create a rival league or negotiate business-crippling salaries. Despite these strategic challenges we feel that the IPL has a bright future to increase cricket’s following throughout the world and sustain a competitive advantage in the SEI. EXTERNAL ANALYSIS - Since 2005, the industry’s profitability has seen ups and downs. The league witnessed a near 13% average rise in revenues between the years 2005-10 from $107.5 billion to $121.4 billion, which was counterbalanced by a 6.8% drop in back to back years from 2008-09 (Fenez et al, 2011). In the case of the IPL, the league franchise fee went up by 300% when new teams tried to enter in 2011 (ESPN Cricinfo, 2009). This growing trend in franchise value is not isolated solely to cricket, but is visible within football, baseball, and hockey as well, indicating the total value of the industry is the result of new industry growth versus market rivalry (Exhibit 7). With increasing competition from other sports leagues that have captured the world’s attention, coupled with strong political issues and the state of the economy, industry profits in the future will not be as easy to gain without taking strategic steps to either defend existing markets or take over others. {See Exhibit 8 for further analysis of external SEI forces}
  4. 4. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 4 PESTEL - Political (Highly Relevant): Along with legal issues, politics have always played a key role in the SEI. Sport was used to isolate apartheid in South Africa across all sports platforms, eventually impacting the sociocultural norms within the region (Cornell, 1998). Within the current era, politics continue to influence the industry particularly in India, as the 2014 elections in India are impacting the ability for teams to garner enough security to play. In 2011, the central government minister was forced to resign his post because of a controversial franchise bid (GargiParsai, 2010). Due to the global nature of the game, it is difficult to determine what effect politics will have on the industry as a whole. Economic (Relevant): Despite global economic challenges of late, the SEI numbers are still on the rise. Particularly in the US, the SEI is witnessing total industry improvement, particularly within the NFL, MLB, and NHL. With the rise of the global middle class, disposable economic income will continue to improve, likely improving the total number of consumers following the industry. Current populations and growth rates in Asian countries will be particularly important as this will shift the SEI market revenue from East to West and from historically dominant sports leagues to perhaps new and emerging ones. Socio-Cultural (Relevant): Cricket is largely popular in traditionally colonial countries. Originating from England, the game followed the English Navy across the globe. To date, cricket has largely failed to cross the gap between colonial and non-colonial based nations. This influence grants the game greater opportunities for growth within the traditionally poorer former colonial regions of the world, but poses significant barriers to entry within the non-colonial world-particularly the wealthy, sports-saturated US. In the same light, many U.S. sports have only been able to penetrate certain markets, having little influence in the formerly colonized countries. Technological (Highly Relevant): With continued advances in technology such as higher-quality television coverage, the broader diffusion of Internet connectivity across the globe, and the use of social media all contribute to the industry’s continued growth (Fenez et al, 2011). Technology has helped shape
  5. 5. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 5 the industry into what it is today and will continue to help strengthen the industry’s profitability as a whole. Ecological (Non-Applicable): There are no significant ecological factors tied to the industry’s future growth or profitability. Legal (Highly Relevant): The only issues that seem to affect profitability have been when leagues run into legal issues or when political agendas have been pushed. Some examples include the MLB strike in 1993 and the NBA lockout in 2012 in which issues surrounding performance pay of the players arose leading to the need for arbitration. More recently, it has been costly to the IPL when allegations of spot fixing and betting surfaced about some of the players. Should the ethical concerns surrounding the league continue, this will constrict profit potential within the league as the negative image of the sport will drive consumers to alternative options whether in the industry or not. FIVE FORCES - Threat of Entry (Low to Moderate): When examining the major players of this industry it is best to aggregate individual franchise teams into their respective leagues. The English Premier League, Formula One Racing, NBA Basketball, NFL Football, MLB Baseball, and IPL, all which have a transnational following, hold sporting events in more than one country, and employ a diverse group of players. Smaller local sports leagues are abundant and include local competition for the above-mentioned leagues. However, with the high start-up costs and time it takes to organize a professional sports league, the threat of new entrants is still fairly low. Power of Suppliers (Moderate): Though initially the primary revenue streams for the industry consisted of gate revenues, it now includes media rights, sponsorship, and merchandising (Mason, 1999). Supplier power is low to moderate though because of the number of choices of so many different media streams and merchandizing options. Also, corporations within the television industry such as Disney have vertically integrated by purchasing portions of media companies like ESPN and ABC Sports as well as franchises like the NHL’s Mighty Ducks and MLB’s Anaheim Angels (Stotler, 2000). Despite the fiscal
