Settlement and Integration Outcomes: Some Research <br />Paul Spoonley and Trudie Cain<br />Massey University<br />Diversi...
Integration of Immigrants Programme 2007-2012<br />Objective 2 (Paul Spoonley)<br />What are the experiences of immigrant ...
Employees<br />Employers<br />Chinese<br />IndianKoreans<br />South Africans<br />British<br />Networks<br />Ethnic Precin...
Ethnic Entrepreneurs<br /><ul><li>Small world and co-ethnic entrepreneurs</li></ul>Ethnic embeddedness<br />Ethnic-specifi...
Reciprocity</li></li></ul><li>Ethnic Labour Markets<br /><ul><li>Clustering of activities / labour (place-bound)
Ethnic/familial obligations
Labour market regulation and the treatment of labour
Flexible/low cost</li></li></ul><li>Employment<br />Attitudes of employers towards Chinese <br />Experiences of Chinese bu...
Changing Cartographies: Ethnic Precincts<br />Visibility of cultural differences<br />Branding the city as multicultural<b...
Racialization and Public Spaces<br />The city plays an increasingly significant role in conceptualising these dynamics [cu...
Research and Policy Questions<br />Ethnic Precincts<br />Are they evidence of parallel communities that might inhibit soci...
Ethnic Entrepreneurs as Institutional Actors<br />Surveys of Business Owners and Employees<br />Ethnic Precincts<br />Ling...
Relational Embeddedness (Portes)<br />Immigrants rely on ethnic networks to establish business operations<br /><ul><li>Red...
Gain privileged access to certain resources
Less governed by external incentives/practices/regulationJ. Rath, 2007</li></li></ul><li>Chinese in Auckland<br />
Northcote<br />Dominion Rd<br />Meadowlands<br />
Ethnic Precincts<br />
Meadowlands Ethnic Precinct<br />
Meadowlands Ethnic Precinct<br />
Relational Embeddedness:Chinese Employer Interviews<br />Co-ethnic workers<br />100% employed at least one Chinese employe...
Transnationalism<br />International connections<br />50% employers travelled internationally<br />90% of these went to Chi...
Functions of Chinese Ethnic Precincts<br />Chinese Consumers<br />Frequency (43% daily/weekly)<br />Food (price/culturally...
Unresolved Questions<br />Size of Chinese ethnic economy in Auckland<br />Trajectory of business development: remain co-et...
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Settlement and integration outcomes

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Settlement and integration outcomes

  1. 1. Settlement and Integration Outcomes: Some Research <br />Paul Spoonley and Trudie Cain<br />Massey University<br />Diversity Forum<br /> 22 August 2011<br />
  2. 2. Integration of Immigrants Programme 2007-2012<br />Objective 2 (Paul Spoonley)<br />What are the experiences of immigrant families and households in relation to labour market participation and business activity?<br />What strategies do they adopt in relation to paid/unpaid work, entrepreneurship, saving behaviour, investment?<br />How significant/important are ethnic sub-economies/networks/precincts or transnational linkages?<br />What is the nature/size of ethnic economic networks/enclaves and what are the spill-over effects?<br />(Team: P. Spoonley, R. Bedford, E. Ho, R. Peace, T. Cain)<br />
  3. 3. Employees<br />Employers<br />Chinese<br />IndianKoreans<br />South Africans<br />British<br />Networks<br />Ethnic Precincts<br />Entrepreneurs<br />
  4. 4. Ethnic Entrepreneurs<br /><ul><li>Small world and co-ethnic entrepreneurs</li></ul>Ethnic embeddedness<br />Ethnic-specific social capital<br /><ul><li>Ethnic co-financing
  5. 5. Reciprocity</li></li></ul><li>Ethnic Labour Markets<br /><ul><li>Clustering of activities / labour (place-bound)
  6. 6. Ethnic/familial obligations
  7. 7. Labour market regulation and the treatment of labour
  8. 8. Flexible/low cost</li></li></ul><li>Employment<br />Attitudes of employers towards Chinese <br />Experiences of Chinese business owners and job-seekers<br />
  9. 9. Changing Cartographies: Ethnic Precincts<br />Visibility of cultural differences<br />Branding the city as multicultural<br />Authenticity and representation<br />…increasingly hyphenated forms of demographic mixing… Keith, 2005<br />
  10. 10. Racialization and Public Spaces<br />The city plays an increasingly significant role in conceptualising these dynamics [cultural contact]. In this sense the multiculturalism of the cities of the twenty-first century is both demographically and politically challenging.<br />Michael Keith, 2005<br />
  11. 11. Research and Policy Questions<br />Ethnic Precincts<br />Are they evidence of parallel communities that might inhibit social integration?<br />Are they evidence of low quality outcomes and poor economic incorporation?<br />
  12. 12. Ethnic Entrepreneurs as Institutional Actors<br />Surveys of Business Owners and Employees<br />Ethnic Precincts<br />Linguistic Landscapes<br />Surveys of EP Consumers<br />
  13. 13. Relational Embeddedness (Portes)<br />Immigrants rely on ethnic networks to establish business operations<br /><ul><li>Reduce transaction costs
  14. 14. Gain privileged access to certain resources
  15. 15. Less governed by external incentives/practices/regulationJ. Rath, 2007</li></li></ul><li>Chinese in Auckland<br />
  16. 16. Northcote<br />Dominion Rd<br />Meadowlands<br />
  17. 17. Ethnic Precincts<br />
  18. 18. Meadowlands Ethnic Precinct<br />
  19. 19. Meadowlands Ethnic Precinct<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Relational Embeddedness:Chinese Employer Interviews<br />Co-ethnic workers<br />100% employed at least one Chinese employee<br />Co-ethnic suppliers<br />100% had at least one Chinese supplier<br />Co-ethnic customers<br />90% had Chinese customers<br />Chinese<br />Main language used with workers for 95% of employers<br />
  25. 25. Transnationalism<br />International connections<br />50% employers travelled internationally<br />90% of these went to China<br />“I need to learn any new dish in China so I can provide it to my customers here as soon as possible. The other reason is that some materials I can only get from China, so sometimes I need to import products”.<br /> <br />“My Chinese [ ] company must import [ ] from China then sell [these products] to other Chinese shops in New Zealand. If I lost the business contacts in China my business wouldn’t be able to continue running”.<br />
  26. 26. Functions of Chinese Ethnic Precincts<br />Chinese Consumers<br />Frequency (43% daily/weekly)<br />Food (price/culturally relevant)<br />Social contact<br />Non-Chinese Consumers<br />Frequency (26% daily/weekly)<br />Food (price)<br />Accessibility<br />
  27. 27. Unresolved Questions<br />Size of Chinese ethnic economy in Auckland<br />Trajectory of business development: remain co-ethnic focused?<br />
  28. 28. Character of Multiculturalism<br />Voluntarism of ethnicity/ethnic precincts<br />Geographies of visibility<br />Incorporation<br />Licensed<br />Excluded<br />Assimilated<br />(Kymlicka, Parekh)<br />Transnationalism/globalised networks of exchange and allegiance<br />Deliberative democracy to negotiate political options/settlement of city (Keith)<br />
  29. 29. Who is a New Zealander?<br />What it means to be a New Zealander?<br />What it means to be a New Zealander in a culturally diverse society?<br />

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