Difference Divide  and  Cleavage (in the United States) Kevin Deegan Krause, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan Dif...
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Position Divide Issue Divide Census Divide Full  Cleavage
Byron E. Shafer   William J.M. Claggett  The Two Majorities:  The Issue Context of Modern American Politics.  Baltimore, M...
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference
Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion College  Graduates Some  College High School  Graduates ...
Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion High School  Graduates Race African-American 13% Catholi...
Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference
What do you think? Attitudes Attitudinal Difference Against abortion  Against defense cuts  Against homosexuality  For ass...
Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/she...
Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/she...
Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/she...
Cultural Socio-Economic
Cultural Socio-Economic
Cultural Socio-Economic
Cultural Socio-Economic
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 24.9% 26.9% 23.5% 24.7%
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Position Divide
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
African Americans Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMAL...
African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 4.6% 57.4% 33.3% 4.7% African Americans
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 9.5% 41.7% 10.9% 38.0% Non-Christians
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Low Protestants Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL ...
Low Protestants Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 48.6% 16.3% 28.1% 8.7% Low Protestants
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts
Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Graduates
Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Graduates
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
13% 10% College Grads  10% 21% Some College  14% H.S. Grads  19% H.S. Dropouts  12% High    Roman Protestant / Catholic Bl...
Some College Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Some College Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
College Graduates Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
College Graduates Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%
Kitschelt and Rehm
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Post-College
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference What do  you do? Behavior/ Politics
 
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american Democratic-Republican Democratic ...
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american Democratic-Republican Democratic ...
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Census Divide
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
The 2008 U.S. Presidential Elections
<ul><li>TRUE IN 2008? </li></ul>Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government African-Americans Hispanics Whites
 
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Seldom or Never Most Weeks Weekly or More
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Post-College
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Women Men
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Young Old
 
 
 
 
Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitu...
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 31.2% 36.5% 18.9% 13.4% Republicans
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 32.5% 32.6% 19.1% 15.8% Democrats
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Democrats Republicans
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Cross Pressured!
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 
Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare  & Insurance Security Civil Rights
Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare  & Insurance Security Civil Rights 2004
Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare  & Insurance Security Civil Rights 2004 2008
Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Full  Cleavage
Igor Panarin
 
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christi...
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Religion
Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Religion Ov...
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
 
Economic Cluster “Conservative” Small Government “Liberal” Big Government US?
Economic Cluster Whatever the  employer wants Employees and  government decide US? Free Enterprise?
 
Economic Cluster Own damn fault Society is to blame US? Why are people poor?
 
Economic Cluster Government does too much Government does too little US? Aid to the poor?
 
Economic Cluster “Conservative” Small Government “Liberal” Big Government US
Cultural Cluster Ban it Legalize it
Cultural Cluster Ban it Legalize it US? Abortion?
 
Cultural Cluster Prevent it Recognize it US? Gay Marriage?
 
Cultural Cluster Prevent it Recognize it Gay Marriage? US
 
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
 
 
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2009 Deegan Krause United States