  6. 6. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 6 strength of these companies, their strengths and interests are largely invested within complementary industries such as media and advertising. With regard to IPL, efforts to increase the popularity of cricket may have inadvertently caused a shortage of supply of premier cricket players resulting in increasing salary demands (Fenez et al, 2011). To help solve this, the IPL may benefit from investing in the sports youth leagues because of the increase in future talent they would provide. Power of Buyers (Moderate to High): The SEI is a very lucrative business and will continue to be so as long as there are sports fans in the world. Revenue streams within the industry can be volatile from year to year as economic factors weigh heavily on revenues generated, thus yielding to the buyer power of the end users. Buyer power may be substantial, but IPL’s financial success hinges on the league’s continued growth globally. Buyers in the near term pose minimal threat to the SEI’s profitability. Threat of Substitutes (Low): There are many different sports, different tastes, and different options to purchase and as such the industry as a whole has a low threat of substitutes, with alternatives being other forms of entertainment such as movies, music, and art—most of which do not provide quite the same experience. It will be important though for the IPL to continue to monitor ticket prices. Many of the major sports leagues around the world can in part trace their success back to the accessibility of the game to the working classes. If cricket’s reputation becomes that of a privileged class sport with ticket prices out of reach for the poor or middle classes the threat of substitutes will increase dramatically. Rivalry (Low to Moderate): Due to the diversification in sport and sociocultural interest there has been plenty of room for competitors. With increased world visibility, leagues that once did not compete against each other for the attention of its audiences and shares of revenue. New competitors in the form of long-time established leagues have encroached on the market share and new leagues, such as IPL, have come about as serious competitors in a short amount of time. Strategic Role of Complements (Relevant): The increase in revenues due to merchandising, franchise sponsorships, and ticket sales provides added incentives for industry growth. The SEI has excelled in
  7. 7. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 7 controlling the merchandising of the branded teams with “authentic” collections that are highly desirable to all ages of fans and provide instant advertising for the industry. The strength of these complementary products and services increases the league’s profitability, and strengthens ability for leagues to negotiate with industry sub-partners as their popularity increases each party’s bottom line. Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP): The SEI, where leagues and their franchises are the main stakeholders, is oligopolistic in nature. With the convergence of globalization of the industry and improvements in technology, the industry is transforming more towards monopolistic competition. As the industry consolidates, the strength of both the leagues as well as the franchises themselves will continue to increase SEI profitability. The SCP model indicates this industry is generating large profits, growing at an exponential rate, across a global stage. Those that are contenders within the industry are poised to earn significant returns in the near and medium-range term, should they be successful in appealing to multiple audiences on multiple continents. Those that cannot do so will need to shore up strong positions in their current locations to defend against competition. INTERNAL ANALYSIS - Within its grasp, the IPL holds several resources and capabilities that can be leveraged for competitive advantage. Currently, the IPL has applied their strong financial position so as to capture market share from other cricket leagues including the ICC. But as it its options to expand within the SEI, IPL needs to correctly reposition its brand in order to compete with the equally strong financial position of rival leagues within other sports. STRENGTHS - Superior Financial Position: The league’s superior financial position permits BCCI to take risks that other domestic cricket leagues cannot afford to attempt. This is due in part to the tax- exempt status that the league enjoys within the Indian market. It is also no surprise that this resource has resulted in a great deal of scrutiny, as other domestic cricket leagues argue this grants the IPL an unfair and unwarranted advantage on the world stage. The league’s growing financial assets are also the result of the prudent planning that transpired at the league’s inception. Per the inaugural franchise prospectus
  8. 8. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 8 that was published circa 2007, the league’s ability to generate revenues is based on 4 categories: TV media rights, title sponsorship and merchandising, franchise sales, and a portion of the revenues that are generated by the franchises themselves (Basu, 2008). A financial analysis of estimated revenues year over year demonstrates that the largest portions of the league’s income are raised within the first three categories (Exhibit 4). From 2010-12, the league witnessed an explosive level of growth with revenues growing at 35.8%, 16.89%, and 23%, respectively. But these trends do not appear to be sustainable, with growth in 2013 slowing to 5%, and 2014 projections even slower still at 3%. TV revenues in an industrial rising nation could become huge in the future years, as well as access to satellite subscriptions around the globe. Brand Equity: As a whole, the IPL is currently the largest and most-recognizable cricket league in the world. This provides the IPL a critical capability because the league is the global influence cricket scene. Prior to the league’s inception in 2008, the global governing board of the ICC had included India among the qualifying members of the Future Tours Program (FTP), which hosts certain international “test” matches in various venues around the globe in order to gain access to various global markets (ESPNcricinfo, 2006). Since the league’s inception, the IPL has wielded incredible influence, so much so as to influence the FTP’s schedules in its favor. As a result, the IPL’s international players are available throughout the season, and the IPL competes with no other league globally, creating a virtual “monopoly” on its players’ availability. Such influence is remarkable, given that other international sports such as soccer and basketball cannot garner the same level of support for their international players at the club- team levels. This gives the league unparalleled access to current cricket markets, including domestically within India as well as on an international stage. This advantage also grants the league greater opportunity to attract top-paying sponsorships from the likes of multi-national firms such as ESPN, Pepsi, and Nike et-al. IPL is literally the “Premiere” cricket league in the world. As mentioned before it has the majority of the best cricket players in the world, with some of the best fan bases that pack the biggest stadiums in the world. Like all major sports entertainment leagues sponsors can potentially bring billions
  9. 9. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 9 of dollars of revenue to the IPL. Cricket is the major sport in India and Pakistan in addition to the 51 other former English Commonwealth Colonies, which have a combined population of 2.3B people and account for $9T in total GDP (Census). Players: The players are one of the main strength of the IPL. The IPL has international participation of some of the most famous athletes in the world. In addition to helping to sell tickets and bring in revenues at the gate, the players are also an excellent form of marketing revenue for the IPL where they can help bring in partnerships with companies such as Nike who market the player’s jerseys. The IPL’s player list boasts a talent pool that is unmatched by other leagues. This is undoubtedly related to the IPL’s deep financial assets, and has served the league well, particularly in the sales of jerseys and related merchandise (Dalal& Shah, 2014). Another capability, that is primarily defensive in nature, is the BCCI’s firm control over the league’s stadiums. Franchisees own the stadium rights and can rent them to other sporting competitions. There is therefore no or very low opportunity for other cricket leagues to enter terms of agreement to use a franchise directly over the use of its stadium. Core Competencies: Within the bundle of capabilities and resources organic to the IPL lie three that can be identified as core competencies to the league. The first is the strong financial position of the league as a whole. This advantage is sustainable due to the path dependencies created by the league’s initial franchise agreements, as well as the social complexity surrounding the sport of cricket within the Indian sub-continent. The league’s absolute control over venue locations also demonstrates a path dependency that is again tied to the league’s original franchise agreement. This may not be difficult to imitate within other leagues, but it does preclude any further exposure to the captive Indian market within these stadiums. Given the incredible capital constraints required to build a new stadium, it is unlikely any other league or franchise would build a stadium to test its presence within a new market. Finally, the league’s brand equity provides a global influence is a capability that is sustainable likely for a long time to come. Although the league’s dominant position could change, there is both casual ambiguity as well as social
  10. 10. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 10 complexity that shroud this capability from external attack, making this a competency that the league can build off of as it aims to enter new markets. WEAKNESSES - Match Fixing Scandals (and impact of reputation): The IPL has been plagued by allegations of match fixing scandals and the general unsavory reputation of the BCCI. Corruption is perceived to be high within the upper echelons of the BCCI (Engineer, 2014). Marketing Skills: The IPL’s marketing abilities are considered to be inadequate to potential rivals such as EPL, or NBA, or NFL. It is critical that the IPL learn from the mistakes and successes of the marketing efforts of these leagues. The IPL can still be considered as a relatively young and developing league compared to more established leagues such as the EPL, NLF, or NBA. Uncontrolled Costs: Costs are extremely high to run a team ($100’s of millions) and while the league, as a whole, is financially strong, it is also financially unstable which has been seen in the fact that various clubs have exited the league in its short history (Exhibit 3). STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES - Current