  1. 1. Difference Divide and Cleavage (in the United States) Kevin Deegan Krause, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan Difference, Divide and Cleavage? Kevin Deegan-Krause, Wayne State University
  2. 2. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Position Divide Issue Divide Census Divide Full Cleavage
  3. 3. Byron E. Shafer William J.M. Claggett The Two Majorities: The Issue Context of Modern American Politics. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995
  4. 4. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference
  5. 5. Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
  6. 6. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion College Graduates Some College High School Graduates High School Dropouts Race African-American 13% Not African-American Not African-American 87%
  7. 7. Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
  8. 8. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion High School Graduates Race African-American 13% Catholic or High Protestant 56% Religion Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10%
  9. 9. Who are you? Demographics Ascriptive Difference Race Age Education Class Location Religion Gender
  10. 10. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  11. 11. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference
  12. 12. What do you think? Attitudes Attitudinal Difference Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting African-Americans Ban dangerous books Care for others For easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action For aid to farmers For national health care For Prayer in School For retirement programs Help the needy Limits on Speech Missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter
  13. 13. Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved
  14. 14. Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved
  15. 15. Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved
  16. 16. Cultural Socio-Economic
  17. 17. Cultural Socio-Economic
  18. 18. Cultural Socio-Economic
  19. 19. Cultural Socio-Economic
  20. 20. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  21. 21. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  22. 22. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 24.9% 26.9% 23.5% 24.7%
  23. 23. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Position Divide
  24. 24. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  25. 25. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  26. 26. African Americans Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  27. 27. African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  28. 28. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 4.6% 57.4% 33.3% 4.7% African Americans
  29. 29. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  30. 30. Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  31. 31. Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  32. 32. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 9.5% 41.7% 10.9% 38.0% Non-Christians
  33. 33. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  34. 34. Low Protestants Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  35. 35. Low Protestants Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  36. 36. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 48.6% 16.3% 28.1% 8.7% Low Protestants
  37. 37. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  38. 38. Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts
  39. 39. Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts
  40. 40. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%
  41. 41. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  42. 42. Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Graduates
  43. 43. Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Graduates
  44. 44. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%
  45. 45. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  46. 46. 13% 10% College Grads 10% 21% Some College 14% H.S. Grads 19% H.S. Dropouts 12% High Roman Protestant / Catholic Black White Religion Race Education The Two Majorities Byron Shafer J.M. Claggett Low Protestant Non- Christian
  47. 47. Some College Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  48. 48. Some College Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  49. 49. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%
  50. 50. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  51. 51. College Graduates Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  52. 52. College Graduates Cultural Power SMALL BIG BIG SMALL Economic Power
  53. 53. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%
  54. 54. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  55. 55. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%
  56. 56. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%
  57. 57. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%
  58. 58. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%
  59. 59. Kitschelt and Rehm
  60. 60. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Post-College
  61. 61. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference What do you do? Behavior/ Politics
  62. 63. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Federalist Republican
  63. 64. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Federalist Republican
  64. 65. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Census Divide
  65. 66. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  66. 67. The 2008 U.S. Presidential Elections
  67. 68. <ul><li>TRUE IN 2008? </li></ul>Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government
  68. 69. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government African-Americans Hispanics Whites
  69. 71. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Seldom or Never Most Weeks Weekly or More
  70. 72. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Post-College
  71. 73. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Women Men
  72. 74. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Young Old
  73. 79. Honors 2000: Citizenship / PS1010: Introduction to American Government Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics Issue Divide
  74. 80. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  75. 81. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 31.2% 36.5% 18.9% 13.4% Republicans
  76. 82. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 32.5% 32.6% 19.1% 15.8% Democrats
  77. 83. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Democrats Republicans
  78. 84. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Cross Pressured!
  79. 85. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 
  80. 86. Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights
  81. 87. Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 2004
  82. 88. Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 2004 2008
  83. 89. Ascriptive Difference Attitudinal Difference Behavioral Difference Full Cleavage
  84. 90. Igor Panarin
  85. 92. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Education
  86. 93. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Religion
  87. 94. Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religion Race African-American 13% Low Protestant 21% Religion Overeducated >1% Education
  88. 95. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  89. 96. Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power
  90. 98. Economic Cluster “Conservative” Small Government “Liberal” Big Government US?
  91. 99. Economic Cluster Whatever the employer wants Employees and government decide US? Free Enterprise?
  92. 101. Economic Cluster Own damn fault Society is to blame US? Why are people poor?
  93. 103. Economic Cluster Government does too much Government does too little US? Aid to the poor?
  94. 105. Economic Cluster “Conservative” Small Government “Liberal” Big Government US
  95. 106. Cultural Cluster Ban it Legalize it
  96. 107. Cultural Cluster Ban it Legalize it US? Abortion?
  97. 109. Cultural Cluster Prevent it Recognize it US? Gay Marriage?
  98. 111. Cultural Cluster Prevent it Recognize it Gay Marriage? US
  99. 113. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  100. 114. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  101. 115. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  102. 116. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  103. 117. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  104. 118. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
  105. 119. PS1010: Introduction to American Government http://www.la.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/american
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