Strategy: The IPL’s current strategy is one that is based on differentiating the sport within the countries that traditionally observe and play cricket. Although this approach has more than doubled the market value within the league’s first 6 years of existence, the league will require greater exposure at the grass-level should it desire to spread beyond the historically colonial areas and compete with the world’s leading sports competitions (Exhibits 4, 6). Based on the current situation the IPL finds itself in and its potential for expansion, the IPL has many directions they can take the league. Our team has listed several options along with opportunities and challenges each decision would incur. Strategic Alternative #1: The first option involves shoring up some of the IPL’s weaknesses to take advantage of future opportunities around the globe and in cricket playing countries. Before the IPL can look at expanding its presence in any market or improving its brand image, the league must distance itself
  11. 11. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 11 from the scandals it has fallen to in the past. It must install an oversight board and increase their power to punish those that attempt to fix match results. This will require both time and money from the league as they attempt to change the culture throughout of what is deemed acceptable business practices in the sport. The IPL also needs to work on its marketing skills, which can help it when trying to enter new markets around the globe. The final step would be to partner with Internet and satellite providers. Currently many sports leagues have satellite channels that are shown on a subscription basis and can broadcast the leagues games to any TV in the world. The IPL has the best players and is known for the highest quality of play, so they should try to form a partnership with satellite and Internet providers to carry their league similar to what the EPL or NFL networks already provide. Advantages & Benefits: The main advantage of this strategy is that it will cost very little to implement. Aside from the funding for the Ethics Board, this strategy requires no additional investments beyond its current business practices. The IPL needs to continue to pursue its relationship with companies such as Nike and Adidas, and leverage their capabilities via a partnership as they try to expand around the globe. These partnerships are mutually beneficial and have the added benefit of bringing in additional profits as the IPL players and the league itself become more prominent in the global consciousness. These companies are famous for generating interest in players, which then translate into jersey sales that lead to more profits for the IPL. With the help of advertising such as Nike’s “Bleed Blue” campaign, currently the IPL and Nike sell 500 individual jerseys a day on their website (India Times 24). It follows that as their global exposure increases, so will their revenue. They can then gain more revenue through these subscriptions while at the same time gain valuable market share at the expense of the competition. Many developing countries in which cricket is popular are gaining access to satellite and Internet technology. The IPL could team with local and national providers to offer season passes to the IPL channels much in the same vein as the EPL and NFL already provide. Disadvantages & Risks: While the prospects of the global market are enticing, there are a few drawbacks to trying to compete on a global scale. One huge disadvantage is that some of the largest and
  12. 12. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 12 potentially lucrative markets such as the US or Europe already have wildly popular sports entertainment leagues such as the EPL or NFL and NBA. The IPL would be at an initial disadvantage if they tried to infiltrate these markets from an exposure standpoint. The NFL, NBA, EPL also have significant financial resources and would fight back with increased advertising and marketing efforts to help defend their market shares as well, and the IPL does not currently have comparable financial resources to engage in a competitive advertising campaign. With current Super Bowl adds selling for over $1M per 30 seconds, the IPL could easily spend its entire marketing budget and still not create much of an impact on the target audiences. This means that the IPL would be relying upon most of its revenue growth from the Commonwealth of Nations, which while they include a large percentage of the population, they do not include many Southeast Asian countries and are missing out on the Chinese SEI market. Financial Analysis: While an exact return on investment is difficult to capture, the league can easily appropriate $5 - 10M from their TV rights which are project to reach over $1.2B (Exhibit 2) to set up an advisory board to establish and oversee an ethical charter for the league. The rules themselves would be inexpensive to set-up, but this budget can be used to give the oversight board the “teeth” necessary to enforce the rules in a league spread across an entire subcontinent. Shoring up the one of the largest weaknesses of the IPL will only help to reinforce the league’s Brand Equity as it tries to expand. Strategic Alternative #2: The IPL can go on the offensive by utilizing the popularity of their players, their financial muscle, and their TV contracts by creating developmental leagues to gain market share in the lucrative foreign markets in China and Southeast Asia. They can achieve this by marketing their talented players in a country like China to help attract kids to developmental leagues that they can create and fund with the money they have from the league itself and the potential hundreds of millions of dollars that they will raise through lucrative TV contracts. One of the best ways to do this is to reach out to the youth and promote the sport at a younger age. Providing fields and training seminars from some of the top cricket players in the world will increase the interest level of the fans and drive them to be more
  13. 13. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 13 connected to their local team. The youth leagues also have the added benefit of producing potential future IPL players. Advantages& Benefits: The IPL has to be careful not to sacrifice the local fan base, yet increase international awareness of the league. The best opportunity to do so would be to set up new teams and franchises in new countries. These teams would play against the other IPL teams. This option allows the IPL to increase its fan base by having more teams in the league that are spread out across the region, instead of just spread out throughout India. This option would require a strong financial investment from the IPL in order for this to be successful. Purchasing, building, and maintaining new fields is not inexpensive. Working with the players to spend additional time for the league involves adjusting player contracts and will take time. The IPL has historically chosen to move the games outside of the country during the election season, so that the games do not become targets from terrorist groups. Every time they move the games to other countries, they introduce the sport to other nationalities and give them opportunities to attend the games. The IPL could continue to host games, or even portions of the season, in different countries, which will bring new fans into the sport and help the IPL become recognized internationally. If this option is chosen, the countries the IPL should focus on should be ones that already have an interest in cricket. The league has already played successfully in South Africa and UAE. The IPL should continue to expand throughout the Asia-Pacific and Africa regions. Another additional benefit is that the IPL can test strategies and changes to the game itself in the developmental leagues and use them as a test market. Any changes that were widely accepted or found to be popular in the developmental leagues could then be taken in to consideration for the IPL itself with almost no cost to the IPL. Disadvantages & Risks: The concern with this option is currently the best players from around the world are playing for the current IPL teams. If the IPL were to drastically expand, the average talent level
  14. 14. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 14 would be diluted, which could cause fans to lose interest in the sport. Also, if the IPL were to spread out too far, the change in time zones could cause jet lag to the traveling team, causing them to have a distinct disadvantage for the matches. Several other competitors are attempting this tactic. The NFL has played one game of the regular season in London since 2007. The NBA has played its opening season games in Tokyo several times over the past 20 years. If the IPL were to consistently play its games to other countries, it would be able to build interest from fans across the world. The league is already streaming its games on YouTube, which would allow the new fans in other countries to continue to follow their favorite teams and/or matches after the teams have returned to India. The downside to this strategy is the potential to lose fans within India. If the IPL matches were consistently being played outside of the home team’s city, the local fans would not associate with the team as well and the IPL would lose its local support. Financial Analysis: If the IPL follows the same guidelines as its competitors in the NBA or MLB, the average developmental league franchise will cost as much as $22M. While each team could be expected to earn as much as $11M a year, the average MLB developmental team earns its owners approximately $4M a year which adds up to an 18% ROI (Forbes 29). New Stadiums could also cost a great deal of money at over $200M for a state of the art facility (Linnell, 1996). If each of the current members of the IPL were to sponsor a team, costs could quickly escalate to over $1B; however, the youth league affiliates that accompany and spring up around these developmental franchises will cost virtually nothing to the IPL. Recommendation: Our team believes that Strategic Alternative #2 is the best strategy forward for IPL to adopt. In India, IPL is already a cash cow for the BCCI and the time is right for them to expand the league into foreign markets. The first step IPL should take is to promote developmental leagues in foreign markets starting a grassroots movement amongst the younger generations who are increasingly open to new things having been raised in a global society. This will not only serve to increase the
  15. 15. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 15 league’s fan base, but also give IPL the opportunity to further develop the next wave of top talent. Next, IPL should study other leagues, gleaning other top sports management techniques currently being applied in the targeted markets. This should be added to their current successful formula and applied only in the target market, so as not to detract from the quality of and revenue stream for the already strong and ever growing Indian cricket market. Finally, IPL should begin their expansion using technology to showcase their pool of top international players, financial strength, and media power and fully infiltrate the new markets.
  16. 16. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 16 Works Cited 1. Emmett, J. (2012, September 24). BCCI Records Giant Leap in Profits. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.sportspromedia.com/notes_and_insights/bcci_records_giant_leap_in_profits/ 2. (2014). IPLT20. Retrieved April 23,2014, from www.iplt20.com 3. Schwartz, P. J. (2009, August 27). The World's Hottest Sports League. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/2009/08/27/cricket-india-ipl-business-sports-ipl.html/ 4. England and South Africa Race to Host IPL. (2009, March 23). CNN.com/World Sport. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/SPORT/03/23/cricket.ipl.india.england/index.html 5. Engineer, T. (2012, June 14). Stadium Crowds Show the IPL the Money. ESPN cricinfo. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.espncricinfo.com/magazine/content/story/568291.html 6. Khambatta, P. (2014, March 28). India in 2014: Elections and Economy. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://csis.org/publication/india-2014- elections-and-economy 7. Basnu, I. (2012, April 16). BCCI Suspends 5 Cricketers for IPL Spot Fixing. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/cricket/ipl-2012/news/BCCI-suspends-5- cricketers-for-IPL-spot-fixing/articleshow/13156492.cms?referral=PM 8. Fenez et al, (2011) http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/hospitality-leisure/pdf/changing-the-game- outlook-for-the-global-sports-market-to-2015.pdf 9. Fenez et al, (2011) http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/hospitality-leisure/pdf/changing-the-game- outlook-for-the-global-sports-market-to-2015.pdf 10. Daniel S. Mason, (1999) "What is the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports leagues", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33 Iss: 3/4, pp.402 - 419 - See more at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/journals.htm?articleid=853602&show=abstract #sthash.gLxA1Jy6.dpuf
  17. 17. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 17 11. Cornell, Stephen and Douglas Hartmann, 1998. "Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World." p.3 12. Nitin Sunder (2009, December 18). Why $225 million isn't necessarily absurd. Retrieved May24, 2014 from http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci/content/story/440177.html 2009 13. GargiParsai. (2010, April 18). Tharoor quits after PM asks him to step down. Retrieved May24, 2014 from http://www.thehindu.com/news/tharoor-quits-after-manmohan-asks-him-to-step- down/article402910.ece 14. Kumar, K. P. (2010, April 24). Despite IPL profits, team owners post losses. The Times of India. 15. Dalal, M., & Shah, G. (2014, February 11). IPL continues to score high in brand valuation. . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://www.livemint.com/Consumer/TKdsgMQQnt7dCJF864jAyJ/IPL-continues-to-score-high-in- brand-valuation.html 16. Chilkoti, A. (2013, March 22). Sponsoring India’s IPL: how big a deal?. . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2013/03/22/sponsoring-indias-ipl-how-big-a-deal/ 17. Pune and Kochi are new IPL franchises. (2010, March 21). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://cricket.rediff.com/report/2010/mar/21/ipl-2010-pune-kochi-new-teams.htm 18. Kochi franchise terminated by BCCI. (2011, September 19). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://www.espncricinfo.com/indian-premier-league-2012/content/current/story/532973.html 19. Schwartz, P. J., & Smith, C. (2009, August 27). In Pictures: What The IPL's Teams Are Worth. . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/2009/08/27/cricket-india-ipl-business-sports- ipl_slide.html 20. Basu, I. (2008, January 27). Does the IPL model make sense?.The Times of India. 21. ICC facing threat from India. (2006, January 3). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://www.espncricinfo.com/india/content/story/231378.html
  18. 18. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 18 22. Indian Premier League Franchise Prospectus. (2007, December).. IMG Sports Entertainment Media. McCormak House, London. 23. Indian Premier League-Archives. (2014, January 1). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://www.iplt20.com/archive/ 24. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-03-02/news/28649217_1_sportswear-giant-nike- marketing-director-sanjay-gangopadhyay. (2014, January 1). Retrieved May 20, 2014 25. US Census. http://www.census.gov 26. http://thecommonwealth.org 27. Engineer, Tariq. Firstpost.Sports. http://www.firstpost.com/sports/bccis-approach-to-corruption-lets- play-ipl-in-the-uae-1431049.html. Retrieved May 20, 2014 28. http://www.forbes.com/sites/chrissmith/2012/06/08/billionaires-like-warren-buffett-profit-from- minor-league-baseball-ownership/ 29. Linnell, Stephen; Shane Green (31 October 1996). "City to get $200m high-tech stadium". Melbourne: The Age.
  19. 19. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 19 Preliminary Reading List -Bhushan, R., & Sharma, R. T. (2013, October 21). Rupert Murdoch and MukeshAmbaniTeam Up for IPL-style Football League Next Year.Entertainment. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-10-21/news/43250531_1_star-india-indian- badminton-league-indian-football -(2014). IPLT20, from www.iplt20.com -(2014). The Board of Control for Cricket in India. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.bcci.tv/ -Parker, D., Burns, P., & Natarajan, H. (2008, October 1). Player Valuations in the Indian PremierLeague.Frontier Economics, 1-17.http://www.frontier- economics.com/_library/publications/Frontier%20paper%20-%20IPL%20auctions.pdf -Karmali, N. (2014, April 14). India's Rich and Famous Rush To Snatch Piece Of New Soccer League. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/naazneenkarmali/2014/04/14/indias-rich- and-famous-rush-to-snatch-piece-of-new-soccer-league/ -Sahni, Jaspreet. “IPL Begins Search for an Image Makeover in its Seventh Season”. (April 2014). Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://ibnlive.in.com/news/ipl-begins-search-for-an-image-makeover-in-its-seventh-season/465392- 78.html -Hwartz, P. J. (2009, August 27). The World's Hottest Sports League. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/2009/08/27/cricket-india-ipl-business-sports-ipl.html / -Kohli, R. (2011, February 08). The Launch of the Indian Premier League.Columbia Case Works,http://www.columbia.edu/~rk35/IPL.pdf
  20. 20. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 20 Exhibit 1 List of current IPL teams Current IPL teams 1. Chennai Super Kings (CSK) 2. Delhi Daredevils (DD) 3. Kings XI Punjab (KXIP) 4. Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) 5. Mumbai Indians (MI) 6. Rajasthan Royal (RR) 7. Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) 8. Sunrises Hyderabad (SRH) Defunct IPL Teams  Pune Warriors (PWI)  Kochi Tuskers Kerala (KTK)  Deccan Charges (DC)
  21. 21. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 21 Sources: Indian Premier League Financial Prospectus, 2007 Exhibit 2 Value Comparison: Television Rights by League & Sport Cricket Leagues Non-Cricket Leagues
  22. 22. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 22 Exhibit 3 Franchise Performance Summary Year Team Result 2008 Rajasthan Royals (RR) Kings XI Punjab (KXIP) Chennai Super Kings (CSK) Delhi Daredevils (DD) Mumbai Indians (MI) Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) Royal Challenge Bangalore (RCB) Deccan Chargers (DC) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2009 DD CSK RCB DC KXIP RR MI KKR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2010 MI DC CSK RCB DD KKR RR KXIP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2011 RCB CSK MI KKR KXIP RR DC *Kochi Tuskers Kerala (KTK) *Pune Warriors India (PWI) DD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2012 DD KKR MI CSK RCB KXIP RR DC PWI **KTK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NA- Disbanded 2013 CSK MI RR *Sunrisers Hyderabad (SH) RCB KXIP KKR PWI DD **DC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NA-Sold/Now SH * New Franchise /** Franchise No Longer Exists (Sources: Indian Premier League Archives)
  23. 23. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 23 Sources: 1. Kumar, K. P. (2010, April 24). Despite IPL profits, team owners post losses. The Times of India. 2. Dalal, M., & Shah, G. (2014, February 11). IPL continues to score high in brand valuation. . Retrieved May 21, 2014, 3. Chilkoti, A. (2013, March 22). Sponsoring India’s IPL: how big a deal?. . Retrieved May 21, 2014 4. Pune and Kochi are new IPL franchises. (2010, March 21). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, 5. Kochi franchise terminated by BCCI. (2011, September 19). . Retrieved May 21, 2014 6. ICC facing threat from India. (2006, January 3). . Retrieved May 21, 2014, Exhibit 4 IPL - Projected Revenues
  24. 24. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 24 Exhibit 5 SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis Opportunities 1.) Foreign Markets 2.) Developmental Leagues 3.) Population growth in cricket countries 4.) Oligopoly nature of many SEI 5.) Internet/Satellite Subscriptions Threats 1.) Uncertainty of worldwide economy 2.) Other Sports Leagues (English Premiere League, NBA, NFL) 3.) Global Rival cricket league Strengths 1.)Players 2.) Brand Equity 3.) Finances (owners) 4.) TV contracts 5.) Sponsors 6.) Popularity (Huge Base) 7.) Stadium/Venue Control Combine S1, S2,S3, S4 to go on the offensive in O1 and O2. Use strength of S1,S2 to go after O5. Use S3, S4 to minimize effects of T1. Use S1, S4, S1 to minimize effect of T2, T3. Weaknesses 1.) Match Fixing scandals and impact on reputation 2.) Marketing skills 3.) Finances (league) Shore up W1, W2 to take advantage of O1, O3. Improve W2 to take advantage of O5. Fix W3 to guard against T1. Improve W3 to defend against T2,T3.
  25. 25. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 25 Sources: Indian Premier League Financial Prospectus, 2007 Exhibit 6 Most Valuable Sports League Franchises
  26. 26. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 26 Sources: Indian Premier League Financial Prospectus, 2007 Exhibit 7 Value of Recent Franchise Expansions, 2000-2007 50.8% increase over 5 years 160.8% increase over 9 years 103.8% increase over 6 years
  27. 27. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 27 Exhibit 8 5- Forces / PESTEL Analysis Intensity (low/ high / moderate) Source and Considerations Threat of new entrants Low to Moderate 1.) Always a threat of teams breaking away to form their own league, such as football first division of EPL 2.) Because of the time it takes to organize and then compete against the incumbent, low and cost factors for finding team owners Supplier power Low 1.) Players make up the teams, they can join competing leagues 2.) 80 different official merchandising deals as of 2010 3.) The IPL Governing Counsel and BCCI set rules teams must abide by (i.e. Player regulation, retention) 4.) Several alternatives for hosting countries: India, S. Africa, UAE, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka 5.) Several broadcast mediums due to profitability and popularity: Time Internet, Star India, YouTube, Sky Sports Buyer power Moderate 1.) Fans control what they spend and entertainment is often first to go in an economic crunch such as Indian Economy slump 2.) Fans affect TV ratings/revenues 3.) Sponsors control endorsements Threat of substitutes Moderate to High 1.) Other cricket leagues 2.) Other sports leagues, i.e. soccer, tennis (similar fan base) 3.) A plethora of entertainment alternatives outside the industry Threat of rivalry Low 1.) Not likely to have price wars 2.) Other leagues going after the same sponsors/fan base Adding a 6th force: Synergies with complements Relevant 1.) The sale of merchandise, franchise sponsorships, and ticket sales strengthen the league’s profitability and global influence
  28. 28. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 28 Nature (relevance / dynamics) Consider How P.E.S.T.L.E. Factors Affect Industry Forces Political factors Highly Relevant 1.) 2014 season will not be played entirely in India because the Lok Sabha election takes precedence in security concerns 2.) Central Government minister ShashiTharoor involved in controversial franchise bid which resulted in resignation in 2011 Economic factors Relevant 1.) Three former teams cease to exist because of financial constraints: Pune Warriors India, Kochi Tuskers Kerala, Deccan Chargers 2.) Insurance costs have risen for 2014 season (due to election conflict) Sociocultural factors Highly Relevant 1.) Projected onto world stage, however not all countries follow as closely (U.S.) 2.) Significant followings within the colonially-influenced nations of the world Technological factors Relevant 1.) 1st Sport to stream on YouTube, helps gain traction Legal factors Highly Relevant 1.) Supreme Court of India has investigated spot fixing and betting cases, but allowed auctions to continue Ecological factors n/a
  29. 29. Maroon 9 (Christian Nass, Divya Kumar, Erik Sanders, Nicholas Joiner, Paul Lefevre, Stephen Faller) FINAL CASE: INDIAN PREMIER LEAGUE 29 Exhibit 9 VRIO Analysis Valuable? Rare? Costly to Imitate? Embedded in Organization? Resource 1: Intellectual Property: BCCI have complete control of cricket activities in India. It works like a monopoly in 1.2 billion Indian Market YES Yes It will take years to imitate what BCCI has today- path dependency Yes Resource 2: Strong Financial Position: BCCI is the only board with maximum revenue from cricket and enjoy tax exempt status Yes Yes Yes- path dependency; social complexity Yes Resource 3: Brand Equity: The IPL is the most famous league of all cricket leagues worldwide. TheIPL has huge Indian and overseas cricket audience market, thus, it attracts many sponsors and add to prize money, which is maximum in cricket anywhere in world Yes No Yes- path dependency, casual ambiguity, social complexity Yes Other resources: Trademark: The IPL one of the most famous brand name in cricket. Yes No Yes Yes Capability 1: Ability to Attract Top Talent: Contract with top Domestic and Overseas Players which no other board could secure at the time of inception Yes No Yes Yes Capability 2: Venue Control: BCCI has the control over all cricket stadiums in India and can refuse to allow any stadium game anytime to anyone Yes Yes Yes-path dependency Yes Capability 3: Global Influence: The IPL has a secure slot in FTP so that no other cricket event will run during the IPL. Thus, availability of top foreign players is possible. Yes Yes Yes-casual ambiguity, social complexity Yes